Abstract

We characterise THz output of lateral photo-Dember (LPD) emitters based on semi-insulating (SI), unannealed and annealed low temperature grown (LTG) GaAs. Saturation of THz pulse power with optical fluence is observed, with unannealed LTG GaAs showing highest saturation fluence at 1.1 ± 0.1 mJ cm−2. SI-GaAs LPD emitters show a flip in signal polarity with optical fluence that is attributed to THz emission from the metal-semiconductor contact. Variation in optical polarisation affects THz pulse power that is attributed to a local optical excitation near the metal contact.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Subpicosecond carrier dynamics in low-temperature grown GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5915 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Theory of magnetic-field enhancement of surface-field terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. Kauffmann, E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3038–3041 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. E. Barnes, D. McBryde, G. J. Daniell, G. Whitworth, A. L. Chung, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, A. Brewer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, V. Apostolopoulos, “Terahertz emission by diffusion of carriers and metal-mask dipole inhibition of radiation.” Opt. Express 20, 8898–8906 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).
  13. W. Qiao, D. Stephan, M. Hasselbeck, Q. Liang, T. Dekorsy, “Low-temperature THz time domain waveguide spectrometer with butt-coupled emitter and detector crystal,” Opt. Express 20, 19769 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. E. Barnes, S. A. Berry, P. Gow, D. McBryde, G. J. Daniell, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, V. Apostolopoulos, “Investigation of the role of the lateral photo-Dember effect in the generation of terahertz radiation using a metallic mask on a semiconductor,” Opt. Express 21, 16263 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Park, M. Melloch, A. Weiner, “Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810–819 (1999).
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  17. T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Tani, M. Herrmann, K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, “Emission characteristics of photoconductive antennas based on low-temperature-grown GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs.” Appl. Opt. 36, 7853–7859 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. S. Gregory, “The development of a continuous-wave terahertz imaging system,” Ph.D. thesis, (2004).
  25. J. K. Luo, H. Thomas, D. V. Morgan, D. Westwood, “Transport properties of GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and the effects of annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3622 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, “Subband gap carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1998 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Look, D. Walters, M. Manasreh, “Anomalous Hall-effect results in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxial GaAs: Hopping in a dense EL2-like band,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 2–5 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. G. Heitman, P. van den Berg, “Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-Infinite Screen in a Layered Medium,” Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. E. Ralph, D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: The role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. S. Kim, D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. S. Kim, D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Theory of magnetic-field enhancement of surface-field terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, M. Herrmann, K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Subpicosecond carrier dynamics in low-temperature grown GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5915 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Park, M. Melloch, A. Weiner, “Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810–819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. Kauffmann, E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, “Subband gap carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, “Emission characteristics of photoconductive antennas based on low-temperature-grown GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs.” Appl. Opt. 36, 7853–7859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. K. Luo, H. Thomas, D. V. Morgan, D. Westwood, “Transport properties of GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and the effects of annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons.” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. E. Ralph, D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: The role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. Look, D. Walters, M. Manasreh, “Anomalous Hall-effect results in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxial GaAs: Hopping in a dense EL2-like band,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 2–5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. G. Heitman, P. van den Berg, “Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-Infinite Screen in a Layered Medium,” Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

K. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, M.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

Auer, H.

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons.” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons.” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, M. E.

Bartels, A.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Bastian, G.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Subpicosecond carrier dynamics in low-temperature grown GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5915 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Beere, H. E.

M. E. Barnes, S. A. Berry, P. Gow, D. McBryde, G. J. Daniell, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, V. Apostolopoulos, “Investigation of the role of the lateral photo-Dember effect in the generation of terahertz radiation using a metallic mask on a semiconductor,” Opt. Express 21, 16263 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Barnes, D. McBryde, G. J. Daniell, G. Whitworth, A. L. Chung, A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, A. Brewer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, V. Apostolopoulos, “Terahertz emission by diffusion of carriers and metal-mask dipole inhibition of radiation.” Opt. Express 20, 8898–8906 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beling, C. D.

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berry, S. A.

Brewer, A.

Calawa, A. R.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. L.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Chung, A. L.

Citrin, D. S.

D. S. Kim, D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J. A.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corchia, A.

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Theory of magnetic-field enhancement of surface-field terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Daniell, G. J.

Davies, A. G.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Theory of magnetic-field enhancement of surface-field terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

W. Qiao, D. Stephan, M. Hasselbeck, Q. Liang, T. Dekorsy, “Low-temperature THz time domain waveguide spectrometer with butt-coupled emitter and detector crystal,” Opt. Express 20, 19769 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons.” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Döhler, G.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, K.

K. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M.

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Faulks, R.

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Fleischer, S.

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fung, S.

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gebs, R.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Gornik, E.

