Abstract

Quantum emitters such as NV-centers or quantum dots can be used as single-photon sources. To improve their performance, they can be coupled to microcavities or nano-antennas. Plasmonic antennas offer an appealing solution as they can be used with broadband emitters. When properly designed, these antennas funnel light into useful modes, increasing the emission rate and the collection of single-photons. Yet, their inherent metallic losses are responsible for very low radiative efficiencies. Here, we introduce a new design of directional, metallo-dielectric, optical antennas with a Purcell factor of 150, a total efficiency of 74% and a collection efficiency of emitted photons of 99%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, A. Maitre, “Controlling spontaneous emission with plasmonic optical patch antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, I. S. Maksymov, P. Lalanne, “Theory of the spontaneous optical emission of nanosize photonic and plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 237401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Malheiros-Silveira, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, “Dielectric resonator antenna for applications in nanophotonics,” Opt. Express 21, 1234–1239 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, C. M. Shah, A. Mitchell, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, C. Fumeaux, “Dielectric resonator nanoantennas at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 21, 1344–1352 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Boosting the directivity of optical antennas with magnetic and electric dipolar resonant particles,” Opt. Express 20, 20376–20386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Quantum plasmonics circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1781–1791 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, B. Hecht, “Evolutionary optimization of optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 127701 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Derom, R. Vincent, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, “Resonance quality, radiative/ohmic losses and modal volume of Mie plasmons,” Europhys. Lett. 98, 47008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, C. L. Yu, D. E. Englund, A. V. Akimov, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Tailoring light-matter interaction with a nanoscale plasmon resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-W. Chen, M. Agio, V. Sandoghdar, “Metallodielectric hybrid antennas for ultrastrong enhancement of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Busson, B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, S. Bidault, “Accelerated single-photon emission from dye molecule-driven nanoantennas assembled on DNA,” Nat. Commun. 3, 962 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

L. Novotny, N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332, 702–704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Burlu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-W. Chen, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “99% Efficiency in collecting photons from a single emitter,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3545–3547 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljkovic, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, M. Kall, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Jun, R. Pala, M. L. Brongersma, “Strong modification of quantum dot spontaneous emission via gap plasmon coupling in metal nanoslits,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 7269–7273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Koenderink, “On the use of purcell factors for plasmon antennas,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4208–4210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J.-P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. P. Hoogenboom, G. Sanchez-Mosteiro, G. Colas des Francs, D. Heinis, G. Legay, A. Dereux, N. F. van Hulst, “The single molecule probe: nanoscale vectorial mapping of photonic mode density in a metal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9, 1189–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single-photon and single-plasmon sources,” Nano Lett. 9, 4228–4233 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Hryciw, Y. C. Jun, M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmon enhanced emission from optically-doped MOS light sources,” Opt. Express 17, 185–192 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Jun, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, M. L. Brongersma, “Broadband enhancement of light emission in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 7479–7490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Armaroli, A. Morand, P. Benech, G. Bellanca, S. Trillo, “Three-dimensional analysis of cylindrical microresonators based on the aperiodic Fourier modal method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 667–675 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” New J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Li, A. Salandrino, N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Kühn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

B. Lounis, M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-J. Greffet, “Nanoantennas for light emission,” Science 308, 1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, “Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: application to bicolor microarrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics: comeback of light in microscopy,” Solid State Phenomena, 63–64, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

R. K. Mongia, P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas - A review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Mill. 4, 230–247 (1994).

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W. Lukosz, R. E. Kunz, “Light emission by magnetic and electric dipoles close to a plane interface. I. total radiated power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 67, 1607–1615 (1977).

1975 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. H. Miller, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces: the complete and quantitative description of the Eu+3/mirror systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1589–1595 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Agio, M.

X.-W. Chen, M. Agio, V. Sandoghdar, “Metallodielectric hybrid antennas for ultrastrong enhancement of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, A. V.

N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, C. L. Yu, D. E. Englund, A. V. Akimov, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Tailoring light-matter interaction with a nanoscale plasmon resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armaroli, A.

Atwater, H. A.

