Abstract

Because of the Sun’s movement across the sky, broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting is a major development in photovoltaic technology. This study reports the fabrication and characterization of flexible-textured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, which is one of the simplest and cheapest peel-off processes for fabricating a three-dimensional structure. A cell containing a textured PDMS film enhanced the short-circuit current density from 22.12 to 23.93 mA/cm2 in a simulated one-sun scenario. The omnidirectional antireflection of CIGS solar cells containing various PDMS films is also investigated. This study uses an angle-resolved reflectance spectroscope to investigate the omnidirectional and broadband optical properties of the proposed PDMS film. This improvement in light harvesting is attributable to the scattering of the PDMS film and the gradual refractive index profile between the PDMS microstructures and air. The flexible-textured PDMS film is suitable for creating an antireflective coating for a diverse range of photovoltaic devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, S. Guha, “High performance wire-array silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 307–312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Muthmann, A. Gordijn, “Amorphous silicon solar cells deposited with non-constant silane concentration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 573–578 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, S. Sohn, S. Lee, “Reaction kinetics study of CdTe thin films during CdCl2 heat treatment,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2295–2301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Päivänranta, T. Saastamoinen, M. Kuittinen, “A wide-angle antireflection surface for the visible spectrum,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 375301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F. F. Liu, C. J. Li, Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. Huang, C. Yang, Y. Chiou, R. Lee, “Fabrication of nanoporous antireflection surfaces on silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1352–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Oliva, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “GaAs converters for high power densities of laser illumination,” Prog. Photovol. 16(4), 289–295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. Chen, M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Poitras, J. A. Dobrowolski, “Toward perfect antireflection coatings. 2. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 43(6), 1286–1295 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

D. J. Aiken, “High performance anti-reflection coatings for broadband multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 64(4), 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Sato, M. Shikida, T. Yamashiro, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, M. Yamamoto, “Anisotropic etching rates of single-crystal silicon for TMAH water solution as a function of crystallographic orientation,” Sens. Actuators 73(1-2), 131–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Abbott, S.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Acree, M.

Aiken, D. J.

D. J. Aiken, “High performance anti-reflection coatings for broadband multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 64(4), 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

Asaumi, K.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, T. Yamashiro, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, M. Yamamoto, “Anisotropic etching rates of single-crystal silicon for TMAH water solution as a function of crystallographic orientation,” Sens. Actuators 73(1-2), 131–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bett, A. W.

E. Oliva, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “GaAs converters for high power densities of laser illumination,” Prog. Photovol. 16(4), 289–295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bilger,

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Bloesch, C.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Buecheler, F.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. A.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. L.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

H. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. Chen, M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, Y.

M. Huang, C. Yang, Y. Chiou, R. Lee, “Fabrication of nanoporous antireflection surfaces on silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1352–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chirila, S.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Chiu, C. H.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. K.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. P.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, T. Y.

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimroth, F.

E. Oliva, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “GaAs converters for high power densities of laser illumination,” Prog. Photovol. 16(4), 289–295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Ee, Y.-K.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallahazad, B.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, S. Guha, “High performance wire-array silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 307–312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fella, L.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Fu, C. C.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordijn, A.

S. Muthmann, A. Gordijn, “Amorphous silicon solar cells deposited with non-constant silane concentration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 573–578 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gretener, A. R.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Guha, S.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, S. Guha, “High performance wire-array silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 307–312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gunawan, O.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, S. Guha, “High performance wire-array silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 307–312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, H. V.

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.

H. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. Chen, M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hariskos, D.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, Q.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F. F. Liu, C. J. Li, Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. J.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, C. Yang, Y. Chiou, R. Lee, “Fabrication of nanoporous antireflection surfaces on silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1352–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. C.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, G.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iriye, Y.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, T. Yamashiro, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, M. Yamamoto, “Anisotropic etching rates of single-crystal silicon for TMAH water solution as a function of crystallographic orientation,” Sens. Actuators 73(1-2), 131–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, P.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W. L.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F. F. Liu, C. J. Li, Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, S. Sohn, S. Lee, “Reaction kinetics study of CdTe thin films during CdCl2 heat treatment,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2295–2301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kranz, J.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Kuittinen, M.