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. Kauffmann, E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gow, P.

Gregory, I. S.

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, “The development of a continuous-wave terahertz imaging system,” Ph.D. thesis, (2004).

Grenier, P.

P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, “Subband gap carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

S. E. Ralph, D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: The role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, E. S.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hasselbeck, M.

Heitman, W. G.

W. G. Heitman, P. van den Berg, “Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-Infinite Screen in a Layered Medium,” Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, M.

M. Tani, M. Herrmann, K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hilser, F.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Huber, R.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huggard, P. G.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huska, K.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Izumida, S.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, F.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M. B.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Theory of magnetic-field enhancement of surface-field terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Kauffmann, H.

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. Kauffmann, E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kersting, R.

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. Kauffmann, E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kiesel, P.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim, D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klatt, G.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Kono, S.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons.” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Qiao, M. Beck, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Terahertz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents.” Opt. Express 18, 4939–4947 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

Liang, Q.

Linfield, E.

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Theory of magnetic-field enhancement of surface-field terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Look, D.

D. Look, D. Walters, M. Manasreh, “Anomalous Hall-effect results in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxial GaAs: Hopping in a dense EL2-like band,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 2–5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. K.

J. K. Luo, H. Thomas, D. V. Morgan, D. Westwood, “Transport properties of GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and the effects of annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S.

Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Manasreh, M.

D. Look, D. Walters, M. Manasreh, “Anomalous Hall-effect results in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxial GaAs: Hopping in a dense EL2-like band,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 2–5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

McBryde, D.

Melloch, M.

S. Park, M. Melloch, A. Weiner, “Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810–819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Missous, M.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, D. V.

J. K. Luo, H. Thomas, D. V. Morgan, D. Westwood, “Transport properties of GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and the effects of annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, S.

Nieveen, W. R.

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, H.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, N.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Page, H.

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, M. Melloch, A. Weiner, “Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810–819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, W.

Quarterman, A. H.

Ralph, S. E.

S. E. Ralph, D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: The role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rihani, S.

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Roskos, H.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons.” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

M. Tani, M. Herrmann, K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, “Emission characteristics of photoconductive antennas based on low-temperature-grown GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs.” Appl. Opt. 36, 7853–7859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Subpicosecond carrier dynamics in low-temperature grown GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5915 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, O.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Segschneider, G.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, C. J.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, F. W.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T. S.

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Squire, J. E.

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, D.

W. Qiao, D. Stephan, M. Hasselbeck, Q. Liang, T. Dekorsy, “Low-temperature THz time domain waveguide spectrometer with butt-coupled emitter and detector crystal,” Opt. Express 20, 19769 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. Kauffmann, E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sung, C. Y.

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Surrer, B.

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

M. Tani, M. Herrmann, K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, S. Nakashima, “Emission characteristics of photoconductive antennas based on low-temperature-grown GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs.” Appl. Opt. 36, 7853–7859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tautz, S.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, H.

J. K. Luo, H. Thomas, D. V. Morgan, D. Westwood, “Transport properties of GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and the effects of annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Subpicosecond carrier dynamics in low-temperature grown GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5915 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. Kauffmann, E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, P.

W. G. Heitman, P. van den Berg, “Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-Infinite Screen in a Layered Medium,” Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wagoner, G. A.

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walters, D.

D. Look, D. Walters, M. Manasreh, “Anomalous Hall-effect results in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxial GaAs: Hopping in a dense EL2-like band,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 2–5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. H.

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A.

S. Park, M. Melloch, A. Weiner, “Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810–819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Westwood, D.

J. K. Luo, H. Thomas, D. V. Morgan, D. Westwood, “Transport properties of GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and the effects of annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, “Subband gap carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D.

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Theory of magnetic-field enhancement of surface-field terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whitworth, G.

Wilcox, K. G.

Woodall, J. M.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Z.

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. Q.

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

G. Klatt, B. Surrer, D. Stephan, O. Schubert, M. Fischer, J. Faist, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, T. Dekorsy, “Photo-Dember terahertz emitter excited with an Er:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 021114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, M. Evans, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “High resistivity annealed low-temperature GaAs with 100 fs lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, G. A. Wagoner, M. Alexander, X.-C. Zhang, “Anomalous optically generated THz beams from metal/GaAs interfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 682 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, “Carrier lifetime versus anneal in low temperature growth GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, “Subband gap carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph, D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: The role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, Y. Yang, X. Xu, S. Ma, W. Yan, L. Wang, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in Au/GaAs interfaces studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, S. R. Andrews, “Polarization-dependent efficiency of photoconducting THz transmitters and receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. H. Wang, P. Grenier, J. F. Whitaker, C. Y. Sung, “High-carrier-density electron dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3245 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Rihani, R. Faulks, H. E. Beere, H. Page, I. S. Gregory, M. Evans, D. A. Ritchie, M. Pepper, “Effect of defect saturation on terahertz emission and detection properties of low temperature GaAs photoconductive switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

