Abstract

We present a novel method of machining optical fiber surfaces with a CO2 laser for use in Fiber-based Fabry-Perot Cavities (FFPCs). Previously FFPCs were prone to large birefringence and limited to relatively short cavity lengths (≤ 200 μm). These characteristics hinder their use in some applications such as cavity quantum electrodynamics with trapped ions. We optimized the laser machining process to produce large, uniform surface structures. This enables the cavities to achieve high finesse even for long cavity lengths. By rotating the fibers around their axis during the laser machining process the asymmetry resulting from the laser’s transverse mode profile is eliminated. Consequently we are able to fabricate fiber mirrors with a high degree of rotational symmetry, leading to remarkably low birefringence. Through measurements of the cavity finesse over a range of cavity lengths and the polarization dependence of the cavity linewidth, we confirmed the quality of the produced fiber mirrors for use in low-birefringence FFPCs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, “High-Q measurements of fused-silica microspheres in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 23, 247–249 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Steiner, H. M. Meyer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and M. Köhl, “Single in coupled to an optical fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 043003 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Advanced Thin Films, 5733 Central Avenue Boulder, Colorado USA.
  15. Cavity c is actually asymmetric. However a model with two redundant parameters Rc1 and Rc2 converges to an indecisive fit with large parameter errors. Therefore here we deduce an effective radius of curvature using the symmetric cavity model.
  16. D. Kleckner, W. T. M. Irvine, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, and D. Bouwmeester, “Diffraction-limited high-finesse optical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043814 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. M. Bennett, “Recent developments in surface roughness characterization,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1119–1127 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Uphoff, M. Brekenfeld, G. Rempe, and S. Ritter, “Frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes in microscopic Fabry-Perot cavities,” arXiv:1408.4367 (2014).

2013 (3)

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Steiner, H. M. Meyer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and M. Köhl, “Single in coupled to an optical fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 043003 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2, 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. Kleckner, W. T. M. Irvine, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, and D. Bouwmeester, “Diffraction-limited high-finesse optical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043814 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, “Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip,” Nature 450, 272–276 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. M. Bennett, “Recent developments in surface roughness characterization,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1119–1127 (1992).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

Akimov, A.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Armani, D.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. J.

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2, 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, “Recent developments in surface roughness characterization,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1119–1127 (1992).
[Crossref]

Blatt, R.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bochmann, J.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Kleckner, W. T. M. Irvine, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, and D. Bouwmeester, “Diffraction-limited high-finesse optical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brandstätter, B.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brekenfeld, M.

M. Uphoff, M. Brekenfeld, G. Rempe, and S. Ritter, “Frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes in microscopic Fabry-Perot cavities,” arXiv:1408.4367 (2014).

Casabone, B.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

Colombe, Y.

D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, “Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip,” Nature 450, 272–276 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Leon, N.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, C.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Steiner, H. M. Meyer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and M. Köhl, “Single in coupled to an optical fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 043003 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2, 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dubois, G.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, “Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip,” Nature 450, 272–276 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feist, J.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Figueroa, E.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Friebe, K.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gullans, M.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hahn, C.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. G. E.

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hauck, R.

Hijlkema, M.

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoch, S. W.

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hunger, D.

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2, 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, “Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip,” Nature 450, 272–276 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Irvine, W. T. M.

D. Kleckner, W. T. M. Irvine, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, and D. Bouwmeester, “Diffraction-limited high-finesse optical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jayich, a. M.

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kashkanova, A.

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, “High-Q measurements of fused-silica microspheres in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 23, 247–249 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleckner, D.

D. Kleckner, W. T. M. Irvine, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, and D. Bouwmeester, “Diffraction-limited high-finesse optical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Köhl, M.

M. Steiner, H. M. Meyer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and M. Köhl, “Single in coupled to an optical fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 043003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kortz, H.

Kuhn, A.

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
[Crossref]

Linke, F.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, “Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip,” Nature 450, 272–276 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukin, M.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mabuchi, H.

