Abstract

We report the laser induced spark ignition (LSI) of coaxial methane/oxygen/nitrogen diffusion flames using the 1064 nm output of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The minimum ignition energy (MIE) and ignition time of the LSI has been determined by measuring the emission signals due to the ignited flames. The effects of the gas mixture properties, including the overall equivalence ratio (Ф), oxygen concentration and flow rate, and the ignition positions on the two parameters have been investigated systematically. The variation of the MIE and ignition time with the experimental conditions has been compared with the existing results and discussed with a special concentration on the effects of the local Ф.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

S. Brieschenk, S. O’Byrne, H. Kleine, “Laser-induced plasma ignition studies in a model scramjet engine,” Combust. Flame 160(1), 145–148 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. S. Li, M. Aldén, “Laser-induced plasma in methane and dimethyl ether for flame ignition and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 229–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Pavel, M. Tsunekane, T. Taira, “Composite, all-ceramics, high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG monolithic micro-laser with multiple-beam output for engine ignition,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9378–9384 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

C. Pauly, J. Sender, M. Oschwald, “Ignition of a gaseous methane/oxygen coaxial jet,” Prog. Propulsion Phys. 1, 155–170 (2009).

J. L. Beduneau, N. Kawahara, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, Y. Ikeda, “Laser-induced radical generation and evolution to a self-sustaining flame,” Combust. Flame 156(3), 642–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Zimmer, K. Okai, Y. Kurosawa, “Combined laser induced ignition and plasma spectroscopy: fundamentals and application to a hydrogen-air combustor,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1484–1495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. X. Phuoc, “Laser-induced spark ignition fundamental and applications,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44(5), 351–397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Application of laser ignition to hydrogen-air mixtures at high pressures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 30(3), 319–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” Combust. Flame 138(1-2), 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

M. Lackner, S. Charareh, F. Winter, K. Iskra, D. Rüdisser, T. Neger, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, “Investigation of the early stages in laser-induced ignition by Schlieren photography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4546–4557 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

F. Ferioli, P. V. Puzinauskas, S. G. Buckley, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line engine equivalence ratio measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 57(9), 1183–1189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Beduneau, B. Kim, L. Zimmer, Y. Ikeda, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy in premixed laminar methane/air flow by using laser induced spark,” Combust. Flame 132(4), 653–665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kopecek, H. Maier, G. Reider, F. Winter, E. Wintner, “Laser ignition of methane-air mixtures at high pressures,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 499–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Morsy, S. H. Chung, “Laser-induced multi-point ignition with a single-shot laser using two conical cavities for hydrogen/air mixture,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 491–497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, D. H. McNeill, “Laser spark ignition of a jet diffusion flame,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 38(5), 217–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T.-W. Lee, V. Jain, S. Kozola, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy by using laser sparks for hydrocarbon fuels in air: propane, dodecane, and jet-A fuel,” Combust. Flame 125(4), 1320–1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, “Visualization of laser-induced breakdown and ignition,” Opt. Express 9(7), 360–372 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. X. Phuoc, F. X. White, “Laser-induced spark ignition of CH4/air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 119(3), 203–216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. X. Ma, D. R. Alexander, D. E. Poulain, “Laser spark ignition and combustion characteristics of methane-air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 112(4), 492–506 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. A. Spiglanin, A. Mcilroy, E. W. Fournier, R. B. Cohen, J. A. Syage, “Time-resolved imaging of flame kernels: laser spark ignition of H2/O2/Ar mixtures,” Combust. Flame 102(3), 310–328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. D. Ronney, “Laser versus conventional ignition of flames,” Opt. Eng. 33(2), 510–521 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. Lifshitz, K. Scheller, A. Burcat, G. B. Skinner, “Shock-tube investigation of ignition in methane-oxygen-argon mixtures,” Combust. Flame 16(3), 311–321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. S. Li, M. Aldén, “Laser-induced plasma in methane and dimethyl ether for flame ignition and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 229–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. R.

J. X. Ma, D. R. Alexander, D. E. Poulain, “Laser spark ignition and combustion characteristics of methane-air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 112(4), 492–506 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beduneau, J. L.

J. L. Beduneau, N. Kawahara, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, Y. Ikeda, “Laser-induced radical generation and evolution to a self-sustaining flame,” Combust. Flame 156(3), 642–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Beduneau, B. Kim, L. Zimmer, Y. Ikeda, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy in premixed laminar methane/air flow by using laser induced spark,” Combust. Flame 132(4), 653–665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D.

