Abstract

We fabricate a few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) polymer composite saturable absorber by liquid-phase exfoliation, and use this to passively Q-switch an ytterbium-doped fiber laser, tunable from 1030 to 1070 nm. Self-starting Q-switching generates 2.88 μs pulses at 74 kHz repetition rate, with over 100 nJ pulse energy. We propose a mechanism, based on edge states within the bandgap, responsible for the wideband nonlinear optical absorption exhibited by our few-layer MoS2 sample, despite operating at photon energies lower than the material bandgap.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (12)

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Ouyang, H. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS 2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 6319–6325 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, H.-C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, D. A. Chenet, Y. Ye, K. O’Brien, J. C. Hone, and X. Zhang, “Edge nonlinear optics on a MoS2 atomic monolayer,” Science 344, 488–490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Withers, H. Yang, L. Britnell, A. P. Rooney, E. Lewis, A. Felten, C. R. Woods, V. Sanchez Romaguera, T. Georgiou, A. Eckmann, Y. J. Kim, S. G. Yeates, S. J. Haigh, a. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and C. Casiraghi, “Heterostructures produced from nanosheet-based inks,” Nano Lett. 14, 3987–3992 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22, 23732–23742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y.-H. Lee, L. Yu, H. Wang, W. Fang, X. Ling, Y. Shi, C.-T. Lin, J.-K. Huang, M.-T. Chang, C.-S. Chang, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, L.-J. Li, and J. Kong, “Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces,” Nano Lett. 13, 1852–1857 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics in Suspended 2D Crystals,” ACS Nano 7, 1072–1080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

K.-K. Liu, W. Zhang, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Lin, M.-T. Chang, C.-Y. Su, C.-S. Chang, H. Li, Y. Shi, H. Zhang, C.-S. Lai, and L.-J. Li, “Growth of large-area and highly crystalline MoS2 thin layers on insulating substrates,” Nano Lett. 12, 1538–1544 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lee, X.-Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M.-T. Chang, C.-T. Lin, K.-D. Chang, Y.-C. Yu, J. T.-W. Wang, C.-S. Chang, L.-J. Li, and T.-W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, B. a. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. P. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2,” Nano Lett. 11, 5111–5116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. Mccomb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, H. Yan, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and S. Ryu, “Anomalous lattice vibrations of single- and few-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 4, 2695–2700 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, D. Popa, V. Nicolosi, G. Privitera, F. Bonaccorso, and A. C. Ferrari, “Solution-phase exfoliation of graphite for ultrafast photonics,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 2953–2957 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, D. Rickard, S. D. Bergin, and J. N. Coleman, “Measurement of multicomponent solubility parameters for graphene facilitates solvent discovery,” Langmuir 26, 3208–3213 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. N. Coleman, “Liquid-phase exfoliation of nanotubes and graphene,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3680–3695 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1094–1110 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Saturable absorbers based on impurity and defect centers in crvstals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2120–2126 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Z. Zhang, L. Qian, D. Fan, and X. Deng, “Gallium arsenide: A new material to accomplish passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 419–421 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. B. Roxlo, “Bulk and surface optical absorption in molybdenum disulfide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555–557 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (4)

P. Joensen, R. F. Frindt, and S. R. Morrison, “Single-layer MoS2,” Mater. Res. Bull. 21, 457–461 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Rupper, and R. R. Chianelli, “Optical absorption and catalytic activity of molybdenum sulfide edge surfaces,” J. Catal. 100, 176–184 (1986).
[Crossref]

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Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, D. Rickard, S. D. Bergin, and J. N. Coleman, “Measurement of multicomponent solubility parameters for graphene facilitates solvent discovery,” Langmuir 26, 3208–3213 (2010).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics in Suspended 2D Crystals,” ACS Nano 7, 1072–1080 (2013).
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R. A. Bromley, R. B. Murray, and A. D. Yoffe, “The band structures of some transition metal dichalcogenides: III. Group VIA : trigonal prism materials,” J. Phys. C 5, 759–778 (1972).
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Che, K.

Chen, M.

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Chen, Y.

