Abstract

We present a statistical study of the Purcell enhancement of the light emission from quantum dots coupled to Anderson-localized cavities formed in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides. We measure the time-resolved light emission from both single quantum emitters coupled to Anderson-localized cavities and directly from the cavities that are fed by multiple quantum dots. Strongly inhibited and enhanced decay rates are observed relative to the rate of spontaneous emission in a homogeneous medium. From a statistical analysis, we report an average Purcell factor of 4.5±0.4 without applying any spectral tuning. By spectrally tuning individual quantum dots into resonance with Anderson-localized modes, a maximum Purcell factor of 23.8±1.5 is recorded, which is at the onset of the strong-coupling regime. Our data quantify the potential of Anderson-localized cavities for controlling and enhancing the light-matter interaction strength in a photonic-crystal waveguide, which is of relevance for cavity quantum-electrodynamics experiments, efficient energy harvesting and random lasing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  29. H. Thyrrestrup, S. Smolka, L. Sapienza, and P. Lodahl, “Statistical theory of a quantum emitter strongly coupled to Anderson-localized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113901 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  31. M. Patterson and S. Hughes, “Interplay between disorder-induced scattering and local field effects in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 245321 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. Kiraz, P. Michler, C. Becher, B. Gayral, A. Imamoğlu, L. Zhang, E. Hu, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Cavity-quantum electrodynamics using a single InAs quantum dot in a microdisk structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3932 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, P. D. García, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nature Mat. 9, 285–289 (2014).

2013 (1)

J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

H. Thyrrestrup, S. Smolka, L. Sapienza, and P. Lodahl, “Statistical theory of a quantum emitter strongly coupled to Anderson-localized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Huisman, G. Ctistis, S. Stobbe, A. P. Mosk, J. L. Herek, A. Lagendijk, P. Lodahl, W. L. Vos, and P. W. H. Pinkse, “Measurement of a band-edge tail in the density of states of a photonic-crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

2011 (3)

S. Smolka, H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienza, T. B. Lehmann, K. R. Rix, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, P. D. García, and P. Lodahl, “Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters,” New J. Phys. 13, 063044 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Savona, “Electromagnetic modes of a disordered photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 085301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Mapping the local density of optical states of a photonic crystal with single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167404 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienza, and P. Lodahl, “Extraction of the β-factor for single quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231106 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Patterson and S. Hughes, “Interplay between disorder-induced scattering and local field effects in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 245321 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. García, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity Quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer, R. Ilic, and M. Crescimanno, “Out-of-plane scattering from vertically asymmetric photonic crystal slab waveguides with in-plane disorder,” Opt. Express 17, 12470–12480 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mazoyer, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Disorder-induced multiple scattering in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

T. Lund-Hansen, S. Stobbe, B. Julsgaard, H. Thyrrestrup, T. Sünner, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and P. Lodahl, “Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nature Photonics 2, 465–473 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320, 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Topolancik, B. Ilic, and F. Vollmer, “Experimental observation of strong photon localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 161318(R) (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, “Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: Role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033903 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gerace and L. C. Andreani, “Disorder-induced losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects,,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1897–1899 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T.i Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Kiraz, P. Michler, C. Becher, B. Gayral, A. Imamoğlu, L. Zhang, E. Hu, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Cavity-quantum electrodynamics using a single InAs quantum dot in a microdisk structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3932 (2001).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

P. W. Anderson, “Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices,” Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T.i Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, “Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices,” Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

Arakawa, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arcari, M.

M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asano, T.i

Y. Akahane, T.i Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nature Photonics 2, 465–473 (2008).
[Crossref]

Becher, C.

A. Kiraz, P. Michler, C. Becher, B. Gayral, A. Imamoğlu, L. Zhang, E. Hu, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Cavity-quantum electrodynamics using a single InAs quantum dot in a microdisk structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3932 (2001).
[Crossref]

Burresi, M.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

Busch, K.

J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combrie, S.

J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crescimanno, M.

Ctistis, G.

S. R. Huisman, G. Ctistis, S. Stobbe, A. P. Mosk, J. L. Herek, A. Lagendijk, P. Lodahl, W. L. Vos, and P. W. H. Pinkse, “Measurement of a band-edge tail in the density of states of a photonic-crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Rossi, A.

J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deppe, D. G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ek, S.

