Abstract

Guided mode resonance (GMR) enhanced second- and third-harmonic generation (SHG and THG) is demonstrated in an azo-polymer resonant waveguide grating (RWG), comprised of a poled azo-polymer layer on top of a textured SU8 substrate with a thin intervening layer of TiO2. Strong SHG and THG outputs are observed by matching either in-coming fundamental- or out-going harmonic-wavelength to the GMR wavelengths of the azo-polymer RWG. Without the azo-polymer coating, pure TiO2 RWGs, do not generate any detectable SHG using a fundamental beam peak intensity of 2 MW/cm2. Without the textured TiO2 layer, a planar poled azo-polymer layer results in 3650 times less SHG than the full nonlinear RWG structure under identical excitation conditions. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis calculations confirm that this enhancement of the nonlinear conversion is due to strong local electric fields that are generated at the interfaces of the TiO2 and azo-polymer layers when the RWG is excited at resonant wavelengths associated with both SHG and THG conversion processes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (5)

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, “Enhanced nonlinear optics in photonic-crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16161–16176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, C. Sourisseau, “Significant enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation in a poled azopolymer thin grating,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13689–13693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Gindre, A. Boeglin, A. Fort, L. Mager, K. D. Dorkenoo, “Rewritable optical data storage in azobenzene copolymers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9896–9901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

2004 (2)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Purvinis, P. S. Priambodo, M. Pomerantz, M. Zhou, T. A. Maldonado, R. Magnusson, “Second-harmonic generation in resonant waveguide gratings incorporating ionic self-assembled monolayer polymer films,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1108–1110 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

A. R. Cowan, J. F. Young, “Mode matching for second-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 65(8), 085106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

N. Matsuoka, K. Kitaoka, J. Si, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Second-order nonlinearity and optical image storage in phenyl-silica hybrid films doped with azo-dye chromophore using optical poling technique,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 467–472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

V. Berger, “Nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(19), 4136–4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

M. Amano, T. Kaino, “Second-order nonlinearity of a novel diazo-dye-attached polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(12), 6024–6028 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Amano, T. Kaino, S. Matsumoto, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170(5-6), 515–517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. J. Simon, C. Huang, J. C. Quail, Z. Chen, “Second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons from a silivered quartz grating,” Phys. Rev. B 38(11), 7408–7414 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Adamietz, F.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, C. Sourisseau, “Significant enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation in a poled azopolymer thin grating,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13689–13693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aers, G. C.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

M. Amano, T. Kaino, “Second-order nonlinearity of a novel diazo-dye-attached polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(12), 6024–6028 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Amano, T. Kaino, S. Matsumoto, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170(5-6), 515–517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bai, B.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, V.

V. Berger, “Nonlinear photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(19), 4136–4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Bidault, S.

Blau, G.

Boeglin, A.

Brasselet, S.

Bravo-Abad, J.

Broderick, N. G. R.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canfield, B. K.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-F.

Chen, S.-Y.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

H. J. Simon, C. Huang, J. C. Quail, Z. Chen, “Second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons from a silivered quartz grating,” Phys. Rev. B 38(11), 7408–7414 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, I. W.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chien, F. S.-S.

Chiu, C. H.

Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.-W.

T.-M. Liu, Y.-W. Lee, C.-F. Chang, S.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, “Imaging polyhedral inclusion bodies of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses with second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5602–5608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J. L.

Cowan, A. R.

A. R. Cowan, J. F. Young, “Nonlinear optics in high refractive index contrast periodic structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(9), R41–R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, W. Jiang, A. R. Cowan, J. F. Young, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation from planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2500–2502 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Cowan, J. F. Young, “Mode matching for second-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 65(8), 085106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

W. Zhang, B. T. Cunningham, “Fluorescence enhancement by a photonic crystal with a nanorod-structured high index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorkenoo, K. D.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fort, A.

Frédérick, S.

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

N. Matsuoka, K. Kitaoka, J. Si, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Second-order nonlinearity and optical image storage in phenyl-silica hybrid films doped with azo-dye chromophore using optical poling technique,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 467–472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, N.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ganesh, B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Genty, G.

Gindre, D.

Gouya, J.

Grillet, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

N. Matsuoka, K. Kitaoka, J. Si, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Second-order nonlinearity and optical image storage in phenyl-silica hybrid films doped with azo-dye chromophore using optical poling technique,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 467–472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. C.

Huang, C.

