Abstract

We identify that the stimulated emission of GaN laser diodes (LDs) emerges far below the traditionally recognized threshold from both optical and electrical experiments. Below the threshold, the linear-polarized stimulated emission has been the dominating part of overall emission and closely related to resonant cavity. Its intensity increases super linearly with current while that of spontaneous emission increases almost linearly. Moreover, the separation of quasi-Fermi levels of electrons and holes across the active region has already exceeded the photon emission energy, namely, realized the population-inversion.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).
  27. S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. O. Brandt, P. Misra, T. Flissikowski, H. T. Grahn, “Excitation polarization anisotropy of the spontaneous emission from an M-plane GaN film: Competition between hole relaxation and exciton recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165308 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Flissikowski, K. Omae, P. Misra, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, “Ultrafast behavior of the polarization filtering in anisotropically strained M-plane GaN films: A time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(8), 085323 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013

Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, K. Torii, H. Yoshida, “A 340-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode composed of GaN well layers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3133–3137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Brandt, P. Misra, T. Flissikowski, H. T. Grahn, “Excitation polarization anisotropy of the spontaneous emission from an M-plane GaN film: Competition between hole relaxation and exciton recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. D. Jang, D. M. Shin, J. H. Kim, D. Lee, Y. H. Choi, M. S. Noh, K. J. Yee, “Estimation of relative defect densities in InGaN laser diodes by induced absorption of photoexcited carriers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27136–27141 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Khan, “Semiconductor photonics: Laser diodes go green,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 432–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, “510–515 nm InGaN-Based Green Laser Diodes on c -Plane GaN Substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, U. Strauß, “InGaN laser diodes with 50 mW output power emitting at 515 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).

2006

T. Flissikowski, K. Omae, P. Misra, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, “Ultrafast behavior of the polarization filtering in anisotropically strained M-plane GaN films: A time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(8), 085323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Sasaoka, K. Fukuda, M. Ohya, K. Shiba, M. Sumino, S. Kohmoto, K. Naniwae, M. Matsudate, E. Mizuki, I. Masumoto, R. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Sasaki, K. Nishi, “Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(7), 1824–1828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. D. Wang, C. Y. Zhu, G. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, L. Li, “Accurate electrical characterization of forward AC behavior of real semiconductor diode: giant negative capacitance and nonlinear interfacial layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(4), 1145–1148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in ingan-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, “High-power InGaN-based blue laser diodes with a long lifetime,” J. Cryst. Growth 195(1-4), 242–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1976

P. Barnes, T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(10), 633–639 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Paoli, P. Barnes, “Saturation of the junction voltage in stripe-geometry (AlGa)As double-heterostructure junction lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(12), 714 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avramescu, A.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, U. Strauß, “InGaN laser diodes with 50 mW output power emitting at 515 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, P.

P. Barnes, T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(10), 633–639 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Paoli, P. Barnes, “Saturation of the junction voltage in stripe-geometry (AlGa)As double-heterostructure junction lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(12), 714 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bockowski, M.

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

O. Brandt, P. Misra, T. Flissikowski, H. T. Grahn, “Excitation polarization anisotropy of the spontaneous emission from an M-plane GaN film: Competition between hole relaxation and exciton recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Flissikowski, K. Omae, P. Misra, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, “Ultrafast behavior of the polarization filtering in anisotropically strained M-plane GaN films: A time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(8), 085323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braun, H.

Brinkley, S. E.

S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brüninghoff, S.

Carlin, J. F.

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Castiglia, A.

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chae, J. H.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chae, S. H.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. H.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. K.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. H.

Cohen, D.

S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cong, H. X.

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cosendey, G.

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Czernecki, R.

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).

Detchprohm, T.

T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dorsaz, J.

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, W.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Du, W. M.

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duelk, M.

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Enya, Y.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).

Feltin, E.

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L. F.

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flissikowski, T.

O. Brandt, P. Misra, T. Flissikowski, H. T. Grahn, “Excitation polarization anisotropy of the spontaneous emission from an M-plane GaN film: Competition between hole relaxation and exciton recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Flissikowski, K. Omae, P. Misra, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, “Ultrafast behavior of the polarization filtering in anisotropically strained M-plane GaN films: A time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(8), 085323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).

Fukuda, K.