J. Liu, P. D. García, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nature Mat. 9, 285–289 (2014).

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forchel, A.

T. Lund-Hansen, S. Stobbe, B. Julsgaard, H. Thyrrestrup, T. Sünner, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and P. Lodahl, “Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Froufe-Pérez, L. S.

S. Smolka, H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienza, T. B. Lehmann, K. R. Rix, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, P. D. García, and P. Lodahl, “Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters,” New J. Phys. 13, 063044 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García, P. D.

J. Liu, P. D. García, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nature Mat. 9, 285–289 (2014).

S. Smolka, H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienza, T. B. Lehmann, K. R. Rix, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, P. D. García, and P. Lodahl, “Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters,” New J. Phys. 13, 063044 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. García, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity Quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gayral, B.

A. Kiraz, P. Michler, C. Becher, B. Gayral, A. Imamoğlu, L. Zhang, E. Hu, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Cavity-quantum electrodynamics using a single InAs quantum dot in a microdisk structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3932 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ge, L.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320, 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerace, D.

Gibbs, H. M.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregersen, N.

J. Liu, P. D. García, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nature Mat. 9, 285–289 (2014).

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).
[Crossref]

Hendrickson, J.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herek, J. L.

S. R. Huisman, G. Ctistis, S. Stobbe, A. P. Mosk, J. L. Herek, A. Lagendijk, P. Lodahl, W. L. Vos, and P. W. H. Pinkse, “Measurement of a band-edge tail in the density of states of a photonic-crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, E.

A. Kiraz, P. Michler, C. Becher, B. Gayral, A. Imamoğlu, L. Zhang, E. Hu, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Cavity-quantum electrodynamics using a single InAs quantum dot in a microdisk structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3932 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huffaker, D.

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S. Smolka, H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienza, T. B. Lehmann, K. R. Rix, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, P. D. García, and P. Lodahl, “Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters,” New J. Phys. 13, 063044 (2011).
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L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. García, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity Quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).
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H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienza, and P. Lodahl, “Extraction of the β-factor for single quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231106 (2010).
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T. Lund-Hansen, S. Stobbe, B. Julsgaard, H. Thyrrestrup, T. Sünner, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and P. Lodahl, “Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113903 (2008).
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Topolancik, J.

J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer, R. Ilic, and M. Crescimanno, “Out-of-plane scattering from vertically asymmetric photonic crystal slab waveguides with in-plane disorder,” Opt. Express 17, 12470–12480 (2009).
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J. Topolancik, B. Ilic, and F. Vollmer, “Experimental observation of strong photon localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253901 (2007).
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Türeci, H. E.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320, 643–646 (2008).
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Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
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P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
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P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
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Vollmer, F.

J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer, R. Ilic, and M. Crescimanno, “Out-of-plane scattering from vertically asymmetric photonic crystal slab waveguides with in-plane disorder,” Opt. Express 17, 12470–12480 (2009).
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J. Topolancik, B. Ilic, and F. Vollmer, “Experimental observation of strong photon localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253901 (2007).
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Vos, W. L.

S. R. Huisman, G. Ctistis, S. Stobbe, A. P. Mosk, J. L. Herek, A. Lagendijk, P. Lodahl, W. L. Vos, and P. W. H. Pinkse, “Measurement of a band-edge tail in the density of states of a photonic-crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012).
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P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
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Vucckovic, J.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
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K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

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D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
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Q. Wang, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Mapping the local density of optical states of a photonic crystal with single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167404 (2011).
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Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 161318(R) (2005).
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K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

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J. D. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. G. Johnson, J. N. N. Winn, and R. D. D. Meade, Photonic crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Wong, C. W.

