Abstract

We present a 2D Slope measuring System based on a Stitching Shack Hartmann Optical Head (SSH-OH) aiming to perform high accuracy optical metrology for X-ray mirrors. This system was developed to perform high-accuracy automated metrology for extremely high quality optical components needed for synchrotrons or Free Electrons Lasers (FEL), EUV lithography and x-ray astronomy with slope error accuracy better than 50 nrad rms.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (4)

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burge, C. Zhao, “Applications of subaperture stitching interferometry for very large mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84500X (2013).

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, S. Qian, R. Conley, “Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 710, 17–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (3)

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Siewert, J. Buchheim, T. Zeschke, “Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2–3), 119–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, R. Allen, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics II,” Proc. SPIE 7426, 74260Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, J. Sasian, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70183T (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, “Design of multiple-function long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043602 (2007).

2005 (2)

M. Thomasset, S. Brochet, F. Polack, “Latest metrology results with the SOLEIL synchrotron LTP,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Fleig, P. Dumas, P. E. Murphy, G. W. Forbes, “An automated subaperture stitching interferometer workstation for spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 296–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. C. Platt, R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. N. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: A long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(3), 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” Proc. SPIE 749, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1971 (1)

R. V. Shack, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656–660 (1971).

1904 (1)

J. Hartmann, “Objektivuntersuchungen,” Z. Instrumentenkunde 24, 1–21 (1904).

Alcock, S. G.

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, R. Allen, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics II,” Proc. SPIE 7426, 74260Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

Artemiev, N. A.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Assoufid, L.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boutet, S.

Brochet, S.

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomasset, S. Brochet, F. Polack, “Latest metrology results with the SOLEIL synchrotron LTP,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, N.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Buchheim, J.

Bucourt, S.

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

J. H. Burge, C. Zhao, “Applications of subaperture stitching interferometry for very large mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84500X (2013).

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, R. Allen, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics II,” Proc. SPIE 7426, 74260Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, J. Sasian, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70183T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Colbert, J.

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” Proc. SPIE 749, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Conley, R.

M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, S. Qian, R. Conley, “Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 710, 17–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Crews, D.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cuerden, B.

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, R. Allen, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics II,” Proc. SPIE 7426, 74260Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, J. Sasian, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70183T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, P.

J. Fleig, P. Dumas, P. E. Murphy, G. W. Forbes, “An automated subaperture stitching interferometer workstation for spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 296–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, M.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fleig, J.

J. Fleig, P. Dumas, P. E. Murphy, G. W. Forbes, “An automated subaperture stitching interferometer workstation for spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 296–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Floriot, J.

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, G. W.

J. Fleig, P. Dumas, P. E. Murphy, G. W. Forbes, “An automated subaperture stitching interferometer workstation for spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 296–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grubert, B.

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hachisu, Y.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Handa, S.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hänsel, T.

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.

J. Hartmann, “Objektivuntersuchungen,” Z. Instrumentenkunde 24, 1–21 (1904).

Idir, M.

M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, S. Qian, R. Conley, “Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 710, 17–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inubushi, Y.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, T.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

S. N. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: A long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(3), 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jemian, P.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kaznatcheev, K.

M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, S. Qian, R. Conley, “Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 710, 17–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kidani, N.

Kim, J.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

Lammert, H.

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levecq, X.

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H. M.

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, R. Allen, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics II,” Proc. SPIE 7426, 74260Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, J. Sasian, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70183T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, S.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McKinney, W. R.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mercère, P.

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Merthe, D. J.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, H.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montanez, P. A.

Moreno, T.

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, P. E.

J. Fleig, P. Dumas, P. E. Murphy, G. W. Forbes, “An automated subaperture stitching interferometer workstation for spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 296–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, A.

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, Y.

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noll, T.

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, H.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, H.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, U.

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt, R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

Polack, F.

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomasset, S. Brochet, F. Polack, “Latest metrology results with the SOLEIL synchrotron LTP,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S.

M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, S. Qian, R. Conley, “Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 710, 17–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S. N.

S. N. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, “Design of multiple-function long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043602 (2007).

S. N. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: A long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(3), 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” Proc. SPIE 749, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sano, Y.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J.

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, J. Sasian, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70183T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, A.

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlegel, T.

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlewitt, C.

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scott, S.

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Senf, F.

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt, R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

Shack, R. V.

R. V. Shack, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656–660 (1971).

Siewert, F.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Siewert, J. Buchheim, S. Boutet, G. J. Williams, P. A. Montanez, J. Krzywinski, R. Signorato, “Ultra-precise characterization of LCLS hard X-ray focusing mirrors by high resolution slope measuring deflectometry,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4525–4536 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Siewert, J. Buchheim, T. Zeschke, “Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2–3), 119–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Signorato, R.

Southwell, W. H.

Su, P.

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, R. Allen, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics II,” Proc. SPIE 7426, 74260Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, J. Sasian, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 70183T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, P. Z.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, “Design of multiple-function long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 043602 (2007).

S. N. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: A long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(3), 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” Proc. SPIE 749, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tamasaku, K.

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thomasset, M.

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomasset, S. Brochet, F. Polack, “Latest metrology results with the SOLEIL synchrotron LTP,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Togashi, T.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tono, K.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wakioka, T.

Walton, R.

