Abstract

We present a spatially-diverse optical vector network analyzer which is capable of measuring the partial or complete mode transfer matrix of a system as a function of wavelength in an arbitrary mode basis using single or multiple sweeps.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, B. Guan, X. Palou, S. Randel, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “Characterization of space-division multiplexing systems using a swept-wavelength interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1K.2.
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Ryf, R. Essiambre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200 km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C.2.
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. G. Euser, G. Whyte, M. Scharrer, J. S. Y. Chen, A. Abdolvand, J. Nold, C. F. Kaminski, P. St. J. Russell, “Dynamic control of higher-order modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17972–17981 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Jung, V. Sleiffer, N. Baddela, M. Petrovich, J. R. Hayes, N. Wheeler, D. Gray, E. R. Numkam Fokoua, J. Wooler, N. Wong, F. Parmigiani, S. Alam, J. Surof, M. Kuschnerov, V. Veljanovski, and H. Waardt, de, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of a broadband 37-cell hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and its application to high capacity mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.3.
  6. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.A.3.
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, T. D. Wilkinson, “Degenerate Mode-Group Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3946–3952 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, J. Schröder, “110x110 optical mode transfer matrix inversion,” Opt. Express, Opt. Express 22(1), 96–101 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Holographic mode generation for mode division multiplexing,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.42.
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Aberration correction in Spatial Light Modulator based mode multiplexers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JW2A.27.
    [CrossRef]

2014

J. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, J. Schröder, “110x110 optical mode transfer matrix inversion,” Opt. Express, Opt. Express 22(1), 96–101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, T. D. Wilkinson, “Degenerate Mode-Group Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3946–3952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

2003

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abdolvand, A.

Argyros, A.

Barley, D. M.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, J.

J. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, J. Schröder, “110x110 optical mode transfer matrix inversion,” Opt. Express, Opt. Express 22(1), 96–101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, T. D. Wilkinson, “Degenerate Mode-Group Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3946–3952 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. S. Y.

Eggleton, B. J.

J. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, J. Schröder, “110x110 optical mode transfer matrix inversion,” Opt. Express, Opt. Express 22(1), 96–101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Euser, T. G.

Fontaine, N. K.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaminski, C. F.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Motamedi, A. R.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nold, J.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scharrer, M.

Schröder, J.

J. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, J. Schröder, “110x110 optical mode transfer matrix inversion,” Opt. Express, Opt. Express 22(1), 96–101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B. C.

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

VanWiggeren, G. D.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whyte, G.

Wilkinson, T. D.

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. D. VanWiggeren, A. R. Motamedi, D. M. Barley, “Single-scan interferometric component analyzer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 263–265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, R.-J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode coupler for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Express, Opt. Express

J. Carpenter, B. J. Eggleton, J. Schröder, “110x110 optical mode transfer matrix inversion,” Opt. Express, Opt. Express 22(1), 96–101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Science

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. R. Doerr, N. Fontaine, M. Hirano, T. Sasaki, L. Buhl, and P. Winzer, “Silicon photonic integrated circuit for coupling to a ring-core multimode fiber for space-division multiplexing,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.A.3.
[CrossRef]

J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Holographic mode generation for mode division multiplexing,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.42.
[CrossRef]

J. Carpenter and T. D. Wilkinson, “Aberration correction in Spatial Light Modulator based mode multiplexers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JW2A.27.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, B. Guan, X. Palou, S. Randel, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “Characterization of space-division multiplexing systems using a swept-wavelength interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1K.2.
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, R. Essiambre, A. Gnauck, S. Randel, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, and T. Sasaki, “Space-division multiplexed transmission over 4200 km 3-core microstructured fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C.2.
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, V. Sleiffer, N. Baddela, M. Petrovich, J. R. Hayes, N. Wheeler, D. Gray, E. R. Numkam Fokoua, J. Wooler, N. Wong, F. Parmigiani, S. Alam, J. Surof, M. Kuschnerov, V. Veljanovski, and H. Waardt, de, F. Poletti, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of a broadband 37-cell hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and its application to high capacity mode division multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5A.3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SLM based SDM-OVNA where each multiplexer/ demultiplexing block consists of the system in (b). (c) Photo of the actual SLM mux/demux (d) Example impulse response of a sweep in a single polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) phase mask to generate the entire OAM basis of a few-mode fiber shown in (b). (c) Phase mask to generate an offset spot launch basis shown in (d). White crosshairs indicate the optic axes of each input SMF. (e) Relative coupling efficiency at 1545.54nm into the device-under-test for each mode as they are resized using the SLM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Total power coupled into the photonic lantern multi-mode core for a 7.75μm MFD Gaussian spot at each position. (b-d) Power coupled into each single-mode port of the lantern for each spatial position on the multi-mode core.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Squared magnitude of the mode transfer matrix U as a function of wavelength for all spatial and polarization modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results at 1545.54nm (a) amplitude of the mode transfer matrix (U) (b) phase of the mode transfer matrix (U). (c) Transfer matrix multiplied by its complex conjugate transpose (d) singular values of the SVD of the transfer matrix.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Singular values measured for the OAM basis (single sweep) (b) Mode dependent loss as measured for each measurement basis.

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