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” Combust. Flame 138(1-2), 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brieschenk, S.

S. Brieschenk, S. O’Byrne, H. Kleine, “Laser-induced plasma ignition studies in a model scramjet engine,” Combust. Flame 160(1), 145–148 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, S. G.

Burcat, A.

A. Lifshitz, K. Scheller, A. Burcat, G. B. Skinner, “Shock-tube investigation of ignition in methane-oxygen-argon mixtures,” Combust. Flame 16(3), 311–321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Charareh, S.

Chen, Y.-L.

Chung, S. H.

M. H. Morsy, S. H. Chung, “Laser-induced multi-point ignition with a single-shot laser using two conical cavities for hydrogen/air mixture,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 491–497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. B.

T. A. Spiglanin, A. Mcilroy, E. W. Fournier, R. B. Cohen, J. A. Syage, “Time-resolved imaging of flame kernels: laser spark ignition of H2/O2/Ar mixtures,” Combust. Flame 102(3), 310–328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferioli, F.

Fournier, E. W.

T. A. Spiglanin, A. Mcilroy, E. W. Fournier, R. B. Cohen, J. A. Syage, “Time-resolved imaging of flame kernels: laser spark ignition of H2/O2/Ar mixtures,” Combust. Flame 102(3), 310–328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geringer, B.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Graf, J.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Ikeda, Y.

J. L. Beduneau, N. Kawahara, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, Y. Ikeda, “Laser-induced radical generation and evolution to a self-sustaining flame,” Combust. Flame 156(3), 642–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Beduneau, B. Kim, L. Zimmer, Y. Ikeda, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy in premixed laminar methane/air flow by using laser induced spark,” Combust. Flame 132(4), 653–665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iskra, K.

Jain, V.

T.-W. Lee, V. Jain, S. Kozola, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy by using laser sparks for hydrocarbon fuels in air: propane, dodecane, and jet-A fuel,” Combust. Flame 125(4), 1320–1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jetzinger, M.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Kapus, P.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Kawahara, N.

J. L. Beduneau, N. Kawahara, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, Y. Ikeda, “Laser-induced radical generation and evolution to a self-sustaining flame,” Combust. Flame 156(3), 642–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, J.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. S. Li, M. Aldén, “Laser-induced plasma in methane and dimethyl ether for flame ignition and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 229–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

J. L. Beduneau, B. Kim, L. Zimmer, Y. Ikeda, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy in premixed laminar methane/air flow by using laser induced spark,” Combust. Flame 132(4), 653–665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klawatsch, D.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Kleine, H.

S. Brieschenk, S. O’Byrne, H. Kleine, “Laser-induced plasma ignition studies in a model scramjet engine,” Combust. Flame 160(1), 145–148 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kopecek, H.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Application of laser ignition to hydrogen-air mixtures at high pressures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 30(3), 319–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, S. Charareh, F. Winter, K. Iskra, D. Rüdisser, T. Neger, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, “Investigation of the early stages in laser-induced ignition by Schlieren photography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4546–4557 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kopecek, H. Maier, G. Reider, F. Winter, E. Wintner, “Laser ignition of methane-air mixtures at high pressures,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 499–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kozola, S.

T.-W. Lee, V. Jain, S. Kozola, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy by using laser sparks for hydrocarbon fuels in air: propane, dodecane, and jet-A fuel,” Combust. Flame 125(4), 1320–1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, Y.

L. Zimmer, K. Okai, Y. Kurosawa, “Combined laser induced ignition and plasma spectroscopy: fundamentals and application to a hydrogen-air combustor,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1484–1495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lackner, M.

Lee, T.-W.

T.-W. Lee, V. Jain, S. Kozola, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy by using laser sparks for hydrocarbon fuels in air: propane, dodecane, and jet-A fuel,” Combust. Flame 125(4), 1320–1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, H. P.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Lewis, J. W. L.

Li, X.

X. Li, B. W. Smith, N. Omenetto, “Laser spark ignition of premixed methane/air mixtures: parameter measurements and determination of key factors for ultimate ignition results,” Combust. Flame. Submitted.

Li, Z. S.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. S. Li, M. Aldén, “Laser-induced plasma in methane and dimethyl ether for flame ignition and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 229–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liedl, G.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Lifshitz, A.

