Abstract

Experimental and theoretical investigations of light self-trapping waveguides in a bulk polymeric medium based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with photosensitive phenanthrenequinone (PQ)-molecules are examined. Self-channeling was generated for the first time in this nonlinear bulk PQ-PMMA media with a thickness up to several millimeters and 0.1 mol. % PQ-concentration. The experimental formation of volume waveguide structures with a length of 2 - 3 cm at different laser wavelengths (405 nm, 488 nm, and 514.5 nm) was demonstrated. The calculations based on a model for the laser beam propagation in the bulk PQ-PMMA medium with competitive nonlinearities are in a good agreement with the experiments.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Kasala, K. Saravanamuttu, “A black beam borne by an incandescent field self-traps in a photopolymerizing medium,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14195–14200 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Qiu, K. Saravanamuttu, “Optical self-trapping in a photopolymer doped with Ag nanoparticles: a single-step route to metallodielectric cylindrical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(5), 1085–1093 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Broadening of the light self-trapping due to thermal defocusing in PQ-PMMA polymeric layers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2739–2747 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Tolstik, O. Romanov, V. Matusevich, A. Tolstik, R. Kowarschik, “Self-trapping waveguiding structures in nonlinear photorefractive media based on Plexiglas with phenanthrenequinone molecules,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 84290W (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Kashin, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Numerical investigation of the (1+1)D self-trapping of laser beams in polymeric films based on polymethylmethacrylate and phenanthrenequinone,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(11), 2152–2156 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, J. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Modeling the photochemical kinetics induced by holographic exposures in PQ/PMMA photopolymer material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2833–2843 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(8), 085302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

K. Kasala, K. Saravanamuttu, “A black beam borne by an incandescent field self-traps in a photopolymerizing medium,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14195–14200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qiu, K. Saravanamuttu, “Optical self-trapping in a photopolymer doped with Ag nanoparticles: a single-step route to metallodielectric cylindrical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(5), 1085–1093 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Romanov, V. Matusevich, A. Tolstik, R. Kowarschik, “Self-trapping waveguiding structures in nonlinear photorefractive media based on Plexiglas with phenanthrenequinone molecules,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 84290W (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

O. Kashin, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Numerical investigation of the (1+1)D self-trapping of laser beams in polymeric films based on polymethylmethacrylate and phenanthrenequinone,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(11), 2152–2156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Andreeva, O. V.

Bandyuk, O. V.

Barbastathis, G.

Barton, J. K.

Castro, J.

Chang, Y.-L.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.-L.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, M. R.

Guo, J.

Hsiao, Y.-N.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.-Y.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Kasala, K.

K. Kasala, K. Saravanamuttu, “A black beam borne by an incandescent field self-traps in a photopolymerizing medium,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14195–14200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kashin, O.

Ko, C.-J.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Kowarschik, R.

E. Tolstik, O. Romanov, V. Matusevich, A. Tolstik, R. Kowarschik, “Self-trapping waveguiding structures in nonlinear photorefractive media based on Plexiglas with phenanthrenequinone molecules,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 84290W (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Broadening of the light self-trapping due to thermal defocusing in PQ-PMMA polymeric layers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2739–2747 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, J. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Modeling the photochemical kinetics induced by holographic exposures in PQ/PMMA photopolymer material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2833–2843 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Kashin, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Numerical investigation of the (1+1)D self-trapping of laser beams in polymeric films based on polymethylmethacrylate and phenanthrenequinone,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(11), 2152–2156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, A. Matusevich, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “Non-local response in glass-like polymer storage materials based on poly (methylmethacrylate) with distributed phenanthrenequinone,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11253–11258 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(8), 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krul, L. P.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, A. Matusevich, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “Non-local response in glass-like polymer storage materials based on poly (methylmethacrylate) with distributed phenanthrenequinone,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11253–11258 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.-H.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Liu, S.

Luo, Y.

Mahilny, U. V.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(8), 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marmysh, D. N.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(8), 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matusevich, A.

Matusevich, V.

E. Tolstik, O. Romanov, V. Matusevich, A. Tolstik, R. Kowarschik, “Self-trapping waveguiding structures in nonlinear photorefractive media based on Plexiglas with phenanthrenequinone molecules,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 84290W (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Broadening of the light self-trapping due to thermal defocusing in PQ-PMMA polymeric layers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2739–2747 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, J. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Modeling the photochemical kinetics induced by holographic exposures in PQ/PMMA photopolymer material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2833–2843 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Kashin, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Numerical investigation of the (1+1)D self-trapping of laser beams in polymeric films based on polymethylmethacrylate and phenanthrenequinone,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(11), 2152–2156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(8), 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, A. Matusevich, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “Non-local response in glass-like polymer storage materials based on poly (methylmethacrylate) with distributed phenanthrenequinone,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11253–11258 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matusevich, Y. I.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, A. Matusevich, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “Non-local response in glass-like polymer storage materials based on poly (methylmethacrylate) with distributed phenanthrenequinone,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11253–11258 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, L.