H. J. Simon, C. Huang, J. C. Quail, Z. Chen, “Second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons from a silivered quartz grating,” Phys. Rev. B 38(11), 7408–7414 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Husu, H.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kaino, T.

M. Amano, T. Kaino, S. Matsumoto, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170(5-6), 515–517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Amano, T. Kaino, “Second-order nonlinearity of a novel diazo-dye-attached polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(12), 6024–6028 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

Kan, H.-C.

Karvinen, P.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitaoka, K.

N. Matsuoka, K. Kitaoka, J. Si, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Second-order nonlinearity and optical image storage in phenyl-silica hybrid films doped with azo-dye chromophore using optical poling technique,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 467–472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagugné-Labarthet, F.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, C. Sourisseau, “Significant enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation in a poled azopolymer thin grating,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13689–13693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, N. D.

Laukkanen, J.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-T.

Lee, Y.-W.

Leivo, S.

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W. P.

Lin, C. H.

Lin, C.-Y.

Lin, J. H.

Liu, T.-M.

T.-M. Liu, Y.-W. Lee, C.-F. Chang, S.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, “Imaging polyhedral inclusion bodies of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses with second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5602–5608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mager, L.

Magnusson, R.

Maldonado, T. A.

Malyarchuk, V.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathias, P. C.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, S.

M. Amano, T. Kaino, S. Matsumoto, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170(5-6), 515–517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, N.

N. Matsuoka, K. Kitaoka, J. Si, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Second-order nonlinearity and optical image storage in phenyl-silica hybrid films doped with azo-dye chromophore using optical poling technique,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 467–472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCutcheon, M. W.

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Monat, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

Moss, D. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerantz, M.

Poole, P. J.

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

Priambodo, P. S.

Purvinis, G.

Quail, J. C.

H. J. Simon, C. Huang, J. C. Quail, Z. Chen, “Second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons from a silivered quartz grating,” Phys. Rev. B 38(11), 7408–7414 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, A.

Richardson, D. J.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieger, G. W.

J. H. Lin, N. D. Lai, C. H. Chiu, C.-Y. Lin, G. W. Rieger, J. F. Young, F. S.-S. Chien, C. C. Hsu, “Fabrication of spatial modulated second order nonlinear structures and quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation in a poled azo-copolymer planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7832–7841 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, A.

Rodriguez, V.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, C. Sourisseau, “Significant enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation in a poled azopolymer thin grating,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13689–13693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, G. W.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roux, J. F.

Saari, A.

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Si, J.

N. Matsuoka, K. Kitaoka, J. Si, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Second-order nonlinearity and optical image storage in phenyl-silica hybrid films doped with azo-dye chromophore using optical poling technique,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 467–472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siltanen, M.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

H. J. Simon, C. Huang, J. C. Quail, Z. Chen, “Second-harmonic generation with surface plasmons from a silivered quartz grating,” Phys. Rev. B 38(11), 7408–7414 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soares, J. A. N. T.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

Sourisseau, C.

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, C. Sourisseau, “Significant enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation in a poled azopolymer thin grating,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13689–13693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-K.

T.-M. Liu, Y.-W. Lee, C.-F. Chang, S.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, “Imaging polyhedral inclusion bodies of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses with second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5602–5608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.-J.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.-H.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, C.-Y.

Turunen, J.

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahimaa, P.

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

Voima, P.

M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-H.

Wang, S. S.

White, T. P.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. L.

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
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Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, S.-C.

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

J. H. Lin, N. D. Lai, C. H. Chiu, C.-Y. Lin, G. W. Rieger, J. F. Young, F. S.-S. Chien, C. C. Hsu, “Fabrication of spatial modulated second order nonlinear structures and quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation in a poled azo-copolymer planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7832–7841 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
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M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
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J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, W. Jiang, A. R. Cowan, J. F. Young, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation from planar photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2500–2502 (2003).
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A. R. Cowan, J. F. Young, “Mode matching for second-harmonic generation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 65(8), 085106 (2002).
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W. Zhang, B. T. Cunningham, “Fluorescence enhancement by a photonic crystal with a nanorod-structured high index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133115 (2008).
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N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, M.