A. Lifshitz, K. Scheller, A. Burcat, G. B. Skinner, “Shock-tube investigation of ignition in methane-oxygen-argon mixtures,” Combust. Flame 16(3), 311–321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. X.

J. X. Ma, D. R. Alexander, D. E. Poulain, “Laser spark ignition and combustion characteristics of methane-air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 112(4), 492–506 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maier, H.

H. Kopecek, H. Maier, G. Reider, F. Winter, E. Wintner, “Laser ignition of methane-air mixtures at high pressures,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 499–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mcilroy, A.

T. A. Spiglanin, A. Mcilroy, E. W. Fournier, R. B. Cohen, J. A. Syage, “Time-resolved imaging of flame kernels: laser spark ignition of H2/O2/Ar mixtures,” Combust. Flame 102(3), 310–328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McNeill, D. H.

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, D. H. McNeill, “Laser spark ignition of a jet diffusion flame,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 38(5), 217–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morsy, M. H.

M. H. Morsy, S. H. Chung, “Laser-induced multi-point ignition with a single-shot laser using two conical cavities for hydrogen/air mixture,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 491–497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

J. L. Beduneau, N. Kawahara, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, Y. Ikeda, “Laser-induced radical generation and evolution to a self-sustaining flame,” Combust. Flame 156(3), 642–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neger, T.

O’Byrne, S.

S. Brieschenk, S. O’Byrne, H. Kleine, “Laser-induced plasma ignition studies in a model scramjet engine,” Combust. Flame 160(1), 145–148 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Okai, K.

L. Zimmer, K. Okai, Y. Kurosawa, “Combined laser induced ignition and plasma spectroscopy: fundamentals and application to a hydrogen-air combustor,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1484–1495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, N.

X. Li, B. W. Smith, N. Omenetto, “Laser spark ignition of premixed methane/air mixtures: parameter measurements and determination of key factors for ultimate ignition results,” Combust. Flame. Submitted.

Oschwald, M.

C. Pauly, J. Sender, M. Oschwald, “Ignition of a gaseous methane/oxygen coaxial jet,” Prog. Propulsion Phys. 1, 155–170 (2009).

Pauly, C.

C. Pauly, J. Sender, M. Oschwald, “Ignition of a gaseous methane/oxygen coaxial jet,” Prog. Propulsion Phys. 1, 155–170 (2009).

Pavel, N.

Phuoc, T. X.

T. X. Phuoc, “Laser-induced spark ignition fundamental and applications,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44(5), 351–397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, D. H. McNeill, “Laser spark ignition of a jet diffusion flame,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 38(5), 217–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Phuoc, F. X. White, “Laser-induced spark ignition of CH4/air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 119(3), 203–216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piock, W. F.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Poulain, D. E.

J. X. Ma, D. R. Alexander, D. E. Poulain, “Laser spark ignition and combustion characteristics of methane-air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 112(4), 492–506 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Puzinauskas, P. V.

Reider, G.

H. Kopecek, H. Maier, G. Reider, F. Winter, E. Wintner, “Laser ignition of methane-air mixtures at high pressures,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 499–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ronney, P. D.

P. D. Ronney, “Laser versus conventional ignition of flames,” Opt. Eng. 33(2), 510–521 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rüdisser, D.

Scheller, K.

A. Lifshitz, K. Scheller, A. Burcat, G. B. Skinner, “Shock-tube investigation of ignition in methane-oxygen-argon mixtures,” Combust. Flame 16(3), 311–321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schuocker, D.

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Sender, J.

C. Pauly, J. Sender, M. Oschwald, “Ignition of a gaseous methane/oxygen coaxial jet,” Prog. Propulsion Phys. 1, 155–170 (2009).

Sheppard, C. G. W.

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” Combust. Flame 138(1-2), 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, G. B.

A. Lifshitz, K. Scheller, A. Burcat, G. B. Skinner, “Shock-tube investigation of ignition in methane-oxygen-argon mixtures,” Combust. Flame 16(3), 311–321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

X. Li, B. W. Smith, N. Omenetto, “Laser spark ignition of premixed methane/air mixtures: parameter measurements and determination of key factors for ultimate ignition results,” Combust. Flame. Submitted.

Spiglanin, T. A.

T. A. Spiglanin, A. Mcilroy, E. W. Fournier, R. B. Cohen, J. A. Syage, “Time-resolved imaging of flame kernels: laser spark ignition of H2/O2/Ar mixtures,” Combust. Flame 102(3), 310–328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suardjaja, I. M.