Romanov, O.

E. Tolstik, O. Romanov, V. Matusevich, A. Tolstik, R. Kowarschik, “Self-trapping waveguiding structures in nonlinear photorefractive media based on Plexiglas with phenanthrenequinone molecules,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 84290W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saravanamuttu, K.

L. Qiu, K. Saravanamuttu, “Optical self-trapping in a photopolymer doped with Ag nanoparticles: a single-step route to metallodielectric cylindrical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(5), 1085–1093 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasala, K. Saravanamuttu, “A black beam borne by an incandescent field self-traps in a photopolymerizing medium,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14195–14200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheridan, J. T.

Sun, X.

Tolstik, A.

E. Tolstik, O. Romanov, V. Matusevich, A. Tolstik, R. Kowarschik, “Self-trapping waveguiding structures in nonlinear photorefractive media based on Plexiglas with phenanthrenequinone molecules,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 84290W (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tolstik, A. L.

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(8), 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tolstik, E.

E. Tolstik, O. Romanov, V. Matusevich, A. Tolstik, R. Kowarschik, “Self-trapping waveguiding structures in nonlinear photorefractive media based on Plexiglas with phenanthrenequinone molecules,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 84290W (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Broadening of the light self-trapping due to thermal defocusing in PQ-PMMA polymeric layers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2739–2747 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, M. R. Gleeson, J. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Modeling the photochemical kinetics induced by holographic exposures in PQ/PMMA photopolymer material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2833–2843 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Kashin, E. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Numerical investigation of the (1+1)D self-trapping of laser beams in polymeric films based on polymethylmethacrylate and phenanthrenequinone,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(11), 2152–2156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, A. Matusevich, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “Non-local response in glass-like polymer storage materials based on poly (methylmethacrylate) with distributed phenanthrenequinone,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11253–11258 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-H.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W.-Y.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Veniaminov, A. V.

Whang, W.-T.

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, A.

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Tolstik, A. Winkler, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, Y. I. Matusevich, L. P. Krul, “PMMA-PQ photopolymers for head-up-displays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(12), 784–786 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Kasala, K. Saravanamuttu, “A black beam borne by an incandescent field self-traps in a photopolymerizing medium,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14195–14200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C.-J. Ko, Y.-L. Chang, Y.-N. Hsiao, P.-L. Chen, S.-H. Lin, W.-T. Whang, K.-Y. Hsu, M.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Tsang, “Co-doping with polysquaraine enhances the holographic optical data storage of PMMA/PQ photopolymers,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(14), 1215–1219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, “Phase hologram formation in highly concentrated phenanthrenequinone–PMMA media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(8), 085302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Tolstik, O. Romanov, V. Matusevich, A. Tolstik, R. Kowarschik, “Self-trapping waveguiding structures in nonlinear photorefractive media based on Plexiglas with phenanthrenequinone molecules,” Proc. SPIE 8429, 84290W (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup for the formation of a self-trapped channel by different laser beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Propagation of a light beam during 1s, 1 min and 10 min of the exposure time in glass [top row] and within the bulk PQ-PMMA layers [rows 2-4] using different lasers; Ar laser: (a) 514.5 nm at the power 10 mW, (b) 488 nm at 10 mW, (c) 488 nm at 200 µW; (d) laser diode illumination of 405 nm at 1.8 mW (4 mm layer thickness, 0.1 mol.% of PQ-concentration).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Light-beam intensity distribution in the volume of the medium at different times t = 0.01 (a1), 0.25 ms (a2); (b) the transverse profile half-width as a function of the penetration depth at different times t = 0.01 (1), 0.05 (2), 0.1 (3), 0.25 (4), 0.5 ms (5); size of the figure area: 8 mm x 1 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatial intensity distribution of a light beam at the instants of time t = 10 s (a) and 1200 s (b); size of the figure area is 1.6 cm x 0.8 cm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total refractive index change ΔnΣ as a function of (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse coordinates (exposure times are: t = 10(1), 50(2) 150(3), 300(4), 600(5), 900(6), 1200s (7)).

Equations (3)

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C / t =εIC,
cρ T / t = k T ΔT+Q,
E z = i 2k Δ E+i kΔ n Σ n 0 E α 2 E,

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