Zyss, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

N. Ganesh, B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071110 (2006).
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W. Zhang, B. T. Cunningham, “Fluorescence enhancement by a photonic crystal with a nanorod-structured high index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133115 (2008).
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M. Siltanen, S. Leivo, P. Voima, M. Kauranen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, “Strong enhancement of second-harmonic generation in all-dielectric resonant waveguide grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Amano, T. Kaino, S. Matsumoto, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170(5-6), 515–517 (1990).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Amano, T. Kaino, “Second-order nonlinearity of a novel diazo-dye-attached polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(12), 6024–6028 (1990).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

F. Lagugné-Labarthet, F. Adamietz, V. Rodriguez, C. Sourisseau, “Significant enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation in a poled azopolymer thin grating,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(28), 13689–13693 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

B. K. Canfield, H. Husu, J. Laukkanen, B. Bai, M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, M. Kauranen, “Local field asymmetry drives second-harmonic generation in non-centrosymmetric nanodimers,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1251–1255 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(8), 515–520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Matsuoka, K. Kitaoka, J. Si, K. Fujita, K. Hirao, “Second-order nonlinearity and optical image storage in phenyl-silica hybrid films doped with azo-dye chromophore using optical poling technique,” Opt. Commun. 185(4-6), 467–472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

S. Bidault, J. Gouya, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, “Encoding multipolar polarization patterns by optical poling in polymers: towards nonlinear optical memories,” Opt. Express 13(2), 505–510 (2005).
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N. D. Lai, W. P. Liang, J. H. Lin, C. C. Hsu, “Rapid fabrication of large-area periodic structures containing well-defined defects by combining holography and mask techniques,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5331–5337 (2005).
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N. D. Lai, W. P. Liang, J. H. Lin, C. C. Hsu, C. H. Lin, “Fabrication of two- and three-dimensional periodic structures by multi-exposure of two-beam interference technique,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9605–9611 (2005).
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D. Gindre, A. Boeglin, A. Fort, L. Mager, K. D. Dorkenoo, “Rewritable optical data storage in azobenzene copolymers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9896–9901 (2006).
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J. Bravo-Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, “Enhanced nonlinear optics in photonic-crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16161–16176 (2007).
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T.-M. Liu, Y.-W. Lee, C.-F. Chang, S.-C. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, “Imaging polyhedral inclusion bodies of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses with second harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5602–5608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lin, N. D. Lai, C. H. Chiu, C.-Y. Lin, G. W. Rieger, J. F. Young, F. S.-S. Chien, C. C. Hsu, “Fabrication of spatial modulated second order nonlinear structures and quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation in a poled azo-copolymer planar waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7832–7841 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saari, G. Genty, M. Siltanen, P. Karvinen, P. Vahimaa, M. Kuittinen, M. Kauranen, “Giant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in multiple diffraction orders from sub-wavelength resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12298–12303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Lin, C.-Y. Tseng, C.-T. Lee, H.-C. Kan, C. C. Hsu, “Guided-mode resonance enhanced excitation and extraction of two-photon photoluminescence in a resonant waveguide grating,” Opt. Express 21(20), 24318–24325 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. W. McCutcheon, J. F. Young, G. W. Rieger, D. Dalacu, S. Frédérick, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams, “Experimental demonstration of second-order processes in photonic crystal microcavities at submilliwatt excitation powers,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245104 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross-section of the azo-polymer RWG structure and the molecular structure of the azo-polymer. The rectangle-shaped dash line (red color) defines the unit cell used for simulations. (b) Cross-section view and top view (inset) of the SEM image of the fabricated RWG structure before depositing the azo-polymer layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for THG and SHG spectra measurement. λ/2: half-wave plate, L: lens and P: polarizer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental ((a) and (b)) and calculated ((c) and (d)) transmission spectra of the pure TiO2 and azo-polymer RWGs for TM and TE polarizations. The calculated transmission spectra were obtained by the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method. The parameters used in this calculation are Λ = 840 nm, d = 230 nm, TTiO2 = 180 nm, nTiO2 = 2.0, TSU8 = 1.05 µm, nSU8 = 1.55, ng = 1.48, Tazo = 0.65 µm, nazo = 1.53, and Δλ = 0.1 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental SHG and THG spectra obtained from the pure TiO2 RWG (black line) and the azo-polymer RWG (red line) for the TM (a) and TE (b) polarizations. Inset shows the visible transmission spectra of the azo-polymer RWG for the TM (a) and TE (b) polarizations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated electric-field intensity distributions normalized to the incident intensity of resonant modes (TM, λ = 1247.3 nm) (a), (TM, λ = 1337.7 nm) (b), (TE, λ = 1250.4 nm) (c) and (TE, λ = 1367.6 nm) (d) of the azo-poymer RWG.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the measured and simulated TE and TM resonance wavelengths in the pure TiO2 and azo-polymer RWGs.

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