Q. Ouyang, H. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS 2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 6319–6325 (2014).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
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J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
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Chenet, D. A.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, D. A. Chenet, Y. Ye, K. O’Brien, J. C. Hone, and X. Zhang, “Edge nonlinear optics on a MoS2 atomic monolayer,” Science 344, 488–490 (2014).
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Chhowalla, M.

G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2,” Nano Lett. 11, 5111–5116 (2011).
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Chianelli, R. R.

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Rupper, and R. R. Chianelli, “Optical absorption and catalytic activity of molybdenum sulfide edge surfaces,” J. Catal. 100, 176–184 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, D. P. Leta, K. S. Liang, S. Rice, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, “Catalytic defects at molybdenum disulfide “edge” planes,” Solid State Ionics 22, 97–104 (1986).
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Chien, H.-C.

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Chiu, H.-Y.

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Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. P. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. Mccomb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, D. Rickard, S. D. Bergin, and J. N. Coleman, “Measurement of multicomponent solubility parameters for graphene facilitates solvent discovery,” Langmuir 26, 3208–3213 (2010).
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J. N. Coleman, “Liquid-phase exfoliation of nanotubes and graphene,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3680–3695 (2009).
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Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 563–568 (2008).
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Colombo, L.

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
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G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. P. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
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G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. P. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daage, M.

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, D. P. Leta, K. S. Liang, S. Rice, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, “Catalytic defects at molybdenum disulfide “edge” planes,” Solid State Ionics 22, 97–104 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Rupper, and R. R. Chianelli, “Optical absorption and catalytic activity of molybdenum sulfide edge surfaces,” J. Catal. 100, 176–184 (1986).
[Crossref]

De, S.

J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. Mccomb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 563–568 (2008).
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J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. Mccomb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568–571 (2011).
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Dresselhaus, M.

Y.-H. Lee, L. Yu, H. Wang, W. Fang, X. Ling, Y. Shi, C.-T. Lin, J.-K. Huang, M.-T. Chang, C.-S. Chang, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, L.-J. Li, and J. Kong, “Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces,” Nano Lett. 13, 1852–1857 (2013).
[PubMed]

Du, J.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
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Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. Mccomb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckmann, A.

F. Withers, H. Yang, L. Britnell, A. P. Rooney, E. Lewis, A. Felten, C. R. Woods, V. Sanchez Romaguera, T. Georgiou, A. Eckmann, Y. J. Kim, S. G. Yeates, S. J. Haigh, a. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and C. Casiraghi, “Heterostructures produced from nanosheet-based inks,” Nano Lett. 14, 3987–3992 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eda, G.

G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2,” Nano Lett. 11, 5111–5116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, D.

Z. Zhang, L. Qian, D. Fan, and X. Deng, “Gallium arsenide: A new material to accomplish passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 419–421 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, W.

Y.-H. Lee, L. Yu, H. Wang, W. Fang, X. Ling, Y. Shi, C.-T. Lin, J.-K. Huang, M.-T. Chang, C.-S. Chang, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, L.-J. Li, and J. Kong, “Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces,” Nano Lett. 13, 1852–1857 (2013).
[PubMed]

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H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341–17348 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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Zhang, X.-Q.

Y.-H. Lee, X.-Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M.-T. Chang, C.-T. Lin, K.-D. Chang, Y.-C. Yu, J. T.-W. Wang, C.-S. Chang, L.-J. Li, and T.-W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2320–2325 (2012).
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Z. Zhang, L. Qian, D. Fan, and X. Deng, “Gallium arsenide: A new material to accomplish passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 419–421 (1992).
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Zhao, C.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
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Zhao, C.-J.

Zhao, H.

