Abstract

An Al2O3 xerogel with a distinctive microstructure is studied for the application of laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen. The xerogel has an exceptionally high porosity (up to 88%) and a large pore size (up to 3.6µm). Using the method of gas-in-scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS), a long optical path length (about 3.5m) and high enhancement factor (over 300 times) are achieved as the result of extremely strong multiple-scattering when the light is transmitted through the air-filled, hollow-sphere alumina xerogel. We investigate how the micro-physical feature influences the optical property. As part of the optical sensing system, the material’s gas exchange dynamics are also experimentally studied.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

T. Svensson, K. Vynck, M. Grisi, R. Savo, M. Burresi, D. S. Wiersma, “Holey random walks: optics of heterogeneous turbid composites,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(2), 022120 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Adolfsson, M. Burresi, R. Savo, C. T. Xu, D. S. Wiersma, S. Svanberg, “Pore size assessment based on wall collision broadening of spectral lines of confined gas: experiments on strongly scattering nanoporous ceramics with fine-tuned pore sizes,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 147–154 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, “Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy – from basic studies to biomedical applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(5), 779–796 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartmann, V. Sironneau, C. Boulet, T. Svensson, J. T. Hodges, C. T. Xu, “Collisional broadening and spectral shapes of absorption lines of free and nanopore-confined O2 gas,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 032510 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, R. Savo, E. Alerstam, K. Vynck, M. Burresi, D. S. Wiersma, “Exploiting breakdown of the similarity relation for diffuse light transport: simultaneous retrieval of scattering anisotropy and diffusion constant,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 437–439 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

E. Alerstam, T. Svensson, “Observation of anisotropic diffusion of light in compacted granular porous materials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 85(4), 040301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. T. Xu, M. Lewander, S. Andersson-Engels, E. Adolfsson, T. Svensson, S. Svanberg, “Wall-collision line broadening of molecular oxygen within nanoporous materials,” Phys. Rev. A 84(4), 042705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Adolfsson, M. Lewander, C. T. Xu, S. Svanberg, “Disordered, strongly scattering porous materials as miniature multipass gas cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 143901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

I. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, “Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 320–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Olsson, M. A. Azizi Samir, G. Salazar-Alvarez, L. Belova, V. Ström, L. A. Berglund, O. Ikkala, J. Nogués, U. W. Gedde, “Making flexible magnetic aerogels and stiff magnetic nanopaper using cellulose nanofibrils as templates,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, J. Johansson, S. Andersson-Engels, “Optical porosimetry and investigations of the porosity experienced by light interacting with porous media,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1740–1742 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Lewander, Z. G. Guan, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, T. Svensson, “Clinical system for non-invasive in situ monitoring of gases in the human paranasal sinuses,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10849–10863 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Aliev, J. Oh, M. E. Kozlov, A. A. Kuznetsov, S. Fang, A. F. Fonseca, R. Ovalle, M. D. Lima, M. H. Haque, Y. N. Gartstein, M. Zhang, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Giant-Stroke, Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles,” Science 323(5921), 1575–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, G. Maret, “Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. F. Baumann, A. E. Gash, S. C. Chinn, A. M. Sawvel, R. S. Maxwell, J. H. Stacher, “Synthesis of high-surface-area alumina aerogels without the use of alkoxide precursors,” Chem. Mater. 17(2), 395–401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mohanan, I. U. Arachchige, S. L. Brock, “Porous semiconductor chalcogenide aerogels,” Science 307(5708), 397–400 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003

2002

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2–3), 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, J. Alnis, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Concentration measurement of gas embedded in scattering media by employing absorption and time-resolved laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3538–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, R. L. Simpson, “Use of Epoxides in the Sol- Gel Synthesis of Porous Iron (III) Oxide Monoliths from Fe (III) Salts,” Chem. Mater. 13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, L. W. Hrubesh, R. L. Simpson, “New sol–gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285(1–3), 22–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Werle, “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas monitors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 54(2), 197–236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Mo, W. Y. Ching, “Electronic and optical properties of θ-Al2 O3 and comparison to α-Al2 O3,” Phys. Rev. B 57(24), 15219–15228 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390(6661), 671–673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adolfsson, E.