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” Combust. Flame 138(1-2), 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Syage, J. A.

T. A. Spiglanin, A. Mcilroy, E. W. Fournier, R. B. Cohen, J. A. Syage, “Time-resolved imaging of flame kernels: laser spark ignition of H2/O2/Ar mixtures,” Combust. Flame 102(3), 310–328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Tomita, E.

J. L. Beduneau, N. Kawahara, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, Y. Ikeda, “Laser-induced radical generation and evolution to a self-sustaining flame,” Combust. Flame 156(3), 642–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tröger, J. W.

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. S. Li, M. Aldén, “Laser-induced plasma in methane and dimethyl ether for flame ignition and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 229–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekane, M.

Weinrotter, M.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Application of laser ignition to hydrogen-air mixtures at high pressures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 30(3), 319–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, C. M.

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, D. H. McNeill, “Laser spark ignition of a jet diffusion flame,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 38(5), 217–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, F. X.

T. X. Phuoc, F. X. White, “Laser-induced spark ignition of CH4/air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 119(3), 203–216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Winter, F.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Application of laser ignition to hydrogen-air mixtures at high pressures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 30(3), 319–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, S. Charareh, F. Winter, K. Iskra, D. Rüdisser, T. Neger, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, “Investigation of the early stages in laser-induced ignition by Schlieren photography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4546–4557 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kopecek, H. Maier, G. Reider, F. Winter, E. Wintner, “Laser ignition of methane-air mixtures at high pressures,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 499–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wintner, E.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Application of laser ignition to hydrogen-air mixtures at high pressures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 30(3), 319–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, S. Charareh, F. Winter, K. Iskra, D. Rüdisser, T. Neger, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, “Investigation of the early stages in laser-induced ignition by Schlieren photography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4546–4557 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kopecek, H. Maier, G. Reider, F. Winter, E. Wintner, “Laser ignition of methane-air mixtures at high pressures,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 499–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Woolley, R.

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” Combust. Flame 138(1-2), 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, L.

L. Zimmer, K. Okai, Y. Kurosawa, “Combined laser induced ignition and plasma spectroscopy: fundamentals and application to a hydrogen-air combustor,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1484–1495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Beduneau, B. Kim, L. Zimmer, Y. Ikeda, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy in premixed laminar methane/air flow by using laser induced spark,” Combust. Flame 132(4), 653–665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Kiefer, J. W. Tröger, Z. S. Li, M. Aldén, “Laser-induced plasma in methane and dimethyl ether for flame ignition and combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 229–236 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Combust. Flame (9)

J. X. Ma, D. R. Alexander, D. E. Poulain, “Laser spark ignition and combustion characteristics of methane-air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 112(4), 492–506 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” Combust. Flame 138(1-2), 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Beduneau, N. Kawahara, T. Nakayama, E. Tomita, Y. Ikeda, “Laser-induced radical generation and evolution to a self-sustaining flame,” Combust. Flame 156(3), 642–656 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Phuoc, F. X. White, “Laser-induced spark ignition of CH4/air mixtures,” Combust. Flame 119(3), 203–216 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Brieschenk, S. O’Byrne, H. Kleine, “Laser-induced plasma ignition studies in a model scramjet engine,” Combust. Flame 160(1), 145–148 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Beduneau, B. Kim, L. Zimmer, Y. Ikeda, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy in premixed laminar methane/air flow by using laser induced spark,” Combust. Flame 132(4), 653–665 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-W. Lee, V. Jain, S. Kozola, “Measurements of minimum ignition energy by using laser sparks for hydrocarbon fuels in air: propane, dodecane, and jet-A fuel,” Combust. Flame 125(4), 1320–1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lifshitz, K. Scheller, A. Burcat, G. B. Skinner, “Shock-tube investigation of ignition in methane-oxygen-argon mixtures,” Combust. Flame 16(3), 311–321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Spiglanin, A. Mcilroy, E. W. Fournier, R. B. Cohen, J. A. Syage, “Time-resolved imaging of flame kernels: laser spark ignition of H2/O2/Ar mixtures,” Combust. Flame 102(3), 310–328 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. (2)

H. Kopecek, H. Maier, G. Reider, F. Winter, E. Wintner, “Laser ignition of methane-air mixtures at high pressures,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 499–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Morsy, S. H. Chung, “Laser-induced multi-point ignition with a single-shot laser using two conical cavities for hydrogen/air mixture,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 27(4), 491–497 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (1)

