Abstract

We report the coupling and interaction between shallow donors and microcavities in bulk GaN at THz frequencies. At 4K, the shallow donors lead to an absorption at 23.5 meV (5.7 THz) under optical pumping above the bandgap of GaN. The microcavities are based on metamaterials and are designed to resonate around 5.7 THz. At 4 K, the matter-cavity interaction is clearly demonstrated on differential transmission of the sample. The cavity resonance shifts when the absorption occurs. Our model and simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  20. K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Turcinkova, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Dietze, A. Benz, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, J. Darmo, “Terahertz meta-atoms coupled to a quantum well intersubband transition,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13700–13706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

K. V. Kavokin, M. A. Kaliteevski, R. A. Abram, A. V. Kavokin, S. Sharkova, I. A. Shelykh, “Stimulated emission of terahertz radiation by exciton-polariton lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Geiser, C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. Beck, M. Fischer, L. Nevou, J. Faist, “Strong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies at room temperature in electronic LC resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Microcavity Laser Oscillating in a Circuit-Based Resonator,” Science 327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavityv,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Christmann, D. Simeonov, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Impact of disorder on high quality factor III-V nitride microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Dragoman, M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 1–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. S. Barker, M. Ilegems, “Infrared Lattice Vibrations and Free-Electron Dispersion in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 7(2), 743–750 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abram, R. A.

K. V. Kavokin, M. A. Kaliteevski, R. A. Abram, A. V. Kavokin, S. Sharkova, I. A. Shelykh, “Stimulated emission of terahertz radiation by exciton-polariton lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amanti, M. I.

D. Turcinkova, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Microcavity Laser Oscillating in a Circuit-Based Resonator,” Science 327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barker, A. S.

A. S. Barker, M. Ilegems, “Infrared Lattice Vibrations and Free-Electron Dispersion in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 7(2), 743–750 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, B.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Turcinkova, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Microcavity Laser Oscillating in a Circuit-Based Resonator,” Science 327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Geiser, C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. Beck, M. Fischer, L. Nevou, J. Faist, “Strong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies at room temperature in electronic LC resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benz, A.

Boehm, G.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Butté, R.

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavityv,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Christmann, D. Simeonov, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Impact of disorder on high quality factor III-V nitride microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlin, J.-F.

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavityv,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Christmann, D. Simeonov, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Impact of disorder on high quality factor III-V nitride microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castellano, F.

D. Turcinkova, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choutagunta, K.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christmann, G.

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavityv,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Christmann, D. Simeonov, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Impact of disorder on high quality factor III-V nitride microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ciuti, C.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

De Liberato, S.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demmerle, F.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietze, D.

Dragoman, D.

D. Dragoman, M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 1–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, M.

D. Dragoman, M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 1–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ebner, T.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Turcinkova, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Microcavity Laser Oscillating in a Circuit-Based Resonator,” Science 327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Geiser, C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. Beck, M. Fischer, L. Nevou, J. Faist, “Strong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies at room temperature in electronic LC resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feltin, E.

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavityv,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Christmann, D. Simeonov, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Impact of disorder on high quality factor III-V nitride microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

M. Geiser, C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. Beck, M. Fischer, L. Nevou, J. Faist, “Strong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies at room temperature in electronic LC resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frayssinet, E.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gabbay, A.

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Geiser, M.

M. Geiser, C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. Beck, M. Fischer, L. Nevou, J. Faist, “Strong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies at room temperature in electronic LC resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gin, A.

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grandjean, N.

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavityv,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Christmann, D. Simeonov, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Impact of disorder on high quality factor III-V nitride microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hagenmüller, D.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Q.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, M.

A. S. Barker, M. Ilegems, “Infrared Lattice Vibrations and Free-Electron Dispersion in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 7(2), 743–750 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jang, M.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julien, F. H.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaliteevski, M. A.

K. V. Kavokin, M. A. Kaliteevski, R. A. Abram, A. V. Kavokin, S. Sharkova, I. A. Shelykh, “Stimulated emission of terahertz radiation by exciton-polariton lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kavokin, A. V.

K. V. Kavokin, M. A. Kaliteevski, R. A. Abram, A. V. Kavokin, S. Sharkova, I. A. Shelykh, “Stimulated emission of terahertz radiation by exciton-polariton lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kavokin, K. V.

K. V. Kavokin, M. A. Kaliteevski, R. A. Abram, A. V. Kavokin, S. Sharkova, I. A. Shelykh, “Stimulated emission of terahertz radiation by exciton-polariton lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kirchner, C.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kornitzer, K.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotsar, Y.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leroux, M.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leszczynski, M.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Machhadani, H.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maissen, C.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangeney, J.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Massies, J.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nataf, G.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neu, G.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nevou, L.

M. Geiser, C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. Beck, M. Fischer, L. Nevou, J. Faist, “Strong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies at room temperature in electronic LC resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pakula, K.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porowski, S.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prystawko, P.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reichl, C.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reno, J.

