Abstract

A precise and fast computational method for the simulation and analysis of moiré patterns is proposed. This new algorithm is based on convolution with superposition of the intensity profile which is transmitted from the optical layers and the point spread function. The computational time is shown to be much faster than that of the ray-tracing algorithm because the new algorithm does not involve a massive calculation. Also, information on the moiré pitch can be extracted directly from the sampling data of the moiré patterns.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. H. Philipp, “Touchscreen electrode configuration,” US Patent Application Publication, US 2011/0102361 A1 (2011).
  14. S. Takao, S. Urano, A. Osada, and S. Kitamura, “Touch screen device,” US Patent Application Publication, US 2011/0291966 A1 (2011).
  15. Y. Kim, G. Park, J. H. Jung, J. Kim, B. Lee, “Color moiré pattern simulation and analysis in three-dimensional integral imaging for finding the moiré-reduced tilted angle of a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2178–2187 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill Companies, INC, Singapore, 1996).
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    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

B. Y. Joo, D. H. Shin, “Simulations of pixel moirés in the liquid crystal display with image processing technique,” Displays 30(4-5), 190–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, G. Park, J. H. Jung, J. Kim, B. Lee, “Color moiré pattern simulation and analysis in three-dimensional integral imaging for finding the moiré-reduced tilted angle of a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2178–2187 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Wang, C. C. Tseng, “Analysis and fabrication of a prism film with roll-to-roll fabrication process,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4718–4725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, J. H. Chun, K. D. Kwack, K. H. Cha, “About a Moiré-less condition for non-square grids,” J. Displ. Technol. 4(3), 332–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, D. S. Kim, “Moiré Minimization Condition in Three-Dimensional Image Displays,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Okui, M. Kobayashi, J. Arai, F. Okano, “Moire fringe reduction by optical filters in integral three-dimensional imaging on a color flat-panel display,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4475–4483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962

Arai, J.

Cai, S.

Cha, K. H.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, J. H. Chun, K. D. Kwack, K. H. Cha, “About a Moiré-less condition for non-square grids,” J. Displ. Technol. 4(3), 332–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

Chun, J. H.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, J. H. Chun, K. D. Kwack, K. H. Cha, “About a Moiré-less condition for non-square grids,” J. Displ. Technol. 4(3), 332–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, I. L.

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, D. S. Kim, “Moiré Minimization Condition in Three-Dimensional Image Displays,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

Joo, B. Y.

B. Y. Joo, D. H. Shin, “Simulations of pixel moirés in the liquid crystal display with image processing technique,” Displays 30(4-5), 190–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. H.

Kim, D. S.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, D. S. Kim, “Moiré Minimization Condition in Three-Dimensional Image Displays,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, S. K.

Kim, Y.

Kobayashi, M.

Kong, L.

Kwack, K. D.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, J. H. Chun, K. D. Kwack, K. H. Cha, “About a Moiré-less condition for non-square grids,” J. Displ. Technol. 4(3), 332–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, J.

Li, W. Y.

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, S. C.

Murty, V. R. K.

Okano, F.

Okui, M.

Park, G.

Saveljev, V.

Saveljev, V. V.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, J. H. Chun, K. D. Kwack, K. H. Cha, “About a Moiré-less condition for non-square grids,” J. Displ. Technol. 4(3), 332–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, D. S. Kim, “Moiré Minimization Condition in Three-Dimensional Image Displays,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. H.

B. Y. Joo, D. H. Shin, “Simulations of pixel moirés in the liquid crystal display with image processing technique,” Displays 30(4-5), 190–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. Y.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, J. H. Chun, K. D. Kwack, K. H. Cha, “About a Moiré-less condition for non-square grids,” J. Displ. Technol. 4(3), 332–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, D. S. Kim, “Moiré Minimization Condition in Three-Dimensional Image Displays,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, G. H.

Sudol, R. J.

Tseng, C. C.

Wang, M. W.

Wang, T.

Wang, T. C.

Xu, K.

Zhong, X.

Appl. Opt.

Displays

B. Y. Joo, D. H. Shin, “Simulations of pixel moirés in the liquid crystal display with image processing technique,” Displays 30(4-5), 190–194 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Displ. Technol.

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, S. K. Kim, D. S. Kim, “Moiré Minimization Condition in Three-Dimensional Image Displays,” J. Displ. Technol. 1(2), 347–353 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Saveljev, J. Y. Son, J. H. Chun, K. D. Kwack, K. H. Cha, “About a Moiré-less condition for non-square grids,” J. Displ. Technol. 4(3), 332–339 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, J. Y. Choi, and S. M. Bae, “A novel LCD backlight unit using a light-guide plate with high fill-factor microlens array and a conical microlens array sheet,” in 2007 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, (Society for Information Display, 2007), pp.465–468.
[CrossRef]

I. Amidror, The Theory of the Moiré Phenomenon (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2000).

J. Wheatley, T. Liu, J. Van Derlofske, M. E. Sousa, E. Bösl, T. Nevitt, M. Weber, and M. Denker, “Greener displays through integrated optics: Display backlights using OneFilm,” in 2012 SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, (Society for Information Display, 2012), pp. 659–662.
[CrossRef]

INSIDEOPTICS Co, Ltd., RAYWIZ User Manual 2013, http://www.insideoptics.com

H. Philipp, “Touchscreen electrode configuration,” US Patent Application Publication, US 2011/0102361 A1 (2011).

S. Takao, S. Urano, A. Osada, and S. Kitamura, “Touch screen device,” US Patent Application Publication, US 2011/0291966 A1 (2011).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill Companies, INC, Singapore, 1996).

R. E. Fischer and B. Tadic-Galeb, Optical System Design (McGraw-Hill, NJ, 2000), Chap. 8.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the spatial intensity profile on optical layer with periodic array of the same units (a), and schematics of the superposed system for final intensity profile acquisition (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic diagram of the simulation system with two types of grating arrays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation results of the moiré pattern from the schematics shown in the Fig. 2. (a) The result from the bidirectional ray-tracing algorithm. (b) The result from the new algorithm. Inserts in (a) and (b) are the magnified images. (c) The extracted main moiré pitch from sampling data along the horizontal axis of the (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM image of the BEF. Experimentally monitored moiré patterns with alignment angles of 1° (b) and 2° case (c). (d) Schematic diagram of the simulation system. The simulated moiré patterns with alignment angles of 1° (e) and 2° (f).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematics of cross-mesh pattern of the touch screen. (b) The extracted main moiré pitch from sampling data along the horizontal axis of the aligned angle of 0°. (c) The simulation results of the moiré pattern for aligned angle of 0°. (d) The simulation results of the moiré pattern for aligned angle of 1°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematics of a moiré simulation system. The results of the moiré pattern from (b) the bidirectional ray-tracing algorithm and (c) the new algorithm. (d) The extracted main moiré pitch from sampling data along the x-axis. (e) The extracted main moiré pitch from sampling data along the y-axis.

Equations (3)

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Ι eye ( x e , y e )= x,y ( i=1 n Ι i ( x,y ) × exp{ - 1 2 [ ( x- x e ) 2 + ( y- y e ) 2 ( σ ) 2 ] } 2π ×σ×erf( 2 ) ) dxdy,
1 λ j = k=0 n-1 Dat a sampling ( k )exp( - 2πi n jk ) ,
λ m o i r e = λ 2 × sin ( α ) ,

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