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Application of laser ignition to hydrogen-air mixtures at high pressures,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 30(3), 319–326 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. D. Ronney, “Laser versus conventional ignition of flames,” Opt. Eng. 33(2), 510–521 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

T. X. Phuoc, “Laser-induced spark ignition fundamental and applications,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 44(5), 351–397 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. X. Phuoc, C. M. White, D. H. McNeill, “Laser spark ignition of a jet diffusion flame,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 38(5), 217–232 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Liedl, D. Schuocker, B. Geringer, J. Graf, D. Klawatsch, H. P. Lenz, W. F. Piock, M. Jetzinger, P. Kapus, “Laser induced ignition of gasoline direct injection engines,” Proc. SPIE 5777, 955–959 (2004).

Prog. Propulsion Phys. (1)

C. Pauly, J. Sender, M. Oschwald, “Ignition of a gaseous methane/oxygen coaxial jet,” Prog. Propulsion Phys. 1, 155–170 (2009).

Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. (1)

L. Zimmer, K. Okai, Y. Kurosawa, “Combined laser induced ignition and plasma spectroscopy: fundamentals and application to a hydrogen-air combustor,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(12), 1484–1495 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

G. Herdin, J. Klausner, E. Wintner, M. Weinrotter, J. Graf, and K. Iskra, “Laser ignition - a new concept to use and increase the pontentials of gas engines,” in ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2005 Fall Technical Conference:AERS-ARICE Symposium on Gas Fired Reciprocating Engines(Ottawa, Canada, 2005).

V. Schmidt, U. Wepler, O. Haidn, and M. Oschwald, “Characterization of the primary ignition process of a coaxial GH2/LOx spray,” in 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit(AIAA, Reno, Nevada, 2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, B. W. Smith, N. Omenetto, “Laser spark ignition of premixed methane/air mixtures: parameter measurements and determination of key factors for ultimate ignition results,” Combust. Flame. Submitted.

B. Lewis and G. Von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases (Academic Press, 1987).

F. B. Carleton, N. Klein, K. Krallis, and F. J. Weinberg, “Laser ignition of liquid propellants,” Twenty third symposium (International) on combustion 23, 1323–1329 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Osborne, J. A. Wehrmeyer, H. P. Trinh, and J. W. Early, “Evaluation and characterization study of dual pulse laser-induced spark(DPLIS) for rocket engine ignition system application,” in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit(AIAA Huntsville, Alabama, 2003), paper 2003–4905.
[CrossRef]

T. Razafimandimby, M. De Rosa, V. Schmidt, J. Sender, and M. Oschwald, “Laser ignition of a GH2/LOX spray under vacuum conditions,” in The European Combustion Meeting(2005), pp. 1–6.

K. Hasegawa, K. Kusaka, A. Kumakawa, M. Sato, and M. Tadano, “Laser ignition characteristics of GOX/GH2 and GOX/GCH4 propellants,” in 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit(AIAA, Huntsville, Alabama, 2003), paper 2003–4906.
[CrossRef]

L. C. Liou, “Laser ignition in liquid rocket engines,” in 30th AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference(AIAA, Indianapolis, IN, 1994), paper 94–2980.

F. B. Carleton, N. Klein, K. Krallis, and F. J. Weinberg, “Laser ignition of liquid propellants,” Symposium (International) on Combustion 23, 1323–1329 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. De Rosa, J. Sender, H. Zimmermann, and M. Oschwald, “Cryogenic spary ignition at high altitude conditions,” in 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit(AIAA, Sacramento, CA, 2006), paper 2006–4539.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus for the LSI of the methane/oxygen/nitrogen diffusion flames.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the coaxial burner and definition of the coordinate system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Determination of the success of the LSI and definition of the ignition time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MIE (a) and ignition time (b) of different overall equivalence ratios.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MIE (a) and ignition time (b) of different oxygen concentrations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MIE (a) and ignition time (b) of different flow rates.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contour plot of the MIE values at different ignition positions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Contour plot of the ignition time values at different ignition positions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated contour distributions of the mole fraction of oxygen (a), mole fraction of methane (b) and local equivalence ratio in the diffusion flow field. The flow rate is 2.2 LPM, the overall Ф is 1.0, and the χO2 is 50%.

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