Babinec, T. M.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Burlu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bao, K.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljkovic, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, M. Kall, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazin, M.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Belacel, C.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, A. Maitre, “Controlling spontaneous emission with plasmonic optical patch antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[PubMed]

Bellanca, G.

Benech, P.

Benisty, H.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, “Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: application to bicolor microarrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Besbes, M.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J.-P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beveratos, A.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J.-P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P.

R. K. Mongia, P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas - A review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Mill. 4, 230–247 (1994).

Bhaskaran, M.

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bidault, S.

M. P. Busson, B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, S. Bidault, “Accelerated single-photon emission from dye molecule-driven nanoantennas assembled on DNA,” Nat. Commun. 3, 962 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bigourdan, F.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, A. Maitre, “Controlling spontaneous emission with plasmonic optical patch antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[PubMed]

Bleuse, J.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Boosting the directivity of optical antennas with magnetic and electric dipolar resonant particles,” Opt. Express 20, 20376–20386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Busson, B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, S. Bidault, “Accelerated single-photon emission from dye molecule-driven nanoantennas assembled on DNA,” Nat. Commun. 3, 962 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

S. Derom, R. Vincent, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, “Resonance quality, radiative/ohmic losses and modal volume of Mie plasmons,” Europhys. Lett. 98, 47008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A. H.

R. R. Chance, A. H. Miller, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces: the complete and quantitative description of the Eu+3/mirror systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1589–1595 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

Mongia, R. K.

R. K. Mongia, P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas - A review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Mill. 4, 230–247 (1994).

Morand, A.

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelep, C.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, “Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: application to bicolor microarrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332, 702–704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljkovic, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, M. Kall, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

Orrit, M.

B. Lounis, M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pala, R.

Y. C. Jun, R. Pala, M. L. Brongersma, “Strong modification of quantum dot spontaneous emission via gap plasmon coupling in metal nanoslits,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 7269–7273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E.

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Park, H.

N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Quantum plasmonics circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1781–1791 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, C. L. Yu, D. E. Englund, A. V. Akimov, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Tailoring light-matter interaction with a nanoscale plasmon resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics: comeback of light in microscopy,” Solid State Phenomena, 63–64, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics seen as an antenna problem,” in Near-Field Optics - Principles and Applications: The Second Asia-Pacific Workshop on Near-Field Optics, X. Zhu, M. Ohtsu, eds. (World Scientific, 2000), pp. 9–21.
[CrossRef]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. H. Miller, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces: the complete and quantitative description of the Eu+3/mirror systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1589–1595 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renn, A.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reymond, G. O.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, “Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: application to bicolor microarrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robert-Philip, I.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J.-P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rogobete, L.

S. Kühn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolly, B.

M. P. Busson, B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, S. Bidault, “Accelerated single-photon emission from dye molecule-driven nanoantennas assembled on DNA,” Nat. Commun. 3, 962 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Boosting the directivity of optical antennas with magnetic and electric dipolar resonant particles,” Opt. Express 20, 20376–20386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sagnes, I.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J.-P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Mosteiro, G.

J. P. Hoogenboom, G. Sanchez-Mosteiro, G. Colas des Francs, D. Heinis, G. Legay, A. Dereux, N. F. van Hulst, “The single molecule probe: nanoscale vectorial mapping of photonic mode density in a metal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9, 1189–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

X.-W. Chen, M. Agio, V. Sandoghdar, “Metallodielectric hybrid antennas for ultrastrong enhancement of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-W. Chen, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “99% Efficiency in collecting photons from a single emitter,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3545–3547 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauvan, C.

C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, I. S. Maksymov, P. Lalanne, “Theory of the spontaneous optical emission of nanosize photonic and plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 237401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwob, C.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, A. Maitre, “Controlling spontaneous emission with plasmonic optical patch antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Selig, O.

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, B. Hecht, “Evolutionary optimization of optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 127701 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senellart, P.

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, A. Maitre, “Controlling spontaneous emission with plasmonic optical patch antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[PubMed]

Shah, C. M.

Shegai, T.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljkovic, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, M. Kall, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, B. J.

N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, C. L. Yu, D. E. Englund, A. V. Akimov, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Tailoring light-matter interaction with a nanoscale plasmon resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. H. Miller, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces: the complete and quantitative description of the Eu+3/mirror systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1589–1595 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Sobhani, H.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332, 702–704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sriram, S.

