Abstract

We propose a novel technique of enhancing the photodetection capabilities of ultrathin Ge films for normally incident light at 1.55 μm through the guided mode resonance (GMR) phenomenon. Specifically, by suitably patterning the surface of a Ge thin film, it is possible to excite guided modes which are subsequently coupled to free space radiative modes, resulting in spectral resonances that possess locally enhanced near fields with a large spatial extent. Absorption is found to be enhanced by over an order of magnitude over a pristine Ge film of equal thickness. Furthermore, attenuation of incident light for such a structure occurs over very few grating periods, resulting in significantly enhanced theoretical 3 dB bandwidth-efficiency products of ~58 GHz. The nature of the enhancement mechanism also produces spectrally narrow resonances (FWHM ~30 nm) that are polarization sensitive and exhibit excellent angular tolerance. Finally, the proposed device architecture is fully compatible with existing Si infrastructure and current CMOS fabrication processes.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated near-infrared detector with self-assembled metal sillicide nanoparticles embedded in a silicon p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Werner, M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, A. Schirmer, E. Kasper, J. Schulze, “Germanium-Tin p-i-n photodetectors integrated on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Szeghalmi, E. B. Kley, M. Knez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of the sensitivity of guided mode resonance sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(49), 21150–21157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Vertical p-i-n germanium photodetector with high external responsivity integrated with large core Si waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(1), 96–101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. F. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Y. Fan, B. Clemens, M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

C. Y. Wei, S. J. Liu, D. G. Deng, J. Shen, J. D. Shao, Z. X. Fan, “Electric field enhancement in guided-mode resonance filters,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1223–1225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tang, D. A. B. Miller, A. K. Okyay, J. A. Matteo, Y. Yuen, K. C. Saraswat, L. Hesselink, “C-shaped nanoaperture-enhanced germanium photodetector,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1519–1521 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – a novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. K. Emsley, O. Dosunmu, M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant-cavity-enhanced silicon photodetectors on reflecting silicon-on-insulator substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 519–521 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. C. Kimerling, “Silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159, 8–13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. D. Schaub, R. Li, C. L. Schow, J. C. Campbell, G. W. Neudeck, J. Denton, “Resonant-cavity-enhanced high-speed Si photodiode grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1647–1649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker, I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, F. Evangelisti, “Ge/Si (001) photodetector for near infrared light,” Solid State Phenom. 54, 55–58 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. S. Unlu, S. Strite, “Resonant-cavity enhanced photonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 607–639 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

P. R. Villeneuve, M. Piché, “Photonic band gaps in two-dimensional square and hexagonal lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(8), 4969–4972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Magnusson, S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. S. Oehrlein, G. M. W. Kroesen, E. Defresart, Y. Zhang, T. D. Bestwick, “Studies of the reactive ion etching of SiGe alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(3), 768–774 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-xGex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Akatsu, T.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – a novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alameh, K.

Allibert, F.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – a novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, F. Evangelisti, “Ge/Si (001) photodetector for near infrared light,” Solid State Phenom. 54, 55–58 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, P.

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated near-infrared detector with self-assembled metal sillicide nanoparticles embedded in a silicon p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baribeau, J. M.

J. M. Baribeau, T. E. Jackman, D. C. Houghton, P. Maigne, M. W. Denhoff, “Growth and characterization of Si1-xGex and Ge epilayers on (100) Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(12), 5738–5746 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bestwick, T. D.

G. S. Oehrlein, G. M. W. Kroesen, E. Defresart, Y. Zhang, T. D. Bestwick, “Studies of the reactive ion etching of SiGe alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(3), 768–774 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boussagol, A.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – a novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, L. Z.

X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Y. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Y. Fan, B. Clemens, M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

J. D. Schaub, R. Li, C. L. Schow, J. C. Campbell, G. W. Neudeck, J. Denton, “Resonant-cavity-enhanced high-speed Si photodiode grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1647–1649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campidelli, Y.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – a novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, L. C. Kimerling, M. S. Unlu, “High-speed resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors on reflecting Si substrates for 1550-nm operation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 175–177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L. Y.

L. Y. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Y. Fan, B. Clemens, M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capellini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, F. Evangelisti, “Ge/Si (001) photodetector for near infrared light,” Solid State Phenom. 54, 55–58 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, K. M.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H. S.

S. Zhu, H. S. Chu, G. Q. Lo, P. Bai, D. L. Kwong, “Waveguide-integrated near-infrared detector with self-assembled metal sillicide nanoparticles embedded in a silicon p-n junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clavelier, L.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – a novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, B.

L. Y. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Y. Fan, B. Clemens, M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, F. Evangelisti, “Ge/Si (001) photodetector for near infrared light,” Solid State Phenom. 54, 55–58 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker, I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J. F.

Defresart, E.

G. S. Oehrlein, G. M. W. Kroesen, E. Defresart, Y. Zhang, T. D. Bestwick, “Studies of the reactive ion etching of SiGe alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(3), 768–774 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Deguet, C.

T. Akatsu, C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, F. Allibert, D. Rouchon, T. Signamarcheix, C. Richtarch, A. Boussagol, V. Loup, F. Mazen, J.-M. Hartmann, Y. Campidelli, L. Clavelier, F. Letertre, N. Kernevez, C. Mazure, “Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates – a novel engineered substrate for future high performance devices,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 444–448 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Deng, D. G.

Denhoff, M. W.

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X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111110 (2012).
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H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
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L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
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L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
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L. Y. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Y. Fan, B. Clemens, M. L. Brongersma, “Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1229–1233 (2010).
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L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
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L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
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L. Tang, D. A. B. Miller, A. K. Okyay, J. A. Matteo, Y. Yuen, K. C. Saraswat, L. Hesselink, “C-shaped nanoaperture-enhanced germanium photodetector,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1519–1521 (2006).
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