Abstract

This paper presents new experimental results on a polymer light-emitting diode based visible light communications system. For the first time we demonstrate a 10 Mb/s link based on the on-off keying data format with real time equalization on a field programmable gate array. The 10 Mb/s transmission speed is available at a bit error rate less than 4.6 × 10−3, which is the limit for forward error correction. At a BER of 10−6 a transmission speed of 7 Mb/s is readily achievable.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
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2013 (2)

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Le Minh, “2.7 Mb/s With a 93-kHz White Organic Light Emitting Diode and Real Time ANN Equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1687–1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

G. Lazzerini, F. Di Stasio, C. Fléchon, D. Caruana, F. Cacialli, “Low-temperature treatment of semiconducting interlayers for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes based on a green-emitting polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J.-S. Kim, R. H. Friend, I. Grizzi, J. H. Burroughes, “Spin-cast thin semiconducting polymer interlayer for improving device efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 023506 (2005).

B. W. D’Andrade, S. Datta, S. R. Forrest, P. Djurovich, E. Polikarpov, M. E. Thompson, “Relationship between the ionization and oxidation potentials of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 11–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. M. Brown, F. Cacialli, “Contact Optimisation in Polymer LEDs,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 41, 2649–2664 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

N. Johansson, F. Cacialli, K. Z. Xing, G. Beamson, D. T. Clark, R. H. Friend, W. R. Salaneck, “A study of the ITO-on-PPV interface using photoelectron spectroscopy,” Synth. Met. 92(3), 207–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85(2), 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. U. H. Qureshi, “Adaptive equalization,” Proc. IEEE 73(9), 1349–1387 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M. R.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baig, T. N.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. R.

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85(2), 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beamson, G.

N. Johansson, F. Cacialli, K. Z. Xing, G. Beamson, D. T. Clark, R. H. Friend, W. R. Salaneck, “A study of the ITO-on-PPV interface using photoelectron spectroscopy,” Synth. Met. 92(3), 207–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. M.

T. M. Brown, F. Cacialli, “Contact Optimisation in Polymer LEDs,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 41, 2649–2664 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Kim, R. H. Friend, I. Grizzi, J. H. Burroughes, “Spin-cast thin semiconducting polymer interlayer for improving device efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 023506 (2005).

Cacialli, F.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Lazzerini, F. Di Stasio, C. Fléchon, D. Caruana, F. Cacialli, “Low-temperature treatment of semiconducting interlayers for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes based on a green-emitting polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Brown, F. Cacialli, “Contact Optimisation in Polymer LEDs,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 41, 2649–2664 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Johansson, F. Cacialli, K. Z. Xing, G. Beamson, D. T. Clark, R. H. Friend, W. R. Salaneck, “A study of the ITO-on-PPV interface using photoelectron spectroscopy,” Synth. Met. 92(3), 207–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caruana, D.

G. Lazzerini, F. Di Stasio, C. Fléchon, D. Caruana, F. Cacialli, “Low-temperature treatment of semiconducting interlayers for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes based on a green-emitting polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. S.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chia, P.-J.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, P.

Chua, L.-L.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciaramella, E.

Clark, D. T.

N. Johansson, F. Cacialli, K. Z. Xing, G. Beamson, D. T. Clark, R. H. Friend, W. R. Salaneck, “A study of the ITO-on-PPV interface using photoelectron spectroscopy,” Synth. Met. 92(3), 207–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corsini, R.

Cossu, G.

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade, S. Datta, S. R. Forrest, P. Djurovich, E. Polikarpov, M. E. Thompson, “Relationship between the ionization and oxidation potentials of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 11–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Datta, S.

B. W. D’Andrade, S. Datta, S. R. Forrest, P. Djurovich, E. Polikarpov, M. E. Thompson, “Relationship between the ionization and oxidation potentials of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 11–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Di Stasio, F.

G. Lazzerini, F. Di Stasio, C. Fléchon, D. Caruana, F. Cacialli, “Low-temperature treatment of semiconducting interlayers for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes based on a green-emitting polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Djurovich, P.

B. W. D’Andrade, S. Datta, S. R. Forrest, P. Djurovich, E. Polikarpov, M. E. Thompson, “Relationship between the ionization and oxidation potentials of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 11–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fenwick, O.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fléchon, C.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Lazzerini, F. Di Stasio, C. Fléchon, D. Caruana, F. Cacialli, “Low-temperature treatment of semiconducting interlayers for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes based on a green-emitting polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade, S. Datta, S. R. Forrest, P. Djurovich, E. Polikarpov, M. E. Thompson, “Relationship between the ionization and oxidation potentials of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 11–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Kim, R. H. Friend, I. Grizzi, J. H. Burroughes, “Spin-cast thin semiconducting polymer interlayer for improving device efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 023506 (2005).

N. Johansson, F. Cacialli, K. Z. Xing, G. Beamson, D. T. Clark, R. H. Friend, W. R. Salaneck, “A study of the ITO-on-PPV interface using photoelectron spectroscopy,” Synth. Met. 92(3), 207–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, S.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Le Minh, “2.7 Mb/s With a 93-kHz White Organic Light Emitting Diode and Real Time ANN Equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1687–1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grizzi, I.

J.-S. Kim, R. H. Friend, I. Grizzi, J. H. Burroughes, “Spin-cast thin semiconducting polymer interlayer for improving device efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 023506 (2005).

Haigh, P. A.

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Le Minh, “2.7 Mb/s With a 93-kHz White Organic Light Emitting Diode and Real Time ANN Equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1687–1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Henriksson, P.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. K.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, N.