Stefani, F. D.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” New J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stout, B.

B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Boosting the directivity of optical antennas with magnetic and electric dipolar resonant particles,” Opt. Express 20, 20376–20386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Busson, B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, S. Bidault, “Accelerated single-photon emission from dye molecule-driven nanoantennas assembled on DNA,” Nat. Commun. 3, 962 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” New J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teperik, T. V.

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trillo, S.

Vallet, F.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, “Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: application to bicolor microarrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

L. Novotny, N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Hoogenboom, G. Sanchez-Mosteiro, G. Colas des Francs, D. Heinis, G. Legay, A. Dereux, N. F. van Hulst, “The single molecule probe: nanoscale vectorial mapping of photonic mode density in a metal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9, 1189–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” New J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R.

S. Derom, R. Vincent, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, “Resonance quality, radiative/ohmic losses and modal volume of Mie plasmons,” Europhys. Lett. 98, 47008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, “Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: application to bicolor microarrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Withayachumnankul, W.

Xu, H.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljkovic, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, M. Kall, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yacoby, A.

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Burlu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J.-P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. L.

N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, C. L. Yu, D. E. Englund, A. V. Akimov, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Tailoring light-matter interaction with a nanoscale plasmon resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, L.

ACS Nano (1)

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4, 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Choumane, N. Ha, C. Nelep, A. Chardon, G. O. Reymond, C. Goutel, G. Cerovic, F. Vallet, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, “Double interference fluorescence enhancement from reflective slides: application to bicolor microarrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

S. Derom, R. Vincent, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, “Resonance quality, radiative/ohmic losses and modal volume of Mie plasmons,” Europhys. Lett. 98, 47008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Quantum plasmonics circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1781–1791 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Microwave Mill. (1)

R. K. Mongia, P. Bhartia, “Dielectric resonator antennas - A review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth,” Int. J. Microwave Mill. 4, 230–247 (1994).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. H. Miller, A. Prock, R. Silbey, “Fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces: the complete and quantitative description of the Eu+3/mirror systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1589–1595 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Y. C. Jun, R. Pala, M. L. Brongersma, “Strong modification of quantum dot spontaneous emission via gap plasmon coupling in metal nanoslits,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 7269–7273 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljkovic, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, M. Kall, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11, 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmon nanoparticle array waveguides for single-photon and single-plasmon sources,” Nano Lett. 9, 4228–4233 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Belacel, B. Habert, F. Bigourdan, F. Marquier, J.-P. Hugonin, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, X. Lafosse, L. Coolen, C. Schwob, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, J.-J. Greffet, P. Senellart, A. Maitre, “Controlling spontaneous emission with plasmonic optical patch antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1516–1521 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. P. Hoogenboom, G. Sanchez-Mosteiro, G. Colas des Francs, D. Heinis, G. Legay, A. Dereux, N. F. van Hulst, “The single molecule probe: nanoscale vectorial mapping of photonic mode density in a metal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 9, 1189–1195 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. P. Busson, B. Rolly, B. Stout, N. Bonod, S. Bidault, “Accelerated single-photon emission from dye molecule-driven nanoantennas assembled on DNA,” Nat. Commun. 3, 962 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (5)

L. Novotny, N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2, 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, S. Götzinger, “A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 166–169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Choy, B. J. M. Hausmann, T. M. Babinec, I. Burlu, M. Khan, P. Maletinsky, A. Yacoby, M. Loncar, “Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond silver aperture,” Nat. Photonics 5, 738–743 (2011).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” New J. Phys. 10, 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Y. C. Jun, R. D. Kekatpure, J. S. White, M. L. Brongersma, “Nonresonant enhancement of spontaneous emission in metal-dielectric-metal plasmon waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, A. Salandrino, N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

