Abstract

Diffraction imaging of scattered light allows extraction of information on scatterer’s morphology. We present a method for accurate simulation of diffraction imaging of single particles by combining rigorous light scattering model with ray-tracing software. The new method has been validated by comparison to measured images of single microspheres. Dependence of fringe patterns on translation of an objective based imager to off-focus positions has been analyzed to clearly understand diffraction imaging with multiple optical elements. The calculated and measured results establish unambiguously that diffraction imaging should be pursued in non-conjugate configurations to ensure accurate sampling of coherent light distribution from the scatterer.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (1)

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2009 (2)

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light Scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1970 (1)

Backman, V.

Bertrand, F. E.

Bottiger, J. R.

Brock, R. S.

Çapoglu, I. R.

Castellone, R.

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

Collins, J. S. A.

Ding, J.

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, K.

Dong, L.

Ekpenyong, A. E.

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farwell, M. A.

Feng, Y.

Florin, E. L.

Gkigkitzis, I.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gohlke, C.

Gupta, M.

Hill, S. C.

Hillis, D. B.

Holler, S.

Höpe, A.

Hu, X. H.

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, J. Zhang, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, Y. Feng, and X. H. Hu, “A novel method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for sizing microspheres,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22245–22251 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light Scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobs, K. M.

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janowska-Wieczorek, A.

Javidi, B.

Jiang, W.

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonás, A.

Kirkwood, S. E.

Lee, B.

Li, Z.

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Q.

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yu, J. Zhang, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, Y. Feng, and X. H. Hu, “A novel method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry for sizing microspheres,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22245–22251 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Development of a diffraction imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2985–2987 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light Scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquez-Curtis, L.

Min, S. W.

Moran, M. S.

Neukammer, J.

Pan, R.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Qiu, Y.

Rinneberg, H.

Rogers, J. D.

Rozmus, W.

Sa, Y.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speidel, M.

Su, X.

Subramanian, H.

Taflove, A.

Török, P.

Tsui, Y. Y.

Wessel, T.

White, C. A.

Yang, J.

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L. V.

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Dong, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, L. V. Yang, F. E. Bertrand, M. A. Farwell, and X. H. Hu, “Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1717–1726 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light Scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, N.

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Y. Feng, M. S. Moran, J. Q. Lu, L. V. Yang, Y. Sa, N. Zhang, L. Dong, and X. H. Hu, “Analysis of cellular objects through diffraction images acquired by flow cytometry,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24819–24828 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cytometry A (2)

Y. Feng, N. Zhang, K. M. Jacobs, W. Jiang, L. V. Yang, Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Polarization imaging and classification of Jurkat T and Ramos B cells using a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 85(9), 817–826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sa, Y. Feng, K. M. Jacobs, J. Yang, R. Pan, I. Gkigkitzis, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Study of low speed flow cytometry for diffraction imaging with different chamber and nozzle designs,” Cytometry A 83(11), 1027–1033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Q. Lu, P. Yang, and X. H. Hu, “Simulations of light Scattering from a biconcave red blood cell using the FDTD method,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024022 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

K. M. Jacobs, L. V. Yang, J. Ding, A. E. Ekpenyong, R. Castellone, J. Q. Lu, and X. H. Hu, “Diffraction imaging of spheres and melanoma cells with a microscope objective,” J. Biophotonics 2(8-9), 521–527 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (3)

A. Sommerfeld, Optics (Academic Press, 1954), p. 179.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), p. 65.

K. Kusaka, S. Adachi, and K. Yamazaki, “Microscopic objective having a long working distance,” US Patent: 6,069,744 (US Patent Office, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic of optical system: NA = sinθa for the objective and green area indicating the cone of imaged rays; (b) the scattering geometry with microsphere at the focus of incident beam along z-axis and θwm being the cone angle of imaged rays in water; (c) S11 projected on input plane with range of imaged rays marked by the green circle; (d) ray-tracing results at image plane with Δx = 0 and other parameters given in Fig. 2. FOV sizes are in the unit of mm2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured diffraction images of single polystyrene microspheres of d = 9.6μm acquired with the imaging unit translated to Δx as marked above each column and incident beam of wavelength λ = 532nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Calculated diffraction images of microsphere with d = 9.6μm obtained at Δx as marked above each column; top row: calculated with flow chamber; bottom row: without flow chamber; (b) the measured and (c) re-calculated images with chamber and reduced cone angle at Δx = −450μm. The FOV on image plane was set to 3.2x2.4mm2 in simulations..
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated images on the input and image planes with Δx = 150μm in different zones of θw with (θwm = 23.27°) and without (θwm = 24.45°) flow chamber. The FOV sizes in parentheses are in the unit of mm2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Image magnification M and maximum cone angle θwm versus the off-focus position Δx. Other simulation parameters are identical to those in Fig. 2 with the flow chamber. The lines are for visual guide.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated images with Δx = −150μm in different zones of θw on the image planes with (θwm = 24.44°) and without (θwm = 24.60°) flow chamber. The FOV sizes in parentheses are in the unit of mm2. The images on the input plane and other simulation parameters are identical to those in Fig. 4.

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