Abstract

Polarization-insensitive (PI) all-optical dual pump-phase transmultiplexing from 2 × 10-GBd OOKs to 10-GBd RZ-QPSK was successfully demonstrated in a birefringent nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF), by utilizing cross-phase modulation (XPM) and the inherent birefringence of the device, for the first time. PI operation was achieved by launching the probe and one pump off-axis while the state of polarization (SOP) of the other pump was randomized. Optimum pump-probe detuning, all within the C-Band, was also utilized to reduce the polarization-induced power fluctuation. Receiver sensitivity penalty at 10−9 bit-error-rate was < 5.5 dB in PI operation, relative to the FPGA-precoded RZ-DQPSK baseline.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2014 (1)

B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, W. Astar, P. Boudra, T. Mohsenin, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Phase-Transmultiplexing and Multicasting of CSRZ-OOK and 4 × RZ-BPSK to 4 × RZ-QPSK via XPM in a Birefringent PCF,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(2), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(12), 1329–1331 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. M. Gene, M. Soler, R. I. Killey, and J. Prat, “Investigation of 10-Gb/s optical DQPSK systems in presence of chromatic dispersion, fiber nonlinearities, and phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 924–926 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, and K. Kasahara, “A Comparative Study of DPSK and OOK WDM Transmission Over Transoceanic Distances and Their Performance Degradations Due to Nonlinear Phase Noise,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 1933–1943 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, L. Xiang, L. F. Mollenauer, and Xing Wei, “Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 617–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E. J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 36(17), 1483–1484 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, and J. Stears, “Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1265–1267 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Bulow, “System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(5), 696–698 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, “Polarization-mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(6), 917–929 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abe, J.

Adamiecki, A.

Apiratikul, P.

Astar, W.

B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, W. Astar, P. Boudra, T. Mohsenin, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Phase-Transmultiplexing and Multicasting of CSRZ-OOK and 4 × RZ-BPSK to 4 × RZ-QPSK via XPM in a Birefringent PCF,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(2), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cannon, W. Astar, T. Mahmood, P. Apiratikul, G. A. Porkolab, C. J. K. Richardson, and G. M. Carter, “Data Transfer From RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by Polarization-Insensitive XPM in a Passive Birefringent Nonlinear AlGaAs Waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(6), 952–966 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Astar, C. C. Wei, Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-insensitive, 40 Gb/s wavelength and RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation format conversion by XPM in a highly nonlinear PCF,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12039–12049 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion by FWM in a Highly Nonlinear PCF of Polarization-Scrambled 10-Gb/s RZ-OOK and RZ-DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1676–1678 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bachus, E. J.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E. J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 36(17), 1483–1484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.

J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, and J. Stears, “Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1265–1267 (1998).
[Crossref]

Basch, B.

Boudra, P.

B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, W. Astar, P. Boudra, T. Mohsenin, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Phase-Transmultiplexing and Multicasting of CSRZ-OOK and 4 × RZ-BPSK to 4 × RZ-QPSK via XPM in a Birefringent PCF,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(2), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

Braun, R.

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, and Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb/s DQPSK Transmission: From Laboratory Experiments to Field Trials,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3388–3402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bulow, H.

H. Bulow, “System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(5), 696–698 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cabot, S.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cameron, J.

J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, and J. Stears, “Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1265–1267 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cannon, B. M.

B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, W. Astar, P. Boudra, T. Mohsenin, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Phase-Transmultiplexing and Multicasting of CSRZ-OOK and 4 × RZ-BPSK to 4 × RZ-QPSK via XPM in a Birefringent PCF,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(2), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cannon, W. Astar, T. Mahmood, P. Apiratikul, G. A. Porkolab, C. J. K. Richardson, and G. M. Carter, “Data Transfer From RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by Polarization-Insensitive XPM in a Passive Birefringent Nonlinear AlGaAs Waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(6), 952–966 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cappuzzo, M. A.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carter, G. M.