T. Svensson, E. Adolfsson, M. Burresi, R. Savo, C. T. Xu, D. S. Wiersma, S. Svanberg, “Pore size assessment based on wall collision broadening of spectral lines of confined gas: experiments on strongly scattering nanoporous ceramics with fine-tuned pore sizes,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 147–154 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Adolfsson, M. Lewander, C. T. Xu, S. Svanberg, “Disordered, strongly scattering porous materials as miniature multipass gas cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(14), 143901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Xu, M. Lewander, S. Andersson-Engels, E. Adolfsson, T. Svensson, S. Svanberg, “Wall-collision line broadening of molecular oxygen within nanoporous materials,” Phys. Rev. A 84(4), 042705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, C. M.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, G. Maret, “Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

af Klinteberg, C.

Alerstam, E.

Algra, R. E.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aliev, A. E.

A. E. Aliev, J. Oh, M. E. Kozlov, A. A. Kuznetsov, S. Fang, A. F. Fonseca, R. Ovalle, M. D. Lima, M. H. Haque, Y. N. Gartstein, M. Zhang, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Giant-Stroke, Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles,” Science 323(5921), 1575–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alnis, J.

Andersson, M.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

C. T. Xu, M. Lewander, S. Andersson-Engels, E. Adolfsson, T. Svensson, S. Svanberg, “Wall-collision line broadening of molecular oxygen within nanoporous materials,” Phys. Rev. A 84(4), 042705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, J. Johansson, S. Andersson-Engels, “Optical porosimetry and investigations of the porosity experienced by light interacting with porous media,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1740–1742 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Somesfalean, M. Sjöholm, J. Alnis, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Concentration measurement of gas embedded in scattering media by employing absorption and time-resolved laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3538–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arachchige, I. U.

J. L. Mohanan, I. U. Arachchige, S. L. Brock, “Porous semiconductor chalcogenide aerogels,” Science 307(5708), 397–400 (2005).
[PubMed]

Azizi Samir, M. A.

R. T. Olsson, M. A. Azizi Samir, G. Salazar-Alvarez, L. Belova, V. Ström, L. A. Berglund, O. Ikkala, J. Nogués, U. W. Gedde, “Making flexible magnetic aerogels and stiff magnetic nanopaper using cellulose nanofibrils as templates,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakkers, E. P.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartolini, P.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, “Localization of light in a disordered medium,” Nature 390(6661), 671–673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

A. E. Aliev, J. Oh, M. E. Kozlov, A. A. Kuznetsov, S. Fang, A. F. Fonseca, R. Ovalle, M. D. Lima, M. H. Haque, Y. N. Gartstein, M. Zhang, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Giant-Stroke, Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles,” Science 323(5921), 1575–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, T. F.

T. F. Baumann, A. E. Gash, S. C. Chinn, A. M. Sawvel, R. S. Maxwell, J. H. Stacher, “Synthesis of high-surface-area alumina aerogels without the use of alkoxide precursors,” Chem. Mater. 17(2), 395–401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belova, L.

R. T. Olsson, M. A. Azizi Samir, G. Salazar-Alvarez, L. Belova, V. Ström, L. A. Berglund, O. Ikkala, J. Nogués, U. W. Gedde, “Making flexible magnetic aerogels and stiff magnetic nanopaper using cellulose nanofibrils as templates,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, L. A.

R. T. Olsson, M. A. Azizi Samir, G. Salazar-Alvarez, L. Belova, V. Ström, L. A. Berglund, O. Ikkala, J. Nogués, U. W. Gedde, “Making flexible magnetic aerogels and stiff magnetic nanopaper using cellulose nanofibrils as templates,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boulet, C.