B. Päivänranta, T. Saastamoinen, M. Kuittinen, “A wide-angle antireflection surface for the visible spectrum,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 375301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. C.

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, F. I.

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, L. H.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lai, L. W.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R.

M. Huang, C. Yang, Y. Chiou, R. Lee, “Fabrication of nanoporous antireflection surfaces on silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1352–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

M. Kim, S. Sohn, S. Lee, “Reaction kinetics study of CdTe thin films during CdCl2 heat treatment,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2295–2301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. J.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F. F. Liu, C. J. Li, Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-H.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. K.

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. H.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. F.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F. F. Liu, C. J. Li, Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lotter, E.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, P.

Mackie, D. M.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menner, R.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meyyappan, M.

H. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. Chen, M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muthmann, S.

S. Muthmann, A. Gordijn, “Amorphous silicon solar cells deposited with non-constant silane concentration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 573–578 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H.

H. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. Chen, M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, P.

H. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. Chen, M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishiwaki, Y. E.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Oliva, E.

E. Oliva, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “GaAs converters for high power densities of laser illumination,” Prog. Photovol. 16(4), 289–295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paetel, S.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Päivänranta, B.

B. Päivänranta, T. Saastamoinen, M. Kuittinen, “A wide-angle antireflection surface for the visible spectrum,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 375301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrenoud, S.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Pianezzi, P.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Poitras, D.

Powalla, M.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romanyuk, G.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Saastamoinen, T.

B. Päivänranta, T. Saastamoinen, M. Kuittinen, “A wide-angle antireflection surface for the visible spectrum,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 375301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraf, G.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, T. Yamashiro, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, M. Yamamoto, “Anisotropic etching rates of single-crystal silicon for TMAH water solution as a function of crystallographic orientation,” Sens. Actuators 73(1-2), 131–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seyrling, R.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Shen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shields, P. A.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shikida, M.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, T. Yamashiro, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, M. Yamamoto, “Anisotropic etching rates of single-crystal silicon for TMAH water solution as a function of crystallographic orientation,” Sens. Actuators 73(1-2), 131–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, S.

M. Kim, S. Sohn, S. Lee, “Reaction kinetics study of CdTe thin films during CdCl2 heat treatment,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2295–2301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Sun, Y.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F. F. Liu, C. J. Li, Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ting, C. J.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiwari, A. N.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Tong, H.

Tsai, H. Y.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. A.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. L.

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tutuc, E.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, S. Guha, “High performance wire-array silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 307–312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uhl, C.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Vakil, H.

Verma, S.

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Wang, K.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, S. Guha, “High performance wire-array silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 307–312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. C.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. N.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wischmann, W.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wuerz, R.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, T.

H. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. Chen, M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, T. Yamashiro, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, M. Yamamoto, “Anisotropic etching rates of single-crystal silicon for TMAH water solution as a function of crystallographic orientation,” Sens. Actuators 73(1-2), 131–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamashiro, T.

K. Sato, M. Shikida, T. Yamashiro, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, M. Yamamoto, “Anisotropic etching rates of single-crystal silicon for TMAH water solution as a function of crystallographic orientation,” Sens. Actuators 73(1-2), 131–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

M. Huang, C. Yang, Y. Chiou, R. Lee, “Fabrication of nanoporous antireflection surfaces on silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1352–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. F.

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S. F.