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

Yabashi, M.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, D.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, K.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuyama, T. Wakioka, N. Kidani, T. Kimura, H. Mimura, Y. Sano, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “One-dimensional Wolter optics with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3583–3585 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yumoto, H.

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeschke, T.

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Siewert, J. Buchheim, T. Zeschke, “Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2–3), 119–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

J. H. Burge, C. Zhao, “Applications of subaperture stitching interferometry for very large mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84500X (2013).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, Y. Sano, K. Yamamura, Y. Mori, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Efficient focusing of hard x rays to 25 nm by a total reflection mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

R. V. Shack, “Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656–660 (1971).

W. H. Southwell, “Wave front estimation from wave front slope measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70(8), 998–1006 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

B. C. Platt, R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, S. Brochet, “A Shack-Hartmann measuring head for the two-dimensional characterization of X-ray mirrors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15(2), 134–139 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, T. Koyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Tono, T. Togashi, Y. Inubushi, T. Sato, K. Tanaka, T. Kimura, H. Yokoyama, J. Kim, Y. Sano, Y. Hachisu, M. Yabashi, H. Ohashi, H. Ohmori, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Focusing of x-ray free-electron laser pulses with reflective optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 43–47 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6(2), 122–125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (3)

F. Siewert, J. Buchheim, T. Zeschke, “Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2–3), 119–127 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Alcock, K. J. S. Sawhney, S. Scott, U. Pedersen, R. Walton, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, F. Senf, T. Noll, H. Lammert, “The Diamond-NOM: A non-contact profiler capable of characterizing optical figure error with sub-nanometre repeatability,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 616(2-3), 224–228 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Assoufid, N. Brown, D. Crews, J. Sullivan, M. Erdmann, J. Qian, P. Jemian, V. V. Yashchuk, P. Z. Takacs, N. A. Artemiev, D. J. Merthe, W. R. McKinney, F. Siewert, T. Zeschke, “Development of a high-performance gantry system for a new generation of optical slope measuring profilers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 710, 31–36 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, S. Qian, R. Conley, “Current status of the NSLS-II optical metrology laboratory,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 710, 17–23 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (8)

J. H. Burge, C. Zhao, “Applications of subaperture stitching interferometry for very large mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84500X (2013).

F. Siewert, H. Lammert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, T. Hänsel, A. Nickel, A. Schindler, B. Grubert, C. Schlewitt, “Advanced metrology: an essential support fort the surface finishing of high performance x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Floriot, X. Levecq, S. Bucourt, M. Thomasset, F. Polack, M. Idir, P. Mercère, S. Brochet, T. Moreno, “Surface metrology with a stitching Shack-Hartmann profilometric head,” Proc. SPIE 6616, 66162A (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fleig, P. Dumas, P. E. Murphy, G. W. Forbes, “An automated subaperture stitching interferometer workstation for spherical and aspherical surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 5188, 296–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomasset, S. Brochet, F. Polack, “Latest metrology results with the SOLEIL synchrotron LTP,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. N. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long trace surface profiler,” Proc. SPIE 749, 59–64 (1987).
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[CrossRef]

P. Su, J. H. Burge, B. Cuerden, R. Allen, H. M. Martin, “Scanning pentaprism measurements of off-axis aspherics II,” Proc. SPIE 7426, 74260Y (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. N. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: A long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(3), 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Instrumentenkunde (1)

J. Hartmann, “Objektivuntersuchungen,” Z. Instrumentenkunde 24, 1–21 (1904).

Other (7)

F. Siewert, T. Noll, T. Schlegel, T. Zeschke, and H. Lammert, “The nanometer optical component measuring machine: a new sub-nm topography measuring device for x-ray optics at BESSY,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (American Institute of Physics, 2004), pp. 847–850.

D. Malacara-Doblado and I. Ghozeil, “Hartmann, Hartmann-Shack, and other screen tests,” in Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 361–397.

S. N. Qian and P. Z. Takacs, “Nano-accuracy surface figure metrology of precision optics,” in Modern Metrology Concerns, L. Cocco, ed. (InTech, 2012), pp. 77–114.

http://qedmrf.com/metrology/ssi-technology/advantages/advantages-of-stitching

http://www.imagine-optic.com/

http://www.q-sys.eu/indexEN.html

http://www.j-tec.co.jp

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SSH-OH principle (top) – Actual system at NSLS II (bottom). A 45° mirror can be easily added to change the measurement configuration from vertical to horizontal geometry (top image).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NSLS II SSH-OH installed in the optical Metrology Laboratory. (Horizontal geometry).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NSLS II Optical Metrology Laboratory Thermal stability.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spherical mirror measured with the SSS-OH. 2D Map and 1 D lines of Residual slope error of the mirror (power removed).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Systematic error estimation (Plane ellipse from JTEC). Same elliptical mirror measured at different angles from 0 to 1 mrad.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

1.4 m silicon bendable mirror developed by WinlightX/ France for the NSLS II XPD beamline under the SSH-OH in the NSLS II Optical Laboratory (vertical geometry).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top part 2D map obtain for R = 16 kms with the SSH-OH. Bottom part 1D residual slope error (best sphere removed) (average of all lines from the 2D map).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurements for different radius of curvature from flat to 15 km made in order to calibrate the bender using the SSH-OH.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of the curvature (1/R) versus the actuators motion.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

AB and BA measurement on a flat mirror.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performances for the new Stitching Shack Hartmann Optical Head.

Metrics