J. M. Hartmann, V. Sironneau, C. Boulet, T. Svensson, J. T. Hodges, C. T. Xu, “Collisional broadening and spectral shapes of absorption lines of free and nanopore-confined O2 gas,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 032510 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brock, S. L.

J. L. Mohanan, I. U. Arachchige, S. L. Brock, “Porous semiconductor chalcogenide aerogels,” Science 307(5708), 397–400 (2005).
[PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burresi, M.

T. Svensson, K. Vynck, M. Grisi, R. Savo, M. Burresi, D. S. Wiersma, “Holey random walks: optics of heterogeneous turbid composites,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(2), 022120 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Adolfsson, M. Burresi, R. Savo, C. T. Xu, D. S. Wiersma, S. Svanberg, “Pore size assessment based on wall collision broadening of spectral lines of confined gas: experiments on strongly scattering nanoporous ceramics with fine-tuned pore sizes,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 147–154 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Svensson, R. Savo, E. Alerstam, K. Vynck, M. Burresi, D. S. Wiersma, “Exploiting breakdown of the similarity relation for diffuse light transport: simultaneous retrieval of scattering anisotropy and diffusion constant,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 437–439 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ching, W. Y.

S. D. Mo, W. Y. Ching, “Electronic and optical properties of θ-Al2 O3 and comparison to α-Al2 O3,” Phys. Rev. B 57(24), 15219–15228 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. C.

T. F. Baumann, A. E. Gash, S. C. Chinn, A. M. Sawvel, R. S. Maxwell, J. H. Stacher, “Synthesis of high-surface-area alumina aerogels without the use of alkoxide precursors,” Chem. Mater. 17(2), 395–401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, V.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2–3), 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, S.

A. E. Aliev, J. Oh, M. E. Kozlov, A. A. Kuznetsov, S. Fang, A. F. Fonseca, R. Ovalle, M. D. Lima, M. H. Haque, Y. N. Gartstein, M. Zhang, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Giant-Stroke, Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles,” Science 323(5921), 1575–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernholz, T.

T. Fernholz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, “Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode-laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2–3), 229–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Folestad, S.

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 345–354 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fonseca, A. F.

A. E. Aliev, J. Oh, M. E. Kozlov, A. A. Kuznetsov, S. Fang, A. F. Fonseca, R. Ovalle, M. D. Lima, M. H. Haque, Y. N. Gartstein, M. Zhang, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Giant-Stroke, Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles,” Science 323(5921), 1575–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gartstein, Y. N.

A. E. Aliev, J. Oh, M. E. Kozlov, A. A. Kuznetsov, S. Fang, A. F. Fonseca, R. Ovalle, M. D. Lima, M. H. Haque, Y. N. Gartstein, M. Zhang, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Giant-Stroke, Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles,” Science 323(5921), 1575–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gash, A. E.

T. F. Baumann, A. E. Gash, S. C. Chinn, A. M. Sawvel, R. S. Maxwell, J. H. Stacher, “Synthesis of high-surface-area alumina aerogels without the use of alkoxide precursors,” Chem. Mater. 17(2), 395–401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, L. W. Hrubesh, R. L. Simpson, “New sol–gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285(1–3), 22–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, R. L. Simpson, “Use of Epoxides in the Sol- Gel Synthesis of Porous Iron (III) Oxide Monoliths from Fe (III) Salts,” Chem. Mater. 13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gedde, U. W.

R. T. Olsson, M. A. Azizi Samir, G. Salazar-Alvarez, L. Belova, V. Ström, L. A. Berglund, O. Ikkala, J. Nogués, U. W. Gedde, “Making flexible magnetic aerogels and stiff magnetic nanopaper using cellulose nanofibrils as templates,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grisi, M.

T. Svensson, K. Vynck, M. Grisi, R. Savo, M. Burresi, D. S. Wiersma, “Holey random walks: optics of heterogeneous turbid composites,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 87(2), 022120 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, P.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, G. Maret, “Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, Z. G.

Haque, M. H.