D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, “High-Q measurements of fused-silica microspheres in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 23, 247–249 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

McClung, A.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meyer, H. M.

M. Steiner, H. M. Meyer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and M. Köhl, “Single in coupled to an optical fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 043003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Monz, T.

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mücke, M.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuzner, A.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nölleke, C.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Northup, T. E.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Shea, D.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.

D. Kleckner, W. T. M. Irvine, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, and D. Bouwmeester, “Diffraction-limited high-finesse optical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pöllinger, M.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichel, J.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Steiner, H. M. Meyer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and M. Köhl, “Single in coupled to an optical fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 043003 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2, 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, “Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip,” Nature 450, 272–276 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiserer, A.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rempe, G.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Uphoff, M. Brekenfeld, G. Rempe, and S. Ritter, “Frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes in microscopic Fabry-Perot cavities,” arXiv:1408.4367 (2014).

Ritter, S.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Uphoff, M. Brekenfeld, G. Rempe, and S. Ritter, “Frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes in microscopic Fabry-Perot cavities,” arXiv:1408.4367 (2014).

Sankey, J. C.

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schindler, P.

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, P. O.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schüppert, K.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Specht, H. P.

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steiner, M.

M. Steiner, H. M. Meyer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and M. Köhl, “Single in coupled to an optical fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 043003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steinmetz, T.

D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, “Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip,” Nature 450, 272–276 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streed, E. W.

Stute, A.

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, J.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tiecke, T.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uphoff, M.

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Uphoff, M. Brekenfeld, G. Rempe, and S. Ritter, “Frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes in microscopic Fabry-Perot cavities,” arXiv:1408.4367 (2014).

Vahala, K.

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vernooy, D. W.

Vuletic, V.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Warburton, R. J.

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2, 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Warken, F.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, B.

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weber, H.

Webster, S. C.

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zibrov, A.

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2, 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. E. Flowers-Jacobs, S. W. Hoch, J. C. Sankey, A. Kashkanova, a. M. Jayich, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and J. G. E. Harris, “Fiber-cavity-based optomechanical device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. M. Bennett, “Recent developments in surface roughness characterization,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 1119–1127 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nature (5)

A. Stute, B. Casabone, P. Schindler, T. Monz, P. O. Schmidt, B. Brandstätter, T. E. Northup, and R. Blatt, “Tunable ion-photon entanglement in an optical cavity,” Nature 485, 482–485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ritter, C. Nölleke, C. Hahn, A. Reiserer, A. Neuzner, M. Uphoff, M. Mücke, E. Figueroa, J. Bochmann, and G. Rempe, “An elementary quantum network of single atoms in optical cavities,” Nature 484, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, “Strong atom-field coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical cavity on a chip,” Nature 450, 272–276 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Armani, T. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Phys. (1)

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nature Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. Hunger, T. Steinmetz, Y. Colombe, C. Deutsch, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “A fiber Fabry-Perot cavity with high finesse,” New J. Phys. 12, 065038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Kleckner, W. T. M. Irvine, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, and D. Bouwmeester, “Diffraction-limited high-finesse optical cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043814 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Steiner, H. M. Meyer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and M. Köhl, “Single in coupled to an optical fiber cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 043003 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. J. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Brandstätter, A. McClung, K. Schüppert, B. Casabone, K. Friebe, A. Stute, P. O. Schmidt, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, R. Blatt, and T. E. Northup, “Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 123104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. Lukin, “Coupling a single trapped atom to a nanoscale optical cavity,” Science 587, 1202–1205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Uphoff, M. Brekenfeld, G. Rempe, and S. Ritter, “Frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes in microscopic Fabry-Perot cavities,” arXiv:1408.4367 (2014).

Advanced Thin Films, 5733 Central Avenue Boulder, Colorado USA.

