Abstract

Temporal interlacing is a method for presenting stereoscopic 3D content whereby the two eyes’ views are presented at different times and optical filtering selectively delivers the appropriate view to each eye. This approach is prone to distortions in perceived depth because the visual system can interpret the temporal delay between binocular views as spatial disparity. We propose a novel color-interlacing display protocol that reverses the order of binocular presentation for the green primary but maintains the order for the red and blue primaries: During the first sub-frame, the left eye sees the green component of the left-eye view and the right eye sees the red and blue components of the right-eye view, and vice versa during the second sub-frame. The proposed method distributes the luminance of each eye’s view more evenly over time. Because disparity estimation is based primarily on luminance information, a more even distribution of luminance over time should reduce depth distortion. We conducted a psychophysical experiment to test these expectations and indeed found that less depth distortion occurs with color interlacing than temporal interlacing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia.46–48 (2012).
  2. J. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective spatial resolution of temporally and spatially interlaced stereo 3D televisions,” SID Symp. Dig. Tec. 43(1), 879–882 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(3), 271–297 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Cowan, “Real D 3D theatrical system-a technical overview,” (European Digital Cinema Forum, 2008), http://www.edcf.net/3d.html
  5. B. Mendiburu, 3D Movie Making: Stereoscopic Digital Cinema from Script to Screen (Oxford, UK: Focal Press, Elsevier, 2009).
  6. H. Jorke, A. Simon, and M. Fritz, “Advanced stereo projection using interference filters,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 407–410 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Verrier, “3-D technology firm RealD has starring role at movie theaters,” (Los Angeles Times, 2009) http://www.latimes.com
  8. E. Mach and V. Dvořák, “Über Analoga der persönlichen Differenz zwischen beiden Augen und den Netzhautstellen desselben Auges,” Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Prague.65–74 (1872).
  9. I. P. Howard and B. J. Rogers, “Stereoscopic Vision,” in Perceiving in Depth (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
  10. J. C. A. Read and B. G. Cumming, “The stroboscopic Pulfrich effect is not evidence for the joint encoding of motion and depth,” J. Vis. 5(5), 417–434 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Kim, P. V. Johnson, and M. S. Banks, “Depth distortion in Color-Interlaced Stereoscopic 3D Displays,” Proc. SPIE 8648, 86480N (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Simon and H. Jorke, “Interference filter design for flicker reduction in stereoscopic systems,” presented at the International Display Workshop, Japan, 7–9 Dec. 2011.
  13. P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 1996).
  14. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 2000).
  15. C. Lu and D. H. Fender, “The interaction of color and luminance in steresoscopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 11, 482–489 (1972).
  16. M. S. Livingstone, “Differences between stereopsis, interocular correlation and binocularity,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1127–1140 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry. (London: Constable & Co. Ltd., 1958).
  18. F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1293–1313 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1314–1329 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Slater, “The Dolby solution to digital 3D,” (European Digital Cinema Forum, 2008), http://www.edcf.net/3d.html
  22. K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red-green and blue-yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–400 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  23. D. L. Post, A. L. Nagy, P. Monnier, and C. S. Calhoun, “Predicting color breakup on field-sequential displays: Part 2,” SID Symp. Dig. Tec. 29(1), 1037–1040 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  24. X. Zhang and J. E. Farrell, “Sequential color breakup measured with induced saccades,” Proc. SPIE 5007, 210–217 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. V. Johnson, UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, USA, J. Kim, and M. S. banks are preparing a manuscript to be called “The visibility of color breakup and a means to reduce it.”
  26. M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Jarvenpaa, “Measuring color breakup of stationary images in field-sequential-color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(2), 139–144 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Kim, P. V. Johnson, and M. S. Banks, “Depth distortion in Color-Interlaced Stereoscopic 3D Displays,” Proc. SPIE 8648, 86480N (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(3), 271–297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H. Jorke, A. Simon, and M. Fritz, “Advanced stereo projection using interference filters,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 407–410 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. C. A. Read and B. G. Cumming, “The stroboscopic Pulfrich effect is not evidence for the joint encoding of motion and depth,” J. Vis. 5(5), 417–434 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jarvenpaa, “Measuring color breakup of stationary images in field-sequential-color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(2), 139–144 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