A. E. Aliev, J. Oh, M. E. Kozlov, A. A. Kuznetsov, S. Fang, A. F. Fonseca, R. Ovalle, M. D. Lima, M. H. Haque, Y. N. Gartstein, M. Zhang, A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, “Giant-Stroke, Superelastic Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Muscles,” Science 323(5921), 1575–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J. M.

J. M. Hartmann, V. Sironneau, C. Boulet, T. Svensson, J. T. Hodges, C. T. Xu, “Collisional broadening and spectral shapes of absorption lines of free and nanopore-confined O2 gas,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 032510 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, J. T.

J. M. Hartmann, V. Sironneau, C. Boulet, T. Svensson, J. T. Hodges, C. T. Xu, “Collisional broadening and spectral shapes of absorption lines of free and nanopore-confined O2 gas,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 032510 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hrubesh, L. W.

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, J. F. Poco, L. W. Hrubesh, R. L. Simpson, “Use of Epoxides in the Sol- Gel Synthesis of Porous Iron (III) Oxide Monoliths from Fe (III) Salts,” Chem. Mater. 13(3), 999–1007 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Gash, T. M. Tillotson, J. H. Satcher, L. W. Hrubesh, R. L. Simpson, “New sol–gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285(1–3), 22–28 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ikkala, O.

R. T. Olsson, M. A. Azizi Samir, G. Salazar-Alvarez, L. Belova, V. Ström, L. A. Berglund, O. Ikkala, J. Nogués, U. W. Gedde, “Making flexible magnetic aerogels and stiff magnetic nanopaper using cellulose nanofibrils as templates,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 584–588 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, J.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, J. Johansson, S. Andersson-Engels, “Optical porosimetry and investigations of the porosity experienced by light interacting with porous media,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1740–1742 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, M. Andersson, L. Rippe, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Folestad, “VCSEL-based oxygen spectroscopy for structural analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 345–354 (2008).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the Al2O3 hollow sphere in xerogel when illumined by a 760 nm red light. (b) SEM image of an Al2O3 hollow sphere xerogel which heat-treated at 1200°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the TDLAS-WMS experimental setup, in which the rectangular dotted parts are controlled with a LabView program.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The SEM image of an Al2O3 hollow sphere xerogel which was (a) dried at room temperature, and (b) heat-treated at 1400°C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the hollow sphere xerogel’s microstructure, and how this hollow porous media greatly increase photon path lengths in air.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XRD patterns of alumina gels with different heat treatment temperatures. The horizontal coordinate θ refers to the Bragg angle, and Cps (counts per second) corresponds to intensity. According to the position and shape of the peaks, the crystalline phase of gels exhibits γ-AlOOH when as-dried, γ-Al2O3 from 600 to 800°C, unstable transient state (γ&θ) at 1000°C, θ-Al2O3 at 1200°C, and α-Al2O3 from 1400°C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity-corrected second-harmonic component of the WMS spectra for the R11Q12 line of ambient oxygen in different samples, and the reference (dashed black) is measured along a 1.5 m long path in ambient air.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Plot of the normalized path length enhancement corresponding to oxygen absorption measured through alumina hollow sphere xerogel with various heat treatment temperatures, and (b) the resultant fitting multi-exponential curve of enhancement for various average pore diameters.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The gas exchange performance of the xerogel sample. Each data point was acquired after 10 consecutive scans (2 s average time). The sample was covered by a plastic bag. Nitrogen flushing started at 40s, and was aborted at 100s. The bag was then removed, and air reinvaded the sample at 100s. The nonzero level of Leq was mainly caused by residual O2 in the bag.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of structural properties and path length enhancement: material thickness (s), average pore diameter (d), porosity (ϕ), crystalline phase, detected transmission of light (T), equivalent mean path length (Leq), path length enhancement (N = L/s), and normalized path length enhancement (N* = N/s).

Equations (2)

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A n ( ω L )= I 0 2 1n NL n! δ ω n d n σ d ω n | ω= ω L
{ N= L s s ( L s 2 ) N * = N s ( irrelevant to s )

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