R. Wang, H.-C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
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R. Wang, B. a. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
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Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
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Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zhong, M.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

R. Wang, H.-C. Chien, J. Kumar, N. Kumar, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Third-harmonic generation in ultrathin films of MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 314–318 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (4)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
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G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. P. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468–3480 (2012).
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C. Lee, H. Yan, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and S. Ryu, “Anomalous lattice vibrations of single- and few-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 4, 2695–2700 (2010).
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H. Shi, R. Yan, S. Bertolazzi, J. Brivio, B. Gao, A. Kis, D. Jena, H. G. Xing, and L. Huang, “Exciton Dynamics in Suspended 2D Crystals,” ACS Nano 7, 1072–1080 (2013).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. N. Coleman, “Liquid-phase exfoliation of nanotubes and graphene,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3680–3695 (2009).
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Adv. Mater. (3)

Y.-H. Lee, X.-Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M.-T. Chang, C.-T. Lin, K.-D. Chang, Y.-C. Yu, J. T.-W. Wang, C.-S. Chang, L.-J. Li, and T.-W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24, 2320–2325 (2012).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 073106 (2011).
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Z. Zhang, L. Qian, D. Fan, and X. Deng, “Gallium arsenide: A new material to accomplish passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 419–421 (1992).
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IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

Q. Ouyang, H. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS 2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 6319–6325 (2014).
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Langmuir (1)

Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, D. Rickard, S. D. Bergin, and J. N. Coleman, “Measurement of multicomponent solubility parameters for graphene facilitates solvent discovery,” Langmuir 26, 3208–3213 (2010).
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Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

P. Joensen, R. F. Frindt, and S. R. Morrison, “Single-layer MoS2,” Mater. Res. Bull. 21, 457–461 (1986).
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Mater. Today (1)

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
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Nano Lett. (4)

K.-K. Liu, W. Zhang, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Lin, M.-T. Chang, C.-Y. Su, C.-S. Chang, H. Li, Y. Shi, H. Zhang, C.-S. Lai, and L.-J. Li, “Growth of large-area and highly crystalline MoS2 thin layers on insulating substrates,” Nano Lett. 12, 1538–1544 (2012).
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F. Withers, H. Yang, L. Britnell, A. P. Rooney, E. Lewis, A. Felten, C. R. Woods, V. Sanchez Romaguera, T. Georgiou, A. Eckmann, Y. J. Kim, S. G. Yeates, S. J. Haigh, a. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and C. Casiraghi, “Heterostructures produced from nanosheet-based inks,” Nano Lett. 14, 3987–3992 (2014).
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Y.-H. Lee, L. Yu, H. Wang, W. Fang, X. Ling, Y. Shi, C.-T. Lin, J.-K. Huang, M.-T. Chang, C.-S. Chang, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, L.-J. Li, and J. Kong, “Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces,” Nano Lett. 13, 1852–1857 (2013).
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Nano Res. (1)

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
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Nanoscale (1)

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530–10535 (2014).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
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Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 563–568 (2008).
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Opt. Express (4)

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Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Wang, B. a. Ruzicka, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast and spatially resolved studies of charge carriers in atomically thin molybdenum disulfide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 045406 (2012).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
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Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, D. Popa, V. Nicolosi, G. Privitera, F. Bonaccorso, and A. C. Ferrari, “Solution-phase exfoliation of graphite for ultrafast photonics,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247, 2953–2957 (2010).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

X. Yin, Z. Ye, D. A. Chenet, Y. Ye, K. O’Brien, J. C. Hone, and X. Zhang, “Edge nonlinear optics on a MoS2 atomic monolayer,” Science 344, 488–490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. Mccomb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568–571 (2011).
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J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces (Academic, 2011).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterization of the dispersed MoS2 flakes. (a) Optical absorption of dispersed MoS2. (b–f) Characterization via AFM: (b–e) images of typical flakes and flake thickness profiles, (f) distribution of flake thicknesses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characterization of the MoS2-polymer SA film. (a) SEM of the cross-section and (b) optical micrograph confirming the absence of aggregates. (c) Z-scan setup. (d) Optical absorption of the film, with the highlighted region indicating the range of operation of the tunable Q-switched laser. (e) Nonlinear absorption profile showing saturable absorption.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Q-Switched fiber laser cavity schematic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Q-switched laser characteristics: (a) Pulse train. (b) Single pulse profile. (c) RF spectrum of fundamental frequency, f0=74 kHz. (d) Variation of repetition frequency and pulse duration with output power. (e) Output spectra for Q-Switched operation at various wavelengths. The wavelength could be continuously tuned between 1030 and 1070 nm using the tunable filter.

Equations (1)

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α ( I ) = α s 1 + I / I sat + α ns

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