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sadowski, M. L.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakr, S.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sarigiannidou, E.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, R.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Turcinkova, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Geiser, C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. Beck, M. Fischer, L. Nevou, J. Faist, “Strong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies at room temperature in electronic LC resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Microcavity Laser Oscillating in a Circuit-Based Resonator,” Science 327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuh, D.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwegler, V.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Semond, F.

M. Leroux, N. Grandjean, B. Beaumont, G. Nataf, F. Semond, J. Massies, P. Gibart, “Temperature quenching of photoluminescence intensities in undoped and doped GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3721 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaner, E.

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharkova, S.

K. V. Kavokin, M. A. Kaliteevski, R. A. Abram, A. V. Kavokin, S. Sharkova, I. A. Shelykh, “Stimulated emission of terahertz radiation by exciton-polariton lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shelykh, I. A.

K. V. Kavokin, M. A. Kaliteevski, R. A. Abram, A. V. Kavokin, S. Sharkova, I. A. Shelykh, “Stimulated emission of terahertz radiation by exciton-polariton lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, D.

G. Christmann, D. Simeonov, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Impact of disorder on high quality factor III-V nitride microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M. B.

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Slivken, S.

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strasser, G.

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tchernycheva, M.

H. Machhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, J. Mangeney, E. Bellet-Amalric, E. Sarigiannidou, E. Monroy, F. H. Julien, “Terahertz intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teisseire, M.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thonke, K.

K. Kornitzer, T. Ebner, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Kirchner, V. Schwegler, M. Kamp, M. Leszczynski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, “Photoluminescence and reflectance spectroscopy of excitonic transitions in high-quality homoepitaxial GaN films,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1471–1473 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turcinkova, D.

D. Turcinkova, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turcinková, D.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

Vijayraghavan, K.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vizbaras, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2021 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, C.

C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Microcavity Laser Oscillating in a Circuit-Based Resonator,” Science 327(5972), 1495–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Geiser, C. Walther, G. Scalari, M. Beck, M. Fischer, L. Nevou, J. Faist, “Strong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies at room temperature in electronic LC resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegscheider, W.

G. Scalari, C. Maissen, D. Turcinková, D. Hagenmüller, S. De Liberato, C. Ciuti, C. Reichl, D. Schuh, W. Wegscheider, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultrastrong Coupling of the Cyclotron Transition of a 2D Electron Gas to a THz Metamaterial,” Science 335(6074), 1323–1326 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendt, J. R.

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Witowski, A. M.

G. Neu, M. Teisseire, E. Frayssinet, W. Knap, M. L. Sadowski, A. M. Witowski, K. Pakula, M. Leszczynski, P. Prystawko, “Far-infrared and selective photoluminescence studies of shallow donors in GaN hetero- and homoepitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic Response of Metamaterials at 100 Terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “186 K operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers based on a diagonal design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Turcinkova, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. I. Amanti, M. Beck, J. Faist, “Ultra-broadband heterogeneous quantum cascade laser emitting from 2.2 to 3.2 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(19), 191104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, Y. Bai, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources with 215 μW output power through epilayer-down mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(1), 011101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Kavokin, M. A. Kaliteevski, R. A. Abram, A. V. Kavokin, S. Sharkova, I. A. Shelykh, “Stimulated emission of terahertz radiation by exciton-polariton lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Christmann, R. Butté, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, “Room temperature polariton lasing in a GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well microcavityv,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gabbay, J. Reno, J. R. Wendt, A. Gin, M. C. Wanke, M. B. Sinclair, E. Shaner, I. Brener, “Interaction between metamaterial resonators and intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 203103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoluminescence & reflectivity spectrum of the 2.5 µm thick bulk GaN layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoinduced absorption spectrum of the GaN layer in the THz range for different temperatures. Excitation was performed with a cw laser at λ = 351nm with 200mW power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Colored SEM picture of the resonator LC7 deposited on GaN. (c) 3D simulation of the vertical component of the electric field Ey of the resonator LC7. (d) Cross-plot of the electric field Ey in the middle of the resonator. (b) Simulation of the transmission and reflection of the resonator LC7.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of different metamaterial cavities while not being optically pumped.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission of the GaN layer (blue curve, left axis) without cavities under optical pumping at λ = 351nm normalized by itself without optical pumping. Transmission spectrum of the cavity LC7 under optical pumping (violet curve, right axis) and without pumping (green curve, right axis).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Differential transmission spectrum obtained under optical pumping and without pumping.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) 2D simulation plot of the transmission of the RLC circuit, (b) The nonlinearity of the medium is added to the transmission of the RLC circuit, (c) transmission differential corresponding to the normalization of the panel (b) by the panel (a), (d) cross-plot of the 2D differential transmission simulation superimposed to the measurement data.

Tables (1)

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Table1 Geometrical Parameters of the Different Micro-cavity Used in this Work

Equations (1)

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Z=Ri2πfL 1 i2πfC

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