Abstract

Low insertion-loss single-layer and bilayer metamaterial filters in terahertz (THz) frequency regime were demonstrated on top of low cost flexible Scotch tape by utilizing pattern transfer method. The transmittance of the flexible 51-μm-thick Scotch tape was found out to be higher than 0.85 in the range of 0.2 to 3 THz, which is excellent for the substrate materials for THz applications. Free standing filters exhibited record low insertion loss of 0.6 dB and band rejection ratio as high as 30 dB. The resonance reflection characteristics of the bilayer filters were maintained when they were attached on top of curved PET bottle or metallic surfaces, providing promising application in THz identifications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

S. Hussain, J. M. Woo, J.-H. Hyung, “Dual-band terahertz metamaterials based on nested split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, “Interference theory of metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7165–7172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Y. Yang, Y. Hwang, H. A. Cho, J.-H. Song, S.-J. Park, J. A. Rogers, H. C. Ko, “Arrays of silicon micro/nanostructures formed in suspended configurations for deterministic assembly using flat and roller-type stamps,” Small 7(4), 484–491 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 19(8), 6990–6998 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on Paper as a Sensing Platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial Silk Composites at Terahertz Frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Lu, J. Gu, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, E. Akhadov, A. J. Taylo, W. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, “Flexible quasi-three-dimensional terahertz electric metamaterials,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 15–22 (2009).

J. J. P. Valeton, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Perelaer, U. S. Schubert, G. P. Crawfort, P. J. Smith, “Room temperature preparation of conductive silver features using spin-coating and inkjet printing,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(3), 543–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ma, A. Khalid, T. D. Drysdale, D. R. S. Cumming, “Direct fabrication of terahertz optical devices on low-absorption polymer substrates,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1555–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterials solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Tang, Q. Cheng, T. J. Cui, “Electric and magnetic response from metamaterials unit cells at terahertz,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 23–30 (2009).

2008 (4)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S246–S253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. W. Crowe, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard, J. L. Hesler, “Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 365–377, discussion 374–377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Starr, P. M. Rye, D. R. Smith, S. Nemat-Nasser, “Fabrication and characterization of a negative-refractive-index composite metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 70(11), 113102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, M. B. Johnston, “The development of terahertz sources and their applications,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3679–3689 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson, X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for Terahertz Science and Technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, “Applied physics: bridge for the terahertz gap,” Nature 417(6885), 132–133 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Inoue, S. Utsunomiya, T. Saeki, T. Shimoda, “Surface-Free Technology by Laser Annealing (SUFTLA) and its application to poly-si TFT-LCDs on plastic film with integrated drivers,” IEEE Trans. 49(8), 1353–1360 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Heyderman, H. Schift, C. David, J. Gobrecht, T. Schweizer, “Flow behavior of thin polymer films used for hot embossing lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 54(3-4), 229–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductor and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

Abbott, D.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akhadov, E.

A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Lu, J. Gu, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, E. Akhadov, A. J. Taylo, W. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, “Flexible quasi-three-dimensional terahertz electric metamaterials,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 15–22 (2009).

Amsden, J. J.

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial Silk Composites at Terahertz Frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on Paper as a Sensing Platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial Silk Composites at Terahertz Frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterials solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Lu, J. Gu, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, E. Akhadov, A. J. Taylo, W. Zhang, J. F. O’Hara, “Flexible quasi-three-dimensional terahertz electric metamaterials,” Terahertz Sci. Technol. 2(1), 15–22 (2009).

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterials solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, W. A.

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, “T-ray Sensing and Imaging,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1528–1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

J. J. P. Valeton, K. Hermans, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, D. J. Broer, J. Perelaer, U. S. Schubert, G. P. Crawfort, P. J. Smith, “Room temperature preparation of conductive silver features using spin-coating and inkjet printing,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(3), 543–546 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, F.

Beigang, R.

Bhaskaran, M.

I. E. Khodasevych, C. M. Shah, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S. Y. Ung, H. Lin, W. S. T. Rowe, D. Abbott, A. Mitchell, “Elastomeric silicone substrates for terahertz fishnet metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, C. M.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: Design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenckle, M. A.

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Adv. Mater. (2)

H. Tao, J. J. Amsden, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterial Silk Composites at Terahertz Frequencies,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3527–3531 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Transmittance, reflectance and refractive index of Scotch tape in the terahertz frequency region; (b) SEM image of the fabricated metamaterial on a Scotch tape. Inset: dual-band NeSRR structure with the following geometric parameters: l1 = 52 μm, l2 = 36 μm, g = 16 μm, g1 = 8 μm, g2 = 4 μm and w = 4 μm. The lattice constant is 60 μm; (c) photograph of a Scotch tape terahertz filter sample; (d) photograph of a THz MM filter attached to a PET bottle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface current distribution on a NeSRR pattern at the first resonating frequency (a) and at the second resonating frequency (b), the THz transmission characteristics of NeSRR filters on different substrates in linear (c) and log scale (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of a bilayer filter, (b) time-domain signals, (c) transmittance and reflectance of a single layer and bilayer filters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated transmittance of the bilayer filters with no misalignment (solid line) and 5-μm-shift misalignment in x- and y-axis (dashed line). Simulated reflectance of the bilayer filters with no misalignment (red squares) and 5-μm-shift misalignment in x- and y-axis (red circles), (b) Simulated transmittance of the bilayer filters with no misalignment (solid line), 5þ tilted (black diamonds), and 10þ tilted (black triangles) angle misalignment. Simulated reflectance of the bilayer filters with no misalignment (red squares), 5þ tilted (red circles), and 10þ tilted (red triangles) angle misalignment. (c) Comparison of the measured and simulated transmittance of the bilayer filter and (d) comparison of the measured and simulated reflectance of the bilayer filters: no misalignment (red triangles), 5-μm-shift misalignment in x- and y-axis (black squares), 1þ tilted (blue circles) angle misalignment, measured result (green diamonds). Surface current densities of the bilayer filter with 5 þ tilted angle misalignment (e) and 5-μm-shift misalignment in x- and y-axis (f).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral characteristics of the filters attached onto a PET bottle and a metallic object: (a) reflectance and (b) transmittance of a single layer filter and a bilayer filter on a PET bottle, (c) reflectance of single layer (solid line) and a bilayer (dashed line) filter attached to a gold mirror.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance comparison of the fabricated multi-layer MMs

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