X. Zhang and J. E. Farrell, “Sequential color breakup measured with induced saccades,” Proc. SPIE 5007, 210–217 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1293–1313 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1314–1329 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. S. Livingstone, “Differences between stereopsis, interocular correlation and binocularity,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1127–1140 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red-green and blue-yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–400 (1985).
[PubMed]

1972 (1)

C. Lu and D. H. Fender, “The interaction of color and luminance in steresoscopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Banks, M. S.

J. Kim, P. V. Johnson, and M. S. Banks, “Depth distortion in Color-Interlaced Stereoscopic 3D Displays,” Proc. SPIE 8648, 86480N (2013).
[Crossref]

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(3), 271–297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cumming, B. G.

J. C. A. Read and B. G. Cumming, “The stroboscopic Pulfrich effect is not evidence for the joint encoding of motion and depth,” J. Vis. 5(5), 417–434 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawson, S.

S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia.46–48 (2012).

Dvorák, V.

E. Mach and V. Dvořák, “Über Analoga der persönlichen Differenz zwischen beiden Augen und den Netzhautstellen desselben Auges,” Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Prague.65–74 (1872).

Farrell, J. E.

X. Zhang and J. E. Farrell, “Sequential color breakup measured with induced saccades,” Proc. SPIE 5007, 210–217 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fender, D. H.

C. Lu and D. H. Fender, “The interaction of color and luminance in steresoscopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Fritz, M.

H. Jorke, A. Simon, and M. Fritz, “Advanced stereo projection using interference filters,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 407–410 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fründ, I.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haenel, N. V.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hatada, T.

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hill, N. J.

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1314–1329 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1293–1313 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(3), 271–297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jarvenpaa, T.

T. Jarvenpaa, “Measuring color breakup of stationary images in field-sequential-color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(2), 139–144 (2005).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. V.

J. Kim, P. V. Johnson, and M. S. Banks, “Depth distortion in Color-Interlaced Stereoscopic 3D Displays,” Proc. SPIE 8648, 86480N (2013).
[Crossref]

Jorke, H.

H. Jorke, A. Simon, and M. Fritz, “Advanced stereo projection using interference filters,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 407–410 (2009).
[Crossref]

Karasev, V. I.

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(3), 271–297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, P. V. Johnson, and M. S. Banks, “Depth distortion in Color-Interlaced Stereoscopic 3D Displays,” Proc. SPIE 8648, 86480N (2013).
[Crossref]

Livingstone, M. S.

M. S. Livingstone, “Differences between stereopsis, interocular correlation and binocularity,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1127–1140 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

C. Lu and D. H. Fender, “The interaction of color and luminance in steresoscopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 11, 482–489 (1972).

Mach, E.

E. Mach and V. Dvořák, “Über Analoga der persönlichen Differenz zwischen beiden Augen und den Netzhautstellen desselben Auges,” Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Prague.65–74 (1872).

Mori, M.

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red-green and blue-yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–400 (1985).
[PubMed]

Nakamura, J.

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Read, J. C. A.

J. C. A. Read and B. G. Cumming, “The stroboscopic Pulfrich effect is not evidence for the joint encoding of motion and depth,” J. Vis. 5(5), 417–434 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saishoji, T.

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Simon, A.

H. Jorke, A. Simon, and M. Fritz, “Advanced stereo projection using interference filters,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 407–410 (2009).
[Crossref]

Terashima, N.

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wada, O.

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wichmann, F. A.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1293–1313 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1314–1329 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and J. E. Farrell, “Sequential color breakup measured with induced saccades,” Proc. SPIE 5007, 210–217 (2003).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

C. Lu and D. H. Fender, “The interaction of color and luminance in steresoscopic vision,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 11, 482–489 (1972).