W. G. Heitman, P. van den Berg, “Diffraction of Electromagnetic Waves by a Semi-Infinite Screen in a Layered Medium,” Can. J. Phys. 53, 1305–1317 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Park, M. Melloch, A. Weiner, “Analysis of terahertz waveforms measured by photoconductive and electrooptic sampling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 810–819 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

J. K. Luo, H. Thomas, D. V. Morgan, D. Westwood, “Transport properties of GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and the effects of annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Subpicosecond carrier dynamics in low-temperature grown GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5915 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, H. Ohtake, S. Izumida, Z. Liu, “High average-power THz radiation from femtosecond laser-irradiated InAs in a magnetic field and its elliptical polarization characteristics,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, “Theory of magnetic-field enhancement of surface-field terahertz emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, D. S. Citrin, “Efficient terahertz generation using trap-enhanced fields in semi-insulating photo-conductors by spatially broadened excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Fleischer, C. D. Beling, S. Fung, W. R. Nieveen, J. E. Squire, J. Q. Zheng, M. Missous, “Structural and defect characterization of GaAs and AlGaAs grown at low temperature by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Tani, M. Herrmann, K. Sakai, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulsed radiation with photoconductive antennas and its application to imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1739–1745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

D. Look, D. Walters, M. Manasreh, “Anomalous Hall-effect results in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxial GaAs: Hopping in a dense EL2-like band,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 2–5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons.” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, E. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Z. Xu, T. Yuan, X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from InAs induced by carrier diffusion and drift,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. Kauffmann, E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

I. S. Gregory, “The development of a continuous-wave terahertz imaging system,” Ph.D. thesis, (2004).

G. Klatt, F. Hilser, W. Chao, R. Gebs, A. Bartels, K. Huska, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, M. B. Johnston, M. Fischer, J. Faist, T. Dekorsy, “Intense terahertz generation based on the photo-Dember effect,” OSA / CLEO / QELS2010 (2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A diagram showing the geometry of the fitting model in relation to the LPD emitter. A laser pulse, shown in red, illuminates the edge of the LPD emitter causing carriers to be generated along the boundary as a function of fluence, with the carrier density defined as n(p, c, Φsat, x), shown in green. The carrier density saturates at an optical fluence of Φsat. The co-ordinate scheme shown is common to Figs. 3, 4 and 5

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) and (c) show the spectral power of the THz pulse with optical fluence grouped by optical spot size for unannealed and annealed LTG GaAs and SI-GaAs. Circled data excluded from the fit. Curves from equation 3 are fitted to (a) and (c) to determine Φsat. (d) shows the terahertz time domain scan for the annealed GaAs LPD emitter at 1 μJ cm−2 and 21 μJ cm−2, with spot radius 75 μm and optical powers 10 mW and 300 mW. The same power units are used in all graphs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) shows time domains scans from a SI-GaAs LPD emitter, with the optical beam positioned on the gold boundary at 0 μm and ± 20 μm from the boundary. (b) combines a set of time domain scans with lateral position demonstrating the change in polarity on the gold boundary. (c) shows the THz time domain scan of an unannealed LTG GaAs LPD emitter with and without an insulating PI layer between the metal and semiconductor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) illustrates the polarisation orientation relative to the LPD emitter with arrows representing the polarisation of the optical beam. (b) shows the variation in THz pulse power for a SI-GaAs LPD emitter at 237 μJ cm−2 optical fluence. Peak THz emission occurs with perpendicularly polarised light (0°). The increased emission at perpendicular polarisation is due to the increased carrier density in the depletion region near the metal mask.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) and (b) show the impact of polarisation on the diffracted light intensity under a 100 nm thick gold sheet in air, modelled with COMSOL. The gold masks the region y < 0, leaving the region y > 0 unmasked. The perpendicularly polarised light creates a local enhancement near the sheet edge, shown in (a). (b) shows no local enhancement for parallel polarised light. (c) shows the comparison local enhancement underneath the gold mask along the y axis.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ ( x ) = p 2 π c 2 exp ( x 2 2 c 2 ) .
n ( p , c , Φ sat , x ) { p 2 π c 2 exp ( x sat 2 2 c 2 ) , for | x | < x sat ; p 2 π c 2 exp ( x 2 2 c 2 ) , for | x | > x sat .
n ( p , c , Φ sat , x ) d x = 2 2 c Φ sat { [ ln ( p 2 π c 2 Φ sat ) ] 1 / 2 } + 1 2 π p c erfc ( { [ ln ( p 2 π c 2 Φ sat ) ] 1 / 2 } ) .

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