B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, W. Astar, P. Boudra, T. Mohsenin, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Phase-Transmultiplexing and Multicasting of CSRZ-OOK and 4 × RZ-BPSK to 4 × RZ-QPSK via XPM in a Birefringent PCF,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(2), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cannon, W. Astar, T. Mahmood, P. Apiratikul, G. A. Porkolab, C. J. K. Richardson, and G. M. Carter, “Data Transfer From RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by Polarization-Insensitive XPM in a Passive Birefringent Nonlinear AlGaAs Waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(6), 952–966 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Astar, C. C. Wei, Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-insensitive, 40 Gb/s wavelength and RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation format conversion by XPM in a highly nonlinear PCF,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12039–12049 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Salem, A. S. Lenihan, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1329–1331 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion by FWM in a Highly Nonlinear PCF of Polarization-Scrambled 10-Gb/s RZ-OOK and RZ-DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1676–1678 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(12), 1329–1331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Caspar, C.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E. J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 36(17), 1483–1484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, and J. Stears, “Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1265–1267 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. J.

Corteselli, S.

Dinu, M.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

Essiambre, R.

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[Crossref]

Favin, D. L.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, “Polarization-mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(6), 917–929 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fishman, D. A.

Gene, J. M.

J. M. Gene, M. Soler, R. I. Killey, and J. Prat, “Investigation of 10-Gb/s optical DQPSK systems in presence of chromatic dispersion, fiber nonlinearities, and phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 924–926 (2004).
[Crossref]

Giles, C. R.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gnauck, A. H.

Gomez, L. T.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hanik, N.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E. J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 36(17), 1483–1484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hatta, T.

Heimes, N.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E. J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 36(17), 1483–1484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Higuma, K.

Ishida, K.

Jaques, J.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, I.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kasahara, K.

Kawanishi, T.

Killey, R. I.

J. M. Gene, M. Soler, R. I. Killey, and J. Prat, “Investigation of 10-Gb/s optical DQPSK systems in presence of chromatic dispersion, fiber nonlinearities, and phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 924–926 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kinjo, K.

Kitagawa, S.

Kitayama, K.

Kobayashi, T.

Konitzer, M.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E. J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 36(17), 1483–1484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

Lenihan, A. S.

R. Salem, A. S. Lenihan, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1329–1331 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion by FWM in a Highly Nonlinear PCF of Polarization-Scrambled 10-Gb/s RZ-OOK and RZ-DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1676–1678 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(12), 1329–1331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mahmood, T.

B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, W. Astar, P. Boudra, T. Mohsenin, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Phase-Transmultiplexing and Multicasting of CSRZ-OOK and 4 × RZ-BPSK to 4 × RZ-QPSK via XPM in a Birefringent PCF,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(2), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cannon, W. Astar, T. Mahmood, P. Apiratikul, G. A. Porkolab, C. J. K. Richardson, and G. M. Carter, “Data Transfer From RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by Polarization-Insensitive XPM in a Passive Birefringent Nonlinear AlGaAs Waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(6), 952–966 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maruta, A.

Mishina, K.

Mitani, S.

Mizuochi, T.

Mohsenin, T.

B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, W. Astar, P. Boudra, T. Mohsenin, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Phase-Transmultiplexing and Multicasting of CSRZ-OOK and 4 × RZ-BPSK to 4 × RZ-QPSK via XPM in a Birefringent PCF,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(2), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mollenauer, L. F.

C. Xu, L. Xiang, L. F. Mollenauer, and Xing Wei, “Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 617–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

Motoshima, K.

Murphy, T. E.

R. Salem, A. S. Lenihan, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1329–1331 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(12), 1329–1331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nissanka, S. M.

Painchaud, Y.

Patel, S. S.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piccirilli, A. A.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole and D. L. Favin, “Polarization-mode dispersion measurements based on transmission spectra through a polarizer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(6), 917–929 (1994).
[Crossref]

Porkolab, G. A.

Prat, J.

J. M. Gene, M. Soler, R. I. Killey, and J. Prat, “Investigation of 10-Gb/s optical DQPSK systems in presence of chromatic dispersion, fiber nonlinearities, and phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 924–926 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rasras, M. S.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raybon, G.

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, and Y. Painchaud, “100-Gb/s DQPSK Transmission: From Laboratory Experiments to Field Trials,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3388–3402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Richardson, C. J. K.

Rohde, M.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E. J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 36(17), 1483–1484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Salem, R.

