Abstract

From a set of gonioapparent automotive samples from different manufacturers we selected 28 low-chroma color pairs with relatively small color differences predominantly in lightness. These color pairs were visually assessed with a gray scale at six different viewing angles by a panel of 10 observers. Using the Standardized Residual Sum of Squares (STRESS) index, the results of our visual experiment were tested against predictions made by 12 modern color-difference formulas. From a weighted STRESS index accounting for the uncertainty in visual assessments, the best prediction of our whole experiment was achieved using AUDI2000, CAM02-SCD, CAM02-UCS and OSA-GP-Euclidean color-difference formulas, which were no statistically significant different among them. A two-step optimization of the original AUDI2000 color-difference formula resulted in a modified AUDI2000 formula which performed both, significantly better than the original formula and below the experimental inter-observer variability. Nevertheless the proposal of a new revised AUDI2000 color-difference formula requires additional experimental data.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

R. S. Berns, B. Hou, “RIT-DuPont supra-threshold color-tolerance individual color-difference pair dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 35(4), 274–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, H. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, H. Feng, “Assessing total differences for effective samples having variations in color coarseness and glint,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 717–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27(4), 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27(2), 126–127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Melgosa, “Testing CIELAB-based color-difference formulas,” Color Res. Appl. 25(1), 49–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Attridge, M. R. Pointer, “Some aspects of the visual scaling of large colour differences – II,” Color Res. Appl. 25(2), 116–122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24(5), 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), “Standard terminology of appearance,” ASTM E 284, 95a (1995).

W. V. Longley, “Automotive color certification,” Color Res. Appl. 20(1), 50–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1 – Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103(2), 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100(4), 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Attridge, G. G.

G. G. Attridge, M. R. Pointer, “Some aspects of the visual scaling of large colour differences – II,” Color Res. Appl. 25(2), 116–122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, B. Hou, “RIT-DuPont supra-threshold color-tolerance individual color-difference pair dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 35(4), 274–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. S. Berns, “Performance of recent advanced color-difference formulae using the Standardized Residual Sum of Squares index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(7), 1828–1834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burgos, F. J.

O. Gómez, F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Preliminary comparative performance of the AUDI2000 and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas by visual assessments in directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1545–1548.

F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, O. Gómez, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Instrumental and visual correlation between a multiangle spectrophotometer and a directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1373–1376.

Campos, J.

Chorro, E.

F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, O. Gómez, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Instrumental and visual correlation between a multiangle spectrophotometer and a directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1373–1376.

O. Gómez, F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Preliminary comparative performance of the AUDI2000 and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas by visual assessments in directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1545–1548.

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100(4), 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

Feng, H.

Ferrero, A.

García, P. A.

Gómez, O.

O. Gómez, F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Preliminary comparative performance of the AUDI2000 and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas by visual assessments in directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1545–1548.

F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, O. Gómez, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Instrumental and visual correlation between a multiangle spectrophotometer and a directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1373–1376.

Gómez-Robledo, L.

Guan, S.

S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24(5), 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hernanz, M. L.

Hinks, D.

Hou, B.

R. S. Berns, B. Hou, “RIT-DuPont supra-threshold color-tolerance individual color-difference pair dataset,” Color Res. Appl. 35(4), 274–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(6), 883–891 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, N. Liao, M. Melgosa, Y. Zhang, C. Zheng, “Assessing color differences in a wide range of magnitudes,” Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, 1533–1536.

Huang, Z.

Huertas, R.

Kirchner, E. J. J.

E. J. J. Kirchner, J. Ravi, “Setting tolerances on color and texture for automotive coatings,” Color Res. Appl., 39(1), 88–98 (2012).

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27(2), 126–127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, N.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, N. Liao, M. Melgosa, Y. Zhang, C. Zheng, “Assessing color differences in a wide range of magnitudes,” Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, 1533–1536.

Liu, H.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(6), 883–891 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, N. Liao, M. Melgosa, Y. Zhang, C. Zheng, “Assessing color differences in a wide range of magnitudes,” Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, 1533–1536.

Longley, W. V.

W. V. Longley, “Automotive color certification,” Color Res. Appl. 20(1), 50–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(6), 883–891 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of square index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(5), 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, H. Xu, M. R. Luo, “Camera-based model to predict the total difference between effect coatings under directional illumination,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9, 093301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, H. Xu, M. R. Luo, G. Cui, H. Feng, “Assessing total differences for effective samples having variations in color coarseness and glint,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 717–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27(4), 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24(5), 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1 – Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103(2), 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, N. Liao, M. Melgosa, Y. Zhang, C. Zheng, “Assessing color differences in a wide range of magnitudes,” Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, 1533–1536.

