Abstract

We demonstrate the lasing performance in the Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide produced by the carbon ion irradiation, including the continuous-wave (cw) and graphene Q-switched configurations. The highest slope efficiency of 56% and the lowest threshold of 40 mW have been obtained for the cw waveguide laser. With graphene as a saturable absorber, the Q-switched laser produces stable pulses with 57 ns pulse duration and 77 nJ pulse energy, respectively. Under the variation of the pumping power, the repetition of the pulse laser could be modified from 1.5 MHz to 4.1 MHz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, Q. Luan, F. Liu, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Q-switched pulse laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramics waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18963–18968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, Q. Luan, F. Liu, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, F. Chen, “Swift carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic optical waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(12), 13992–13997 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

D. Lin, K. Xia, R. Li, X. Li, G. Li, K. Ueda, J. Li, “Radially polarized and passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3574–3576 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Mater. 6, 611–622 (2010).

Y. Tan, F. Chen, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D 43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhmadaliev, S.

Aung, Y. L.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 721–727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bai, F.

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bo, Y.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Mater. 6, 611–622 (2010).

Cai, Z.

Chang, H. L.

Chen, F.

Chen, X.

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Cui, D.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N.

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Mater. 6, 611–622 (2010).

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W. L.

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Mater. 6, 611–622 (2010).

Huang, G.

Huang, J. Y.

Huang, K. F.

Huang, S. C.

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 721–727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, P. F. Meilán, A. Rodenas, D. Jaque, C. Mendez, L. Roso, “Femtosecond laser written surface waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13266–13271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Jiang, B.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, J.

Li, G.

Li, J.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Lin, K. Xia, R. Li, X. Li, G. Li, K. Ueda, J. Li, “Radially polarized and passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3574–3576 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

Li, X.

Lin, D.

Liu, F.

Liu, F. Q.

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.-K.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

Lu, Q. M.

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luan, Q.

Luo, Z.

Lv, P.

Ma, J.

Meilán, P. F.

Men, S.

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, C.

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

Peng, Q.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

Qian, L. J.

Ren, Y.

Rodenas, A.

Roso, L.

Shen, H.

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Y. Chen, W. Liu, Y. Bo, B. Jiang, J. Xu, J. Li, Y. Xu, Y. Pan, J. L. Xu, X. Feng, Y. Guo, Y. Shen, F. Yang, L. Yuan, H. Yuan, Q. Peng, D. Cui, Z. Xu, “High-efficiency high-power QCW diode-side-pumped zigzag Nd:YAG ceramic slab laser,” Appl. Phys. B 111(1), 111–116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Su, K. W.

Sun, Z.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Mater. 6, 611–622 (2010).

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, Q. Luan, F. Liu, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Q-switched pulse laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramics waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18963–18968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, Q. Luan, F. Liu, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, F. Chen, “Swift carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic optical waveguide amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(12), 13992–13997 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, C. Zhang, F. Chen, F. Q. Liu, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, “Room-temperature continuous wave laser oscillations in Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides produced by carbon ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 837–840 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D 43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Torchia, G. A.

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wang, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, Q.

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wei, L.

D.-P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, W.-K. Liu, “Tunable passively Q switched erbium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotubes as a saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, R.

S. Men, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, H. Shen, F. Bai, L. Gao, X. Xu, R. Wei, X. Chen, “A grapheme passively Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser at 1123 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035803 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weng, J.

Xia, K.

Xie, G.

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, H.

Xu, J.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic plot of the experimental setup for the pulse laser oscillation in the Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide. The inset picture is the microphotograph of the graphene saturable absorber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The reconstructed cross sectional refractive index distribution of the Nd:YAG ceramics waveguide after annealing; (b) the measured modal profile of the waveguide at the wavelength of 1064 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) The emission spectra of the generated laser at the wavelength of 1064 nm, b) the power of the output laser as a function of the power of the launched pumping laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The pulse train of the Q-switched laser, b) the repetition rate as a function of the launched pump power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The pulse duration and pulse energy as a function of launched pump power.

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