C. Sasaoka, K. Fukuda, M. Ohya, K. Shiba, M. Sumino, S. Kohmoto, K. Naniwae, M. Matsudate, E. Mizuki, I. Masumoto, R. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Sasaki, K. Nishi, “Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(7), 1824–1828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

Fuutagawa, N.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

O. Brandt, P. Misra, T. Flissikowski, H. T. Grahn, “Excitation polarization anisotropy of the spontaneous emission from an M-plane GaN film: Competition between hole relaxation and exciton recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Flissikowski, K. Omae, P. Misra, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, “Ultrafast behavior of the polarization filtering in anisotropically strained M-plane GaN films: A time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(8), 085323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K. H.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, D.

T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, J.

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Holc, K.

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. D.

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, Y. D.

Katayama, K.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

Khan, A.

A. Khan, “Semiconductor photonics: Laser diodes go green,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 432–434 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

Kim, H. G.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Kim, K. C.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).

Kim, Y. H.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, R.

C. Sasaoka, K. Fukuda, M. Ohya, K. Shiba, M. Sumino, S. Kohmoto, K. Naniwae, M. Matsudate, E. Mizuki, I. Masumoto, R. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Sasaki, K. Nishi, “Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(7), 1824–1828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kohmoto, S.

C. Sasaoka, K. Fukuda, M. Ohya, K. Shiba, M. Sumino, S. Kohmoto, K. Naniwae, M. Matsudate, E. Mizuki, I. Masumoto, R. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Sasaki, K. Nishi, “Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(7), 1824–1828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, K.

Kozaki, T.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, “510–515 nm InGaN-Based Green Laser Diodes on c -Plane GaN Substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kudo, K.

C. Sasaoka, K. Fukuda, M. Ohya, K. Shiba, M. Sumino, S. Kohmoto, K. Naniwae, M. Matsudate, E. Mizuki, I. Masumoto, R. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Sasaki, K. Nishi, “Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(7), 1824–1828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumano, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.

S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, M.

Kyono, T.

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laino, V.

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

Lee, S. N.

O. H. Nam, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, S. N. Lee, T. H. Chang, K. K. Choi, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, “High power AlInGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 6133, 61330N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lell, A.

Lermer, T.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, U. Strauß, “InGaN laser diodes with 50 mW output power emitting at 515 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Wang, C. Y. Zhu, G. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, L. Li, “Accurate electrical characterization of forward AC behavior of real semiconductor diode: giant negative capacitance and nonlinear interfacial layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(4), 1145–1148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. F.

T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. D.

S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ling, S.

S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. Z.

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.

S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lutgen, S.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, U. Strauß, “InGaN laser diodes with 50 mW output power emitting at 515 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Meyer, H. Braun, U. T. Schwarz, S. Tautz, M. Schillgalies, S. Lutgen, U. Strauss, “Spectral dynamics of 405 nm (Al,In)GaN laser diodes grown on GaN and SiC substrate,” Opt. Express 16(10), 6833–6845 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marona, L.

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masui, S.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, “510–515 nm InGaN-Based Green Laser Diodes on c -Plane GaN Substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, I.

C. Sasaoka, K. Fukuda, M. Ohya, K. Shiba, M. Sumino, S. Kohmoto, K. Naniwae, M. Matsudate, E. Mizuki, I. Masumoto, R. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Sasaki, K. Nishi, “Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(7), 1824–1828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsudate, M.

C. Sasaoka, K. Fukuda, M. Ohya, K. Shiba, M. Sumino, S. Kohmoto, K. Naniwae, M. Matsudate, E. Mizuki, I. Masumoto, R. Kobayashi, K. Kudo, T. Sasaki, K. Nishi, “Over 1000 mW single mode operation of planar inner stripe blue-violet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(7), 1824–1828 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T.

Misra, P.

O. Brandt, P. Misra, T. Flissikowski, H. T. Grahn, “Excitation polarization anisotropy of the spontaneous emission from an M-plane GaN film: Competition between hole relaxation and exciton recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 165308 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Flissikowski, K. Omae, P. Misra, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, “Ultrafast behavior of the polarization filtering in anisotropically strained M-plane GaN films: A time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(8), 085323 (2006).
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C. D. Wang, C. Y. Zhu, G. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, L. Li, “Accurate electrical characterization of forward AC behavior of real semiconductor diode: giant negative capacitance and nonlinear interfacial layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(4), 1145–1148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).

Xie, X. S.

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Yanamoto, T.

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, “510–515 nm InGaN-Based Green Laser Diodes on c -Plane GaN Substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. J.

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Yoshida, H.

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S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Wang, C. Y. Zhu, G. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, L. Li, “Accurate electrical characterization of forward AC behavior of real semiconductor diode: giant negative capacitance and nonlinear interfacial layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(4), 1145–1148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C. Y.

