Abstract

Nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN (a-GaN) layers with low overall defect density and high crystalline quality were grown on r-plane sapphire substrates using etched a-GaN. The a-GaN layer was etched by pulse NH3 interrupted etching. Subsequently, a 2-µm-thick Si-doped a-GaN layer was regrown on the etched a-GaN layer. A fully coalescent n-type a-GaN layer with a low threading dislocation density (~7.5 × 108 cm−2) and a low basal stacking fault density (~1.8 × 105 cm−1) was obtained. Compared with a planar sample, the full width at half maximum of the (11-20) X-ray rocking curve was significantly decreased to 518 arcsec along the c-axis direction and 562 arcsec along the m-axis direction.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Nakamura, S. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 34(7A), L797–L799 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. O. Everitt, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of a-plane GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 053506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).
  10. C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Hwang, H. Y. Song, Y. G. Seo, J. S. Son, J. H. Kim, K. H. Baik, “Enhanced electroluminescence of a-plane InGaN light emitting diodes grown on oxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23036–23041 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, C. J. Humphreys, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by a two-step growth process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. A. Munir, A. W. Searcy, “Activation energy for the sublimation of gallium nitride,” J. Chem. Phys. 42(12), 4223–4228 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. A. Moram, C. F. Johnston, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, “Understanding x-ray diffraction of nonpolar gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Vennéguès, B. Beaumont, V. Bousquet, M. Vaille, P. Gibart, “Reduction mechanisms for defect densities in GaN using one- or two-step epitaxial lateral overgrowth methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4175–4181 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hwang, H. Y. Song, Y. G. Seo, J. S. Son, J. H. Kim, K. H. Baik, “Enhanced electroluminescence of a-plane InGaN light emitting diodes grown on oxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23036–23041 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. A. Moram, C. F. Johnston, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, “Understanding x-ray diffraction of nonpolar gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, C. J. Humphreys, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by a two-step growth process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

2007 (3)

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. O. Everitt, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of a-plane GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Vennéguès, B. Beaumont, V. Bousquet, M. Vaille, P. Gibart, “Reduction mechanisms for defect densities in GaN using one- or two-step epitaxial lateral overgrowth methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4175–4181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, S. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 34(7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Z. A. Munir, A. W. Searcy, “Activation energy for the sublimation of gallium nitride,” J. Chem. Phys. 42(12), 4223–4228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Allegre, J.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, R.

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hwang, H. Y. Song, Y. G. Seo, J. S. Son, J. H. Kim, K. H. Baik, “Enhanced electroluminescence of a-plane InGaN light emitting diodes grown on oxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23036–23041 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaumont, B.

P. Vennéguès, B. Beaumont, V. Bousquet, M. Vaille, P. Gibart, “Reduction mechanisms for defect densities in GaN using one- or two-step epitaxial lateral overgrowth methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4175–4181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, V.

P. Vennéguès, B. Beaumont, V. Bousquet, M. Vaille, P. Gibart, “Reduction mechanisms for defect densities in GaN using one- or two-step epitaxial lateral overgrowth methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4175–4181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chitnis, A.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Culbertson, J. C.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Damilano, B.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Darakchieva, V.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. F.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. R.

D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. O. Everitt, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of a-plane GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Figge, S.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M.

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gallart, M.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

P. Vennéguès, B. Beaumont, V. Bousquet, M. Vaille, P. Gibart, “Reduction mechanisms for defect densities in GaN using one- or two-step epitaxial lateral overgrowth methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4175–4181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gil, B.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Z.

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grandjean, N.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, A.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, D.

D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. L.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, H.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, H.

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hollander, J. L.

M. A. Moram, C. F. Johnston, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, “Understanding x-ray diffraction of nonpolar gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, C. J. Humphreys, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by a two-step growth process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hommel, D.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Honda, Y.

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

M. A. Moram, C. F. Johnston, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, “Understanding x-ray diffraction of nonpolar gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, C. J. Humphreys, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by a two-step growth process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. M.