R. Salem, A. S. Lenihan, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1329–1331 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(12), 1329–1331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, K.

Soler, M.

J. M. Gene, M. Soler, R. I. Killey, and J. Prat, “Investigation of 10-Gb/s optical DQPSK systems in presence of chromatic dispersion, fiber nonlinearities, and phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 924–926 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, H.

Stears, J.

J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, and J. Stears, “Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1265–1267 (1998).
[Crossref]

Waarts, R.

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wei, C. C.

Wellbrock, G.

Winzer, P. J.

Xia, T. J.

Xiang, L.

C. Xu, L. Xiang, L. F. Mollenauer, and Xing Wei, “Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 617–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xing Wei,

C. Xu, L. Xiang, L. F. Mollenauer, and Xing Wei, “Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 617–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, L. Xiang, L. F. Mollenauer, and Xing Wei, “Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 617–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E. J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” Electron. Lett. 36(17), 1483–1484 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Shibata, R. Braun, and R. Waarts, “Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(7), 1205–1210 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Salem, A. S. Lenihan, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-Gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1329–1331 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Kang, M. S. Rasras, L. L. Buhl, M. Dinu, G. Raybon, S. Cabot, M. A. Cappuzzo, L. T. Gomez, Y. F. Chen, S. S. Patel, A. A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, and C. R. Giles, “High-Speed All-Optical Generation of Advanced Modulation Formats Using Photonic-Integrated All-Optical Format Converter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 765–771 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, W. Astar, P. Boudra, T. Mohsenin, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Phase-Transmultiplexing and Multicasting of CSRZ-OOK and 4 × RZ-BPSK to 4 × RZ-QPSK via XPM in a Birefringent PCF,” IEEE Photon. J. 6(2), 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

J. M. Gene, M. Soler, R. I. Killey, and J. Prat, “Investigation of 10-Gb/s optical DQPSK systems in presence of chromatic dispersion, fiber nonlinearities, and phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(3), 924–926 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, and G. M. Carter, “All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(12), 1329–1331 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion by FWM in a Highly Nonlinear PCF of Polarization-Scrambled 10-Gb/s RZ-OOK and RZ-DPSK Signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1676–1678 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, and J. Stears, “Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1265–1267 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Bulow, “System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(5), 696–698 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, L. Xiang, L. F. Mollenauer, and Xing Wei, “Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 617–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer and R. Essiambre, “Advanced Optical Modulation Formats,” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 952–985 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

S. M. Nissanka, A. Maruta, S. Mitani, K. Shimizu, T. Miyahara, T. Aoyagi, T. Hatta, A. Sugitatsu, and K. Kitayama, “All-Optical Format Conversion from NRZ-OOK to RZ-QPSK Using Integrated SOA Three-Arm-MZI Wavelength Converter,” in Proc. OFC 2009, San Diego, CA, paper OThM5.
[Crossref]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, S. Choudhary, G. Castanon, H. Kuwahara, T. Terahara, and H. Onaka, “Numerical comparison of NRZ, CS-RZ and IM-DPSK formats in 43 Gbit/s WDM transmission,” in Proc. LEOS 2001, San Diego, CA, paper ThC2.
[Crossref]

A. S. Lenihan and G. M. Carter, “Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion at 40 Gb/s Using Birefringent Nonlinear Fiber,” in Proc. CLEO 2007, Baltimore, MD, paper CThAA2.
[Crossref]

S. Kitagawa, S. M. Nissanka, and A. Maruta, “All-Optical Modulation Format Conversion from NRZ-OOK to RZ-M-ary PSK Based on Fiber Nonlinearity,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, San Diego, CA, paper OTuD6.
[Crossref]

A. Maruta and S. Kitagawa, “All-optical modulation format conversion from NRZ-OOK to RZ-multilevel APSK based on fiber nonlinearity,” in Proc. IEEE/LEOS 2009, Innsbruck, paper MC4.
[Crossref]

H. Terauchi, A. Tokunaga, N. Horaguchi, and A. Maruta, “Design of all-optical NRZ-OOK/RZ-QPSK modulation format converter by use of cross phase modulation in optical fiber,” in Proc. OECC 2012, Busan, papar 6F1.
[Crossref]