Cavity c is actually asymmetric. However a model with two redundant parameters Rc1 and Rc2 converges to an indecisive fit with large parameter errors. Therefore here we deduce an effective radius of curvature using the symmetric cavity model.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A schematic of the optical setup for CO2 laser machining. The red line represents the laser trajectory for an open shutter, when closed it is reflected into the beam dumper. The polarization dependent mirror (PDM) reflects vertically polarized light whereas it absorbs horizontally polarized light. The quarter wave retarder (QWR) acts like a quarter wave plate, rotating the incoming vertical polarization into a circular polarization. (b) A close-up view of the machining setup. MO = microscope objective, RP = reference plate (see Section 2.3), FR = fiber rotator and MKB = magnetically coupled kinematic base.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of fiber machining techniques. Optical images of the facets of machined MM-fibers are shown. The edges of the facets are rounded off by the laser shots and they appear to be black rims in the images. (a) Produced by 42 laser pulses at 1.43 W, with a beam waist of 93 μm and duration of 80 ms. The fiber is rotated over uniformly distributed angles. (b) Produced with the same settings as (a) but without rotation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interferometry setup for the detailed inspection of a machined fiber. The reference plate has a similar reflection coefficient as the fiber tip for a good fringe contrast in white light interferometry. Furthermore it is mounted on a mirror mount in order to align its orientation with respect to the fiber facet.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) An optical image of a concave fiber facet. (b) Interference image of the same fiber using white light interferometry. Here only the red layer of the color image is extracted and presented in gray scale. (c) A reconstructed cross section of the curved fiber obtained from the interference image in (b). The blue curve is the experimentally reconstructed fiber surface. The red dashed curve is a fit with the Gaussian function. The black dashed curve is a circle having the same local radius of curvature (457 μm) at the center.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Microscope photo of a fiber cavity. (b) Transmission signal as the fiber cavity is scanned over resonance. The x-axis is calibrated to a detuned frequency with respect to the center of resonance by using the side band peaks at ±79 MHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Finesse vs cavity length for 3 different MM-MM FFPCs. The error bars represent the statistical standard deviations of the measurements. The solid curves are least-square fits based on Eq. (5) of the clipping loss model. (b) Finesse vs cavity length for cavities where at least one of mirrors is of SM type. The dashed curves are fits based on the clipping loss model. However here they are poorly fitted to the data. The fitted parameters are unrealistic and have large errors. For example, Rc = 1765 ± 3645 μm for cavity d. Therefore here they are shown only as eye guides. (c) Table of cavity parameters. Rc1 and Rc2 are the radii of curvature of the composing mirrors at their surface centers obtained from the interferometry. ∞ indicates a flat surface. The measurement error is independently estimated to be 5% by repeating interferometry with a same curved fiber surface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Interferogram of a single mode fiber. A protruding core ridge at the center is visible after the first few laser pulses. The pattern spreading from the lower left edge is due to a small deformation caused by the cleaving process. (b) AFM image near the center of the fiber. The ridge is visible on the right. (c) AFM image of the fiber after an attempt to remove the core ridge with further laser pulses. Here the ridge is almost totally removed. Shown in the upper right is a vertical cross section along the y-axis at x = 20 μm. At the bottom a slightly raised section can be seen, indicating a residual of the ridge.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Polarization dependence of the linewidth (FWHM) of the fundamental mode in cavity d. The error bars represent one statistical standard deviation. (b) A typical transmission profile of cavity d when its length is scanned over time. FSR indicates a change of the cavity length corresponding to one free spectral range. (c), (d) Close-up views of the scan profile for the fundamental and the next higher mode respectively as indicated in (b).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

= c 2 L c Δ ,
= 2 π 𝒯 + .
clip = 1 0 r clip I ( r ) r d r 0 I ( r ) r d r
= exp ( 2 r clip 2 / w 2 ) ,
= 2 π 𝒯 + res + clip ,
Δ ν = λ ν FSR ( 2 π ) 2 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 ,

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