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Wang, C. Y. Zhu, G. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, L. Li, “Accurate electrical characterization of forward AC behavior of real semiconductor diode: giant negative capacitance and nonlinear interfacial layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(4), 1145–1148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M. W.

T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

S. Takagi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, M. Adachi, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Sumitomo, Y. Yamanaka, T. Kumano, S. Tokuyama, K. Sumiyoshi, N. Saga, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, K. Yanashima, H. Nakajima, K. Tasai, K. Naganuma, N. Fuutagawa, Y. Takiguchi, T. Hamaguchi, M. Ikeda, “High-power (over 100 mW) green laser diodes on semipolar {20(2)over-bar1} GaN substrates operating at wavelengths beyond 530 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyoshi, S. Masui, T. Okada, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, T. Mukai, “510–515 nm InGaN-Based Green Laser Diodes on c -Plane GaN Substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, S. Tautz, D. Queren, S. Lutgen, U. Strauß, “InGaN laser diodes with 50 mW output power emitting at 515 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071103 (2009).
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W. Yang, D. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. Wan, W. Chen, X. Hu, W. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, W. Yang, L. F. Feng, P. W. Roth, J. He, W. M. Du, Z. J. Yang, C. D. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, X. D. Hu, “Stimulated emission related anomalous change of electrical parameters at threshold in GaN-based laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 0123501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Feltin, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, L. Sulmoni, J. F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Rossetti, J. Dorsaz, V. Laino, M. Duelk, C. Velez, “Broadband blue superluminescent light-emitting diodes based on GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ling, T. Lu, S. Chang, J. Chen, H. Kuo, S. Wang, “Low efficiency droop in blue-green m-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Brinkley, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, N. Pfaff, D. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Barnes, T. Paoli, “Derivative measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of double-heterostructure injection lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(10), 633–639 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

C. D. Wang, C. Y. Zhu, G. Y. Zhang, J. Shen, L. Li, “Accurate electrical characterization of forward AC behavior of real semiconductor diode: giant negative capacitance and nonlinear interfacial layer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(4), 1145–1148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, X. S. Xie, C. Z. Lu, “Simultaneous sudden changes of electrical behavior at the threshold in laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 063102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Feng, D. Li, C. Y. Zhu, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, W. M. Du, “Deep saturation of junction voltage at large forward current of light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(9), 094511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Holc, Ł. Marona, R. Czernecki, M. Boćkowski, T. Suski, S. Najda, P. Perlin, “Temperature dependence of superluminescence in InGaN-based superluminescent light emitting diode structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(1), 013110 (2010).
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H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(22), 225104 (2008).
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T. Detchprohm, M. W. Zhu, S. You, Y. F. Li, L. Zhao, E. A. Preble, T. Paskova, D. Hanser, C. Wetzel, “Cyan and green light emitting diode on non-polar m-plane GaN bulk substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7-8), 2190–2192 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Improved electroluminescence on nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi-Rapid Res. Lett. 1, 125 (2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of the optical measurement setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dependence of the separation of the quasi-Fermi levels of electron and holes across active region V j (solid line) and series resistance r s (dashed line) of the sample on the injected current. (b) Corresponding first (solid line) and second derivative (dashed line) of the optical output power. The two kink points of the first derivatives correspond to I th l and I th u , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The spectra collected along cavity exhibited two types of polarity. The combination (dot dash) of spectra at θ = 90° (dash) and at θ = 0° (with attenuation of cos278° about 4.3%, dot) is identical to the one recorded at θ = 78° (solid). The one with lower energy is dominate emission when injection below the threshold. (a) at 3mA and (b) at 10 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dependance of the optical power as a function of the current. The slope values of for θ = 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60° are larger than the linear increase one for θ = 90°, exhibiting the property of super-linear increase. (b) The dominate emission is linear-polarized as the power ratios R s θ = ( P θ P min ) / ( P max P min ) are almost coincident with relation R s θ = cos 2 θ when Glan lens set at the angle of θ = 30°, 45° and 60° to transverse electrical mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The linear-polarized stimulated emission is strongly weakened after cavity damage and comparable to spontaneous emission (inset), causing the output power no longer super-linearly increased with current.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The separation of quasi-Fermi levels of electrons and holes across the active region has already realized the population-inversion, namely, E f c E f v > h v . Stimulated emissions may occur far below the threshold in GaN-based LDs.

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