R. Esteban, T. V. Teperik, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical patch antennas for single photon emission using surface plasmon resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 026802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sauvan, J. P. Hugonin, I. S. Maksymov, P. Lalanne, “Theory of the spontaneous optical emission of nanosize photonic and plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 237401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Feichtner, O. Selig, M. Kiunke, B. Hecht, “Evolutionary optimization of optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 127701 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. de Leon, B. J. Shields, C. L. Yu, D. E. Englund, A. V. Akimov, M. D. Lukin, H. Park, “Tailoring light-matter interaction with a nanoscale plasmon resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 226803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-W. Chen, M. Agio, V. Sandoghdar, “Metallodielectric hybrid antennas for ultrastrong enhancement of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233001 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, M. Besbes, J.-P. Hugonin, J. Yang, A. Beveratos, I. Sagnes, I. Robert-Philip, P. Lalanne, “Metal-coated nanocylinder cavity for broadband nonclassical light emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühn, U. Hakanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lounis, M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332, 702–704 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-J. Greffet, “Nanoantennas for light emission,” Science 308, 1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Phenomena (1)

D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics: comeback of light in microscopy,” Solid State Phenomena, 63–64, 251–256 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. W. Pohl, “Near-field optics seen as an antenna problem,” in Near-Field Optics - Principles and Applications: The Second Asia-Pacific Workshop on Near-Field Optics, X. Zhu, M. Ohtsu, eds. (World Scientific, 2000), pp. 9–21.
[CrossRef]

J. H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (The University of Michigan, 1975).

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the systems discussed. (a) Metallic patch antenna: a dipole source (red arrow) is embedded in the middle of a thin silica layer, sandwiched between a gold substrate and a centered, thin gold disk. The whole system is located in vacuum. The dipole is linearly polarized perpendicularly to the patch. (b) Metallic patch - dielectric resonator antenna: a high-refractive-index cylinder is added on top of the metallic patch antenna to increase the radiation efficiency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical results for a patch antenna (see Fig. 1(a)) with a 30 nm-thick silica layer and a 38 nm-thick gold disk of varying diameter. The dipole is polarized perpendicularly to the patch. (a) Decay rate of a dipole coupled with the patch antenna normalized by the decay rate of a dipole in bulk silica. Results are calculated at an emission wavelength of 1.55 μm. (b) Radiative efficiency of a dipole coupled with the patch antenna at an emission wavelength of 1.55 μm (blue) and 0.63 μm (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of a high refractive index. A dipole polarized along the normal is located in the middle of the 30 nm-thick silica layer. (a) The silica layer is covered with a dielectric half-space. (d) The silica layer is covered with a 38 nm-thick gold film and a dielectric half-space. (b),(e) Decay rate of a dipole in a stratified system normalized by the decay rate of a dipole in a bulk of silica. (c),(f) Radiative efficiency of the dipole.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated vertical cross-section of the intensity of the total electric field inside the optimized Metallic Patch - Dielectric Resonator Antenna (see Fig. 1(c)). The calculation is performed at an emission wavelength of 1.55 μm. The white-dashed lines depict each stages of the antenna. The intensity is saturated and normalized by the maximum obtained.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerical results for the optimized Metallic Patch - Dielectric Resonator Antenna (MP-DRA, see 1(c)) with respect to the off-centering of the dipole. Calculations are performed at an emission wavelength of 1.55 μm. (a) Decay rate of a dipole coupled with the MP-DRA normalized by the decay rate of a dipole in a bulk of silica. (b) Total efficiency of a dipole coupled with the MP-DRA for a collection with a numerical aperture of 0.85.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculations are performed at λ = 1.55 μm. (a) (Dark blue) Calculated radiation pattern of the optimized MP-DRA with a centered dipole, normalized by its maximum value. The fair blue-dashed lines correspond to the angle of collection for an objective with NA=0.85. (b) Calculated radiation pattern of the MP-DRA with a 140 nm-laterally-off-centered dipole, in the off-centering plane (dark blue) and in the plane perpendicular to the off-centering plane (pink). Values are normalized by the maximum of the whole radiation pattern. The fair blue-dashed lines correspond to the angle of collection for an objective with NA=0.85.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Numerical results for the optimized MP-DRA with respect to the emission wavelength. (a) Decay rate of a dipole coupled with the MP-DRA normalized by the decay rate of a dipole in a bulk of silica. (b) Total efficiency of a dipole coupled with the MP-DRA for a collection with a numerical aperture of 0.85.

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