Martínez-Verdú, F. M.

O. Gómez, F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Preliminary comparative performance of the AUDI2000 and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas by visual assessments in directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1545–1548.

F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, O. Gómez, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Instrumental and visual correlation between a multiangle spectrophotometer and a directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1373–1376.

McDonald, R.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100(4), 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Melgosa, M.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, M. Melgosa, “Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(6), 883–891 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Melgosa, P. A. García, L. Gómez-Robledo, R. Shamey, D. Hinks, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, “Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of square index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(5), 949–953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Oleari, M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, “Euclidean color-difference formula for small-medium color differences in log-compressed OSA-UCS space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(1), 121–134 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, R. S. Berns, “Performance of recent advanced color-difference formulae using the Standardized Residual Sum of Squares index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(7), 1828–1834 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, “Request for existing experimental datasets on color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32(2), 159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1823–1829 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Melgosa, “Testing CIELAB-based color-difference formulas,” Color Res. Appl. 25(1), 49–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, N. Liao, M. Melgosa, Y. Zhang, C. Zheng, “Assessing color differences in a wide range of magnitudes,” Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, 1533–1536.

Oleari, C.

Perales, E.

O. Gómez, F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Preliminary comparative performance of the AUDI2000 and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas by visual assessments in directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1545–1548.

F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, O. Gómez, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Instrumental and visual correlation between a multiangle spectrophotometer and a directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1373–1376.

Pointer, M. R.

G. G. Attridge, M. R. Pointer, “Some aspects of the visual scaling of large colour differences – II,” Color Res. Appl. 25(2), 116–122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pons, A.

Pujol, J.

F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, O. Gómez, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Instrumental and visual correlation between a multiangle spectrophotometer and a directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1373–1376.

O. Gómez, F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Preliminary comparative performance of the AUDI2000 and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas by visual assessments in directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1545–1548.

Rabal, A. M.

Ravi, J.

E. J. J. Kirchner, J. Ravi, “Setting tolerances on color and texture for automotive coatings,” Color Res. Appl., 39(1), 88–98 (2012).

Rigg, B.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27(4), 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1 – Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103(2), 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100(4), 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, G.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27(4), 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shamey, R.

Viqueira, V.

F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, O. Gómez, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Instrumental and visual correlation between a multiangle spectrophotometer and a directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1373–1376.

O. Gómez, F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Preliminary comparative performance of the AUDI2000 and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas by visual assessments in directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1545–1548.

Wen, S.

Witt, K.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27(4), 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

Zhang, Y.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, N. Liao, M. Melgosa, Y. Zhang, C. Zheng, “Assessing color differences in a wide range of magnitudes,” Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, 1533–1536.

Zheng, C.

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, N. Liao, M. Melgosa, Y. Zhang, C. Zheng, “Assessing color differences in a wide range of magnitudes,” Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, 1533–1536.

Appl. Opt. (1)

ASTM E (1)

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), “Standard terminology of appearance,” ASTM E 284, 95a (1995).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (10)

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27(4), 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31(4), 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. V. Longley, “Automotive color certification,” Color Res. Appl. 20(1), 50–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. J. J. Kirchner, J. Ravi, “Setting tolerances on color and texture for automotive coatings,” Color Res. Appl., 39(1), 88–98 (2012).

M. Melgosa, “Testing CIELAB-based color-difference formulas,” Color Res. Appl. 25(1), 49–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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http://www.sdcenterprises.co.uk/products/testing.asp See also ISO 105–A02:1993, “Test for colour fastness – Part A02: Gray scale for assessing change in colour,” International Organization for Standardization (Geneva, Switzerland).

F. J. Burgos, E. Perales, O. Gómez, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, F. M. Martínez-Verdú, J. Pujol, “Instrumental and visual correlation between a multiangle spectrophotometer and a directional lighting booth,” in Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, pp. 1373–1376.

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J. Martínez-García, M. Melgosa, L. Gómez-Robledo, C. Li, M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and T. Dauser, “Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry,” in Proceedings 8thIberoamerican Optics Meeting and 11th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications (Proc. SPIE Vol. 8785, http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1782351 ).

M. Huang, H. Liu, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, N. Liao, M. Melgosa, Y. Zhang, C. Zheng, “Assessing color differences in a wide range of magnitudes,” Proceedings AIC Colour 2013 (Newcastle, UK, 2013), 4, 1533–1536.

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