N. Johansson, F. Cacialli, K. Z. Xing, G. Beamson, D. T. Clark, R. H. Friend, W. R. Salaneck, “A study of the ITO-on-PPV interface using photoelectron spectroscopy,” Synth. Met. 92(3), 207–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85(2), 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khalid, A. M.

Khong, S.-H.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-S.

J.-S. Kim, R. H. Friend, I. Grizzi, J. H. Burroughes, “Spin-cast thin semiconducting polymer interlayer for improving device efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 023506 (2005).

Lazzerini, G.

G. Lazzerini, F. Di Stasio, C. Fléchon, D. Caruana, F. Cacialli, “Low-temperature treatment of semiconducting interlayers for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes based on a green-emitting polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Le Minh, H.

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Le Minh, “2.7 Mb/s With a 93-kHz White Organic Light Emitting Diode and Real Time ANN Equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1687–1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Papakonstantinou, I.

P. A. Haigh, Z. Ghassemlooy, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Le Minh, “2.7 Mb/s With a 93-kHz White Organic Light Emitting Diode and Real Time ANN Equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1687–1690 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Png, R.-Q.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polikarpov, E.

B. W. D’Andrade, S. Datta, S. R. Forrest, P. Djurovich, E. Polikarpov, M. E. Thompson, “Relationship between the ionization and oxidation potentials of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 11–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qureshi, S. U. H.

S. U. H. Qureshi, “Adaptive equalization,” Proc. IEEE 73(9), 1349–1387 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salaneck, W. R.

N. Johansson, F. Cacialli, K. Z. Xing, G. Beamson, D. T. Clark, R. H. Friend, W. R. Salaneck, “A study of the ITO-on-PPV interface using photoelectron spectroscopy,” Synth. Met. 92(3), 207–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivaramakrishnan, S.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stasio, F. D.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Steckler, T. T.

O. Fenwick, S. Fusco, T. N. Baig, F. D. Stasio, T. T. Steckler, P. Henriksson, C. Fléchon, M. R. Andersson, F. Cacialli, “Efficient red electroluminescence from diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymerised with a polyfluorene,” APL Materials 1(3), 032108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.-C.

R.-Q. Png, P.-J. Chia, J.-C. Tang, B. Liu, S. Sivaramakrishnan, M. Zhou, S.-H. Khong, H. S. Chan, J. H. Burroughes, L.-L. Chua, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, “High-performance polymer semiconducting heterostructure devices by nitrene-mediated photocrosslinking of alkyl side chains,” Nat. Mater. 9(2), 152–158 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

B. W. D’Andrade, S. Datta, S. R. Forrest, P. Djurovich, E. Polikarpov, M. E. Thompson, “Relationship between the ionization and oxidation potentials of molecular organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 11–20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, K. Z.

N. Johansson, F. Cacialli, K. Z. Xing, G. Beamson, D. T. Clark, R. H. Friend, W. R. Salaneck, “A study of the ITO-on-PPV interface using photoelectron spectroscopy,” Synth. Met. 92(3), 207–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, M.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the PLED used in this work. The devices are composed of a stack of several thin polymeric layers encapsulated between two planar electrodes. The anode is a transparent conductive layer of ITO deposited on a glass substrate via a sputtering process. A hole injection layer made of a conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (the mix is referred to as PEDOT:PSS) is in contact with the anode. On top of it, the conjugated polymer poly[(9’9’-dioctylfluorene-alt-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine] (TFB) acts as electron-blocking/hole-transporting interlayer [46]. The emissive polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) is deposited on top of the TFB and is in direct contact with the metallic calcium cathode which is in turn covered by a layer of aluminum as a protection against oxidation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The energy-level diagram, relative to vacuum, of the isolated materials used in the fabrication of the PLED. HOMO and LUMO stand for ‘highest occupied molecular orbital’ and ‘lowest unoccupied molecular orbital’ respectively. They indicate the two energy levels of the molecule that are responsible for its semiconductor behavior in the same way as valence and conduction bands in inorganic semiconductors. The HOMO and LUMO values for TFB and MDMO-PPV are measured by a combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption [9, 10]. The Fermi levels of the electrodes are also reported [8].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The PLED characteristics: (a) the normalized optical spectra and the responsivity of the ThorLabs PDA36A PD, and (b) the JLV relationship, with VON at ~2 V; note the semi-logarithmic axes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The PLED: (a) current efficiency (cd/A) and external quantum efficiency (%) as a function of the current density and (b) the device frequency response (red) and the noise profile (black).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of the experimental test setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The system BER and Q-factor performance as a function of data rate; 3 Mb/s can be achieved without the use of an equalizer. At 4 Mb/s the link fails and errors are introduced into the system; eye diagrams are shown inset. (b) The SNR measured throughout the system from 20 kHz – 1 MHz using an Agilent N9010A electrical spectrum analyzer. The SNR is smoothed and fitted exponentially to predict the SNR at higher data rates.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER performance of the PLED-VLC system with the FPGA based LMS equalizer; clearly there as an increase in performance with an increasing number of taps as expected; the key result is that the 10 Mb/s link has a BER within the FEC limit; meaning that the data can be recovered with an overhead of just 7%.

Equations (4)

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h=ξ A d 2 I( θ )cos( ϑ )
y i =G[ y i h 0 + j= ji y j h ij + n i ]
w i+1 ( m )= w i ( m )+μ e i d i
q i = m=0 N w i (m) d im

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