J. Physiol. (1)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red-green and blue-yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. 359, 381–400 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (4)

M. Mori, T. Hatada, K. Ishikawa, T. Saishoji, O. Wada, J. Nakamura, and N. Terashima, “Mechanism of color breakup in field-sequential-color projectors,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 7(4), 257–259 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Jarvenpaa, “Measuring color breakup of stationary images in field-sequential-color displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(2), 139–144 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. M. Hoffman, V. I. Karasev, and M. S. Banks, “Temporal presentation protocols in stereoscopic displays: Flicker visibility, perceived motion, and perceived depth,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(3), 271–297 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jorke, A. Simon, and M. Fritz, “Advanced stereo projection using interference filters,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 407–410 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (2)

J. C. A. Read and B. G. Cumming, “The stroboscopic Pulfrich effect is not evidence for the joint encoding of motion and depth,” J. Vis. 5(5), 417–434 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (2)

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1293–1313 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1314–1329 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Kim, P. V. Johnson, and M. S. Banks, “Depth distortion in Color-Interlaced Stereoscopic 3D Displays,” Proc. SPIE 8648, 86480N (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang and J. E. Farrell, “Sequential color breakup measured with induced saccades,” Proc. SPIE 5007, 210–217 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (1)

M. S. Livingstone, “Differences between stereopsis, interocular correlation and binocularity,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1127–1140 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (14)

J. W. T. Walsh, Photometry. (London: Constable & Co. Ltd., 1958).

A. Simon and H. Jorke, “Interference filter design for flicker reduction in stereoscopic systems,” presented at the International Display Workshop, Japan, 7–9 Dec. 2011.

P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision (Washington, DC: Optical Society of America, 1996).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 2000).

R. Verrier, “3-D technology firm RealD has starring role at movie theaters,” (Los Angeles Times, 2009) http://www.latimes.com

E. Mach and V. Dvořák, “Über Analoga der persönlichen Differenz zwischen beiden Augen und den Netzhautstellen desselben Auges,” Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft Prague.65–74 (1872).

I. P. Howard and B. J. Rogers, “Stereoscopic Vision,” in Perceiving in Depth (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

M. Cowan, “Real D 3D theatrical system-a technical overview,” (European Digital Cinema Forum, 2008), http://www.edcf.net/3d.html

B. Mendiburu, 3D Movie Making: Stereoscopic Digital Cinema from Script to Screen (Oxford, UK: Focal Press, Elsevier, 2009).

S. Dawson, “Active versus passive,” Connected Home Australia.46–48 (2012).

J. Kim and M. S. Banks, “Effective spatial resolution of temporally and spatially interlaced stereo 3D televisions,” SID Symp. Dig. Tec. 43(1), 879–882 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. V. Johnson, UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, USA, J. Kim, and M. S. banks are preparing a manuscript to be called “The visibility of color breakup and a means to reduce it.”

