Abstract

We present the generation of self-induced-white-light-seeded lasing action of nitrogen molecules in air by a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser (800nm, 5.5mJ) and demonstrate that such lasing action is strongly influenced by external focusing conditions. It is found that the self-seeded lasing signal of N2+ at ~391 nm decreases dramatically by orders of magnitude and ultimately disappears when the focal length of an external lens increases from 0.5 m to 1 m. By using a telescope, it is shown that such limitation can be overcome and the 391 nm lasing can be controlled to occur at remotely designated distance, providing a possibility for practical applications in standoff spectroscopy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamenttation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).
  3. D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).
  4. J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).
  6. Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Point, Y. Liu, A. Brelet, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Lasing of ambient air with microjoule pulse energy pumped by a multi terawatt IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.submitted to.
  10. S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2010).
  11. S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2014

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

2010

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamenttation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1975

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ališauskas, S.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).

Baltuška, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bégin, M.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bock, S.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brelet, A.

G. Point, Y. Liu, A. Brelet, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Lasing of ambient air with microjoule pulse energy pumped by a multi terawatt IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.submitted to.

Brelet, Y.

Cheng, Y.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Chin, S. L.

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamenttation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Daigle, J. F.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Daigle, J.-F.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gravel, J. F.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henin, S.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Point, Y. Liu, A. Brelet, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Lasing of ambient air with microjoule pulse energy pumped by a multi terawatt IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.submitted to.

Jia, Z.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jing, C.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jochmann, A.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kamali, Y.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kartashov, D.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).

Kasparian, J.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, S. D.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leng, Y.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lessard, F.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Li, R.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamenttation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Point, Y. Liu, A. Brelet, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Lasing of ambient air with microjoule pulse energy pumped by a multi terawatt IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.submitted to.

Lu, X.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamenttation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marceau, C.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mauger, S.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Point, Y. Liu, A. Brelet, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Lasing of ambient air with microjoule pulse energy pumped by a multi terawatt IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.submitted to.

Nakaema, W. M.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Panov, N.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N. A.

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petit, Y.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Point, G.

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Point, Y. Liu, A. Brelet, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Lasing of ambient air with microjoule pulse energy pumped by a multi terawatt IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.submitted to.

Polynkin, P.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).

Roach, W.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).

Rohwetter, P.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarifi, S. M.

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Sody, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).

Schramm, U.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P. T.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soulez, C. L.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamanouchi, K.

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

Yao, J.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Yuan, S.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, B.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H.

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Ni, W. Chu, C. Jing, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, G. Li, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Identification of the physical mechanism of generation of coherent N2+ emissions in air by femtosecond laser excitation,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8746–8752 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, H. Xu, B. Zeng, G. Li, C. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Harmonic-seeded remote laser emissions in N₂-Ar, N₂-Xe and N₂-Ne mixtures: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20970–20979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

Appl. Phys. B

Q. Luo, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamenttation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Henin, Y. Petit, J. Kasparian, J. P. Wolf, A. Jochmann, S. D. Kraft, S. Bock, U. Schramm, R. Sauerbrey, W. M. Nakaema, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, L. Wöste, C. L. Soulez, S. Mauger, L. Bergé, S. Skupin, “Saturation of the filament density of ultrashort intense laser pulse in air,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 77–84 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, F. Théberge, J.-F. Daigle, P. T. Simard, S. M. Sarifi, Y. Kamali, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, “An efficient control of ultrashort laser filament location in air for the purpose of remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 55–58 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, J. F. Gravel, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, N. Aközbek, V. P. Kandidov, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effect of beam diameter on the propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Daigle, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, M. Bégin, F. Lessard, C. Marceau, Y. Kamali, G. Roy, V. P. Kandidov, S. L. Chin, “A simple method to significantly increase filaments’ length and ionization density,” Appl. Phys. B 94(2), 249–257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

Z. Jia, J. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Ju, X. Lu, Y. Jiang, Y. Leng, X. Liang, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Li, Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser filamentation with a 4J/60fs Ti:Sapphire laser beam: multiple filaments and intensity clamping,” Laser Phys. 20(4), 886–890 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtoscond Ti:sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chu, G. Li, H. Xie, J. Ni, J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Zhang, C. Jing, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “A self-induced white light seeding laser in a femtosecond laser filament,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015301 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multi-wavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 051802 (2011).

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, P. Polynkin,“Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 041805 (2013).

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X

H. Zhang, C. Jing, J. Yao, G. Li, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Xie, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, K. Yamanouchi, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, “Rotational coherence encoded in an “Air-Laser” spectrum of nitrogen molecular ions in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. X 3, 041009 (2013).

Prog. Quantum Electron.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Point, Y. Liu, A. Brelet, A. Houard, A. Mysyrowicz, “Lasing of ambient air with microjoule pulse energy pumped by a multi terawatt IR femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.submitted to.

S. L. Chin, Femtosecond Laser Filamentation (Springer, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. Insets: filament profiles captured with a digital camera with (a) a telescope and (b) a single focal lens. Geometric focal positions in (a) and (b) are indicated by the vertical dashed line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Forward spectra of lasing in air at 391nm obtained with different single focusing lenses: (a) f = 0.5 m; (b) f = 0.8 m; (c) f = 1 m.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Forward spectra of lasing in air at 391nm obtained with the telescope system: (a) fe = 2 m; (b) fe = 3 m.

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