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hwang, H. Y. Song, Y. G. Seo, J. S. Son, J. H. Kim, K. H. Baik, “Enhanced electroluminescence of a-plane InGaN light emitting diodes grown on oxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23036–23041 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iso, K.

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iso, Y.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

Iwahashi, T.

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, S. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 34(7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, C. F.

M. A. Moram, C. F. Johnston, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, “Understanding x-ray diffraction of nonpolar gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

M. A. Moram, C. F. Johnston, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, “Understanding x-ray diffraction of nonpolar gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, C. J. Humphreys, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by a two-step growth process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kariya, M.

S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kashima, T.

S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, F.

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Kitaoka, Y.

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kroeger, R.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuokstis, E.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, P.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liliental-Weber, Z.

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. O. Everitt, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of a-plane GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mandavilli, V.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

Mathieu, H.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McAleese, C.

J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, C. J. Humphreys, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by a two-step growth process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, C.

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moram, M. A.

M. A. Moram, C. F. Johnston, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, “Understanding x-ray diffraction of nonpolar gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. O. Everitt, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of a-plane GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munir, Z. A.

Z. A. Munir, A. W. Searcy, “Activation energy for the sublimation of gallium nitride,” J. Chem. Phys. 42(12), 4223–4228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, S. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 34(7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, S. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 34(7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. O. Everitt, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of a-plane GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, S.

S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. O. Everitt, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of a-plane GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preble, E.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Preble, E. A.

D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitmeier, Z. J.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, N.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Searcy, A. W.

Z. A. Munir, A. W. Searcy, “Activation energy for the sublimation of gallium nitride,” J. Chem. Phys. 42(12), 4223–4228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, S.

S. Nakamura, S. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 34(7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. G.

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hwang, H. Y. Song, Y. G. Seo, J. S. Son, J. H. Kim, K. H. Baik, “Enhanced electroluminescence of a-plane InGaN light emitting diodes grown on oxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23036–23041 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shatalov, M.

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. S.

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hwang, H. Y. Song, Y. G. Seo, J. S. Son, J. H. Kim, K. H. Baik, “Enhanced electroluminescence of a-plane InGaN light emitting diodes grown on oxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23036–23041 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, H. Y.

Speck, J. S.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, M.

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taliercio, T.

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, Y.

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, S. J.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tutor, M.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Twigg, M. E.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Udwary, K.

D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vaille, M.

P. Vennéguès, B. Beaumont, V. Bousquet, M. Vaille, P. Gibart, “Reduction mechanisms for defect densities in GaN using one- or two-step epitaxial lateral overgrowth methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4175–4181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vennéguès, P.

P. Vennéguès, B. Beaumont, V. Bousquet, M. Vaille, P. Gibart, “Reduction mechanisms for defect densities in GaN using one- or two-step epitaxial lateral overgrowth methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4175–4181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, B.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wickenden, A. E.

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, N. M.

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y. H.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, D. N.

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

P. Lefebvre, A. Morel, M. Gallart, T. Taliercio, J. Allegre, B. Gil, H. Mathieu, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, J. Massies, “High internal electric field in a graded-width InGaN/GaN quantum well: accurate determination by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1252–1254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, “High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Amano, N. Sawaki, I. Akasaki, Y. Toyoda, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(5), 353–355 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. McAleese, C. J. Humphreys, “Improvements in a-plane GaN crystal quality by a two-step growth process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (1-102) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Gong, J. Zhang, M. Gaevski, M. Su, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Anisotropic structural characteristics of (11-20) GaN templates and coalesced epitaxial lateral overgrown films deposited on (10-12) sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chitnis, C. Chen, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, E. Kuokstis, V. Mandavilli, J. Yang, M. A. Khan, “Visible light-emitting diodes using a-plane GaN-InGaN multiple quantum wells over r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(18), 3663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Nitta, M. Kariya, T. Kashima, S. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, “Mass transport and reduction of threading dislocation in GaN,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 421–426 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10), 1400–1402 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. Vennéguès, B. Beaumont, V. Bousquet, M. Vaille, P. Gibart, “Reduction mechanisms for defect densities in GaN using one- or two-step epitaxial lateral overgrowth methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4175–4181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Moram, C. F. Johnston, J. L. Hollander, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, “Understanding x-ray diffraction of nonpolar gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, Z. Liliental-Weber, H. O. Everitt, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of a-plane GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 053506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Z. A. Munir, A. W. Searcy, “Activation energy for the sublimation of gallium nitride,” J. Chem. Phys. 42(12), 4223–4228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