J. Slater, “The Dolby solution to digital 3D,” (European Digital Cinema Forum, 2008), http://www.edcf.net/3d.html

D. L. Post, A. L. Nagy, P. Monnier, and C. S. Calhoun, “Predicting color breakup on field-sequential displays: Part 2,” SID Symp. Dig. Tec. 29(1), 1037–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2562 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2554 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Disparity computation with temporal interlacing. Left: Space-time plot of a stimulus moving horizontally at constant speed on a temporal-interlacing display. The stimulus has a spatial disparity of zero and moves at a speed of Δxt (displacements of Δx in presentations separated in time by Δt). Left- and right-eye presentations are represented by filled and unfilled symbols, respectively. In each frame, right-eye images are delayed by Δi relative to left-eye images. (In most protocols, Δi = Δt/2.) Right: Disparity estimation with weighted averaging over time. The abscissa represents the arrival time of each candidate match from the right eye relative to the reference image from the left eye. The left ordinate represents the disparity of each potential match. The black squares represent the disparities and the time differences for four candidate matches. The right ordinate represents the weight given to each match. The weights vary from 0 to 1. The estimated disparity is a weighted average of the disparities of the potential matches (Eq. (3). In the example, the stimulus is moving rightward and the left image leads the right, so the erroneous disparity is crossed. Therefore the object should be seen closer to the viewer than intended.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Predicted and observed depth distortions. Hoffman et al. [3] presented stimuli using a temporal-interlacing protocol with Δt = 1/75sec (frame rate of 75Hz) and Δi = 1/150sec. They added spatial disparity in order to eliminate the distortion in perceived depth. The nulling disparity is a direct measure of the magnitude of the depth distortion. That disparity is plotted as a function of the horizontal speed of the stimulus. The deviations of the data points from the horizontal line at 0arcmin are manifestations of distortions in perceived depth. The dashed line represents the predictions of Eq. (3) with τ = 25msec. (Data were also collected at speeds of −10 and 10deg/sec, but those measurements were corrupted by an artifact in the measuring technique, so those points are not plotted here.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Video illustrating the cue conflict created by depth distortion (see Media 1). Cross fuse the two panels to see the image in stereo. A bike rider goes through the scene from left to right. Due to the depth distortion, he is seen as closer than the standing person. But when the biker passes by the person, the person occludes the biker indicating that he is in fact farther than the person.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal interlacing with and without color interlacing. Left: The conventional temporal-interlacing protocol. Time proceeds from top to bottom. R, G, and B are presented simultaneously to the left eye in sub-frame 1 and then simultaneously to the right eye in sub-frame 2. Right: Color interlacing. In sub-frame 1, G is presented to the left eye and R and B to the right eye. In sub-frame 2, R and B are presented to the left eye and G to the right eye. Thus for most stimuli, both eyes are always being stimulated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The five colors presented in the experiment. The brightness ratios were 1/0, 0.75/0.25, 0.5/0.5, 0.25/0.75, and 0/1 where the numbers represent normalized brightness values. The five ratios correspond respectively to saturated green, desaturated green, gray, desaturated magenta, and saturated magenta.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the stimulus. Two rows of disks (1° in diameter) moved horizontally at the same speed but in opposite directions. Disks were horizontally separated by 3°. The upper and lower rows were vertically separated by 2.3°. Three stationary crosses with zero disparity were presented to provide a reference for the distance of the screen.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Predicted depth distortions with color interlacing. The predicted disparity that eliminates distortion of perceived depth is plotted as a function of stimulus speed. The dashed lines represent the predictions for different colors as indicated in the legend.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results. Each panel shows the data from one of the three subjects. In each case, the disparity that eliminated perceived depth distortion is plotted as a function of stimulus speed. The dashed lines represent the predictions from Fig. 1. The circles represent the data when the stimuli were presented according to the color-interlacing protocol. The diamonds represent the data when stimuli of equivalent brightness but with no color variation were presented. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Demo of color interlacing (see Media 2). Left and right panels correspond to right- and left-eye views (cross-fuse for stereoscopic effect). There is no depth distortion and the biker appears at the appropriate place in depth.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Illustration of interference filter design for temporal interlacing (left) and color interlacing (right). Transmittance of filters is plotted as a function of wavelength. Dashed and solid lines denote the transmittance of the glasses and color wheel, respectively. The transmittances of glasses are the same in each column while the transmittances of color wheel are the same in each row. During sub-frame 1 of temporal interlacing, the color wheel’s interference filter has the same transmittance as that of the glasses for the left eye. Thus the left eye sees all color components, but the right eye sees none. During sub-frame 2, the color wheel’s filter has the same transmittance as that of the glasses, so the right eye sees all colors, but the left eye sees none. Color interlacing can be implemented with a simple modification of the filter design. The transmission bands for the red and blue primaries are exchanged between the two eyes, while the band for the green primary is not changed. As a result, the left eye sees green and the right eye sees red and blue during sub-frame 1, and vice versa for sub-frame 2.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ l j = j Δ t + Δ i ,
w ( Δ l j ) = exp ( Δ l j 2 2 τ 2 ) ,
d e s t = j = w ( Δ l j ) j Δ x j = w ( Δ l j ) .
a G = l G 1 / E G 0.73 / E G + 0.27 / E M a M = l M 1 / E M 0.73 / E G + 0.27 / E M .

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