D. Waddy, P. Lu, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “The Measurement of Fast State of Polarization Changes in Aerial Fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2001, Anaheim,CA, paper ThA3.
[Crossref]

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in Proc. OFC 2005, Anaheim, CA, paper OThT6.
[Crossref]

D. L. Peterson, P. J. Leo, and K. B. Rochford, “Field Measurements of state of polarization and PMD from a tier-1 carrier,” in Proc. OFC 2004, Anaheim, CA, paper FI1.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme for dual pump-phase transmultiplexing via XPM to achieve RZ-QPSK at the output of the NOSP system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for PI all-optical dual pump-phase transmultiplexing from 2 × 10-GBd OOKs to 10-GBd RZ-QPSK utilizing XPM in a birefringent nonlinear PCF. PS: polarization scrambler, ODL: optical delay line, VOA: variable optical attenuator, EDFA: Er3+-doped fiber amplifier, HPA: high power Er3+-doped fiber amplifier, OBPF: optical bandpass filter, PA: polarization analyzer, AWG: arrayed waveguide grating, LNF: low-noise figure, AMZI: asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer, BPD: balanced photodetector, TIA: trans-impedance amplifier, LA: limiting amplifier, CDR: clock/data recovery, ED: error detector.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for direct detection of precoded RZ-QPSK baseline. FS: frequency synthesizer, LVPECL: low-voltage positive emitter-coupled logic, LA: limiting amplifier.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measurement of the relative launch angle change of (a) the probe and (b) the locally generated pump using Polarization Analyzer Poincare sphere: Marker A represents the probe SOP when the remotely generated pump and the probe were aligned to the same birefringent axis, whereas Marker C represents the locally generated pump SOP when the pumps are orthogonal. Marker (B) and (D) denotes (a) the probe and the locally generated pump SOP respectively when the remotely generated pump was polarization-scrambled and for the best BER performance of the dual pump-phase transmultiplexed PI-QPSK probe.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Input and output spectra of the PCF, captured at a resolution bandwidth (RB) = 0.06nm for stationary polarization and PI conditions. The offset in the traces is for clarity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SPM and XPM broadening of each of the pumps and the probe output spectra in a 1 nm span captured at a RB=0.06nm. Traces were aligned for comparison.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of the dual pump-phase transmultiplexed RZ-QPSK probe and FPGA precoded RZ-QPSK baseline spectra captured at a RB = 0.06nm. Plots were aligned in (a) and were offset in (b) for comparison
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Eye-diagrams of the RZ-DQPSK signals captured in color-grade infinite persistence mode using a sampling module with a 50 GHz bandwidth and a 40 GHz detector at OSNR > 25 dB/0.1nm. The three rows show a qualitative comparison among the baseline, the stationary polarization condition and the PI condition. The OSNR of the remotely generated OOK signal was ≈45.8 dB/0.1 nm for both polarization conditions.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Receiver sensitivity measurements for FPGA-precoded RZ-DQPSK baseline and the dual pump-phase transmultiplexed RZ-DQPSK probe in stationary polarization and PI conditions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Data on OOK Pumps and Corresponding XPM Phase Shift on RZ-probe

Tables Icon

Table 2 Receiver Sensitivity Measurements

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ pr-out (t)= ϕ pr-in (t)+ ϕ pr-SPM (t)+ ϕ XPM-1 (t)+ ϕ XPM-2 (t) = ϕ pr-in (t)+γ L eff P pr (t)+2γ L eff P OOK 1 (t)+2γ L eff P OOK 2 (t),
I n * = A ¯ n B ¯ n I ¯ n1 * + A ¯ n B n Q ¯ n1 * + A n B n I n1 * + A n B ¯ n Q n1 * Q n * = A ¯ n B ¯ n Q ¯ n1 * + A ¯ n B n I n1 * + A n B n Q n1 * + A n B ¯ n I ¯ n1 *
Δ θ 1 = tan 1 ( 1 s 1B 1+ s 1B ) tan 1 ( 1 s 1A 1+ s 1A ) 46 o 0 o = 46 o Δ θ 2 = 90 o tan 1 ( 1 s 1D 1+ s 1D ) tan 1 ( 1 s 1C 1+ s 1C ) 90 o 63 o 0 o = 27 o

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