D. D. Koleske, A. E. Wickenden, R. L. Henry, J. C. Culbertson, M. E. Twigg, “GaN decomposition in H2 and N2 at MOVPE temperatures and pressures,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(4), 466–483 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hanser, L. Liu, E. A. Preble, K. Udwary, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, “Fabrication and characterization of native non-polar GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3953–3956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Iwahashi, Y. Kitaoka, F. Kawamura, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, R. Armitage, H. Hirayama, “Liquid phase epitaxy growth of m-plane GaN substrate using the Na flux method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10), L227–L229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Son, C. Miao, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, K. H. Baik, “Effects of nano- and microscale SiO2 masks on the growth of a-plane GaN layers on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JC04 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (2)

C. Chen, J. Yang, H. Wang, J. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, M. Gaevski, E. Kuokstis, Z. Gong, M. Su, M. A. Khan, “Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of fully coalesced a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 42(6B), L640–L642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, S. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 34(7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. N. Zakharov, Z. Liliental-Weber, B. Wagner, Z. J. Reitmeier, E. A. Preble, R. F. Davis, “Structural TEM study of nonpolar a-plane gallium nitride grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235334 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

H. Yamada, Y. Iso, M. Saito, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, H. Masui, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Comparison of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes grown on m-plnae and a-plane bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 89–91 (2008).

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. S. Son, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, H. Amano, K. H. Baik, Y. G. Seo, S. M. Hwang, “Characteristics of a-plane GaN films grown on optimized silicon-dioxide-patterned r-plane sapphire substrates,” Thin Solid Films 546, 108–113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a-GaN layer growth: (a) a-GaN layer grown on r-plane sapphire substrate with SiO2 nanopillar mask, (b) fabrication of SiO2 nanopillar mask on a-GaN layer, (c) a-GaN layer etching process, (d) etched a-GaN layer, and (e) fully coalescent a-GaN layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bird’s-eye views of etched a-GaN layers after pulse NH3 interrupted etching (50 cycles) in (a) mixed NH3 and H2 flow, and (d) mixed NH3 and N2 flow. (e) Etched a-GaN layer after pulse NH3 interrupted etching (50 cycles) and sequential etching (30 min) in mixed NH3 and N2 flow. (b) Plan-view and (c) cross-sectional SEM images along m-direction (inset: along c-direction) of a-GaN layer after pulse NH3 interrupted etching in mixed NH3 and H2 flow. (f) Cross-sectional and plan-view (inset) SEM images of a-GaN layer after sequential etching (45 min) in mixed NH3 and H2 flow.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-sectional SEM image of fully coalescent n-type a-GaN layer. Cross-sectional STEM and TEM images viewed along m-direction with g = 11-20: (b) fully coalescent n-type a-GaN layer (STEM), (c) SiO2 nanopillar mask area on r-plane sapphire substrate (TEM), and (d) magnification of void area (TEM).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plan-view TEM images with g = 1–100 of (a) planar a-GaN layer and (b) etched a-GaN layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Anisotropy of FWHM of (11-20) XRC with respect to in-plane rotation for a-GaN layers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative light output power and injection current of fabricated a-GaN LEDs in 10-80 mA range. The inset shows EL emission spectra and their FWHM at a current of 80 mA.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

EL emission spectra of LED with (a) planar a-GaN and (b) etched a-GaN layers and FWHM in 10-80 mA range.

Metrics