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Youn, W.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F. F. Liu, C. J. Li, Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, S. Guha, “High performance wire-array silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 307–312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, P.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, C. L. Chao, C. H. Chiu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Lin, J. J. Huang, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency enhancement and beam shaping of GaN–InGaN vertical-injection light-emitting diodes via high-aspect-ratio nanorod arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(4), 257–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Journal (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technology (1)

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of III-nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO microsphere arrays,” J. Display Technology 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

H. Ng, J. Han, T. Yamada, P. Nguyen, Y. Chen, M. Meyyappan, “Single crystal nanowire vertical surround-gate field-effect transistor,” Nano Lett. 4(7), 1247–1252 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

M. Y. Hsieh, S. Y. Kuo, H. V. Han, J. F. Yang, Y. K. Liao, F. I. Lai, H. C. Kuo, “Enhanced broadband and omnidirectional performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with ZnO functional nanotree arrays,” Nanoscale 5(9), 3841–3846 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Kuo, M. Y. Hsieh, H. V. Han, F. I. Lai, Y. L. Tsai, J. F. Yang, T. Y. Chuang, H. C. Kuo, “Dandelion-shaped nanostructures for enhancing omnidirectional photovoltaic performance,” Nanoscale 5(10), 4270–4276 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Päivänranta, T. Saastamoinen, M. Kuittinen, “A wide-angle antireflection surface for the visible spectrum,” Nanotechnology 20(37), 375301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Chirilă, F. Buecheler, P. Pianezzi, C. Bloesch, A. R. Gretener, C. Uhl, L. Fella, J. Kranz, S. Perrenoud, R. Seyrling, S. Verma, Y. E. Nishiwaki, G. Romanyuk, Bilger, A. N. Tiwari, “Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 10, 1 (2011).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Prog. Photovol. (1)

E. Oliva, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “GaAs converters for high power densities of laser illumination,” Prog. Photovol. 16(4), 289–295 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, S. Guha, “High performance wire-array silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(3), 307–312 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, R. Wuerz, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. A. Chang, Z. Y. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. F. Yang, L. W. Lai, L. H. Lai, S. C. Wang, “Efficiency improvement of single-junction InGaP solar cells fabricated by a novel micro-hole array surface texture process,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085007 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

K. Sato, M. Shikida, T. Yamashiro, K. Asaumi, Y. Iriye, M. Yamamoto, “Anisotropic etching rates of single-crystal silicon for TMAH water solution as a function of crystallographic orientation,” Sens. Actuators 73(1-2), 131–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (5)

M. Huang, C. Yang, Y. Chiou, R. Lee, “Fabrication of nanoporous antireflection surfaces on silicon,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1352–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, Q. He, W. L. Jiang, F. F. Liu, C. J. Li, Y. Sun, “Effects of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(1), 114–118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Muthmann, A. Gordijn, “Amorphous silicon solar cells deposited with non-constant silane concentration,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 573–578 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, S. Sohn, S. Lee, “Reaction kinetics study of CdTe thin films during CdCl2 heat treatment,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2295–2301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Aiken, “High performance anti-reflection coatings for broadband multi-junction solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 64(4), 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

EMPA, A new world record for solar cell efficiency, http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/3/131438/—/l=2 , (2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic plot of the fabricated CIGS solar cell with flat and flexible textured PDMS. (a)Bare cell. (b) Cell with flat PDMS film. (c) Cell with textured PDMS film. (d) SEM image of flat PDMS film. (e) SEM image of randomly textured PDMS film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Reflectance measurements of the flat PDMS and textured PDMS on CIGS solar cells compare with bare one. (b) Images of (right) CIGS solar cell with textured PDMS film and (left) bare CIGS solar cell

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured angular reflectance spectra for solar cell with (a)Bare (b)flat PDMS film (C) textured PDMS film.(d)The weighted reflectance of all cells, calculated by the measured angular reflectance spectra shown in (a)-(c). The inset in (d) is a schematic of the angle dependence between incident and reflected lights.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the refractive index profiles of different PDMS films AR-coated on CIGS solar cells with varying AR-coated thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The current density-voltage curves and (b) the external quantum efficiencies of the solar cell with textured PDMS film and the bare cell.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SWR= 400nm 1000nm R(λ) I AM 1.5G (λ)dλ 400nm 1000nm I AM 1.5G (λ)dλ
n eff = [ n PDMS 2 ׃+ n air 2 (1ƒ)] 1 2
E F jsc = ΔJsc Jsc = Jsc(with ARc)Jsc(without ARc) Jsc(without ARc)

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