J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
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J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
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D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
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T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
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S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, “Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: Role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033903 (2005).
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D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienza, and P. Lodahl, “Extraction of the β-factor for single quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231106 (2010).
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A. Kiraz, P. Michler, C. Becher, B. Gayral, A. Imamoğlu, L. Zhang, E. Hu, W. V. Schoenfeld, and P. M. Petroff, “Cavity-quantum electrodynamics using a single InAs quantum dot in a microdisk structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3932 (2001).
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Nature (4)

Y. Akahane, T.i Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
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T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462, 78–82 (2009).
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Nature Mat. (1)

J. Liu, P. D. García, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nature Mat. 9, 285–289 (2014).

Nature Mater. (1)

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

Nature Photonics (1)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nature Photonics 2, 465–473 (2008).
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New J. Phys. (1)

S. Smolka, H. Thyrrestrup, L. Sapienza, T. B. Lehmann, K. R. Rix, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, P. D. García, and P. Lodahl, “Probing the statistical properties of Anderson localization with quantum emitters,” New J. Phys. 13, 063044 (2011).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (4)

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S. R. Huisman, G. Ctistis, S. Stobbe, A. P. Mosk, J. L. Herek, A. Lagendijk, P. Lodahl, W. L. Vos, and P. W. H. Pinkse, “Measurement of a band-edge tail in the density of states of a photonic-crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012).
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M. Patterson and S. Hughes, “Interplay between disorder-induced scattering and local field effects in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 245321 (2010).
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E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 161318(R) (2005).
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T. Lund-Hansen, S. Stobbe, B. Julsgaard, H. Thyrrestrup, T. Sünner, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and P. Lodahl, “Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 113903 (2008).
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M. Arcari, I. Söllner, A. Javadi, S. Lindskov Hansen, S. Mahmoodian, J. Liu, H. Thyrrestrup, E. H. Lee, J. D. Song, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093603 (2014).
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S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, “Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: Role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033903 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucčković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Mapping the local density of optical states of a photonic crystal with single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 167404 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Thyrrestrup, S. Smolka, L. Sapienza, and P. Lodahl, “Statistical theory of a quantum emitter strongly coupled to Anderson-localized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Topolancik, B. Ilic, and F. Vollmer, “Experimental observation of strong photon localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 253901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Gao, S. Combrie, B. Liang, P. Schmitteckert, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, X. Xu, K. Busch, D. Huffaker, A. De Rossi, and C. W. Wong, “Strongly coupled slow-light polaritons in one-dimensional disordered localized states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320, 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. García, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity Quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Sheng, Introduction to Wave Scattering, Localization, and Mesoscopic Phenomena (Academic Press, 1995).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).
[Crossref]

J. D. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. G. Johnson, J. N. N. Winn, and R. D. D. Meade, Photonic crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Anderson localization in photonic-crystal waveguides. (a) Scanning-electron micrographs of photonic-crystal waveguides with different amounts of intentional disorder in the hole position. Dashed circles indicate the positions of the holes in a perfectly periodic structure. (b) Dispersion relation for an ideal photonic-crystal waveguide showing the fundamental (dashed blue line) and high-energy (green) guided modes from a full 3D simulation of a photonic-crystal membrane structure. The blue area corresponds to the light cone where the radiation is not bound to membrane. The band gap of the photonic crystal extends from a/λ = 0.255 to the top of the figure. The shadowed area near the cutoff of the guided modes indicate the spectral range where Anderson-localized modes appear. The red curve is a sketch of the local density of optical states of a disordered structure. (c) and (d) Illustration of Anderson-localized modes obtained from 2D finite-element calculation of the Ey component of the electric field in a disordered perturbed PhCW with σ = 1% introduced disorder in the hole positions (left) and along an unperturbed PhCW (right) corresponding to the high-energy (λ = 850 nm) (c) and fundamental (λ = 930 nm) (d) guided modes shown in (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Samples and experimental method. (a) Two-dimensional finite-element calculation of the Ey component of an Anderson-localized mode along a PhCW with σ = 1% introduced disorder. The inset shows two dipoles placed at a node (green) and an anti-node (blueblack) of the cavity, thus experiencing a very different local density of optical states. (b) Sketch of the experimental setup. See main text for detailed explanations. (c) Emission spectra of the sample under high excitation power (dashed curve) showing the Anderson-localized modes, and under low excitation power (solid curve) showing Anderson-localized modes and quantum dot lines. (d) Examples of time-resolved photo-luminescence decay curves of different Anderson-localized cavities fitted with multi exponentials (dashed lines). The pronounced differences in the decay times are attributed to the different spatial and spectral positioning of the dominant emitter feeding the cavities.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Statistics of decay rates measured on the Anderson-localized cavities (a) Histogram of the measured decay rates from Anderson-localized modes appearing along an unperturbed PhCW (σ = 0%) with a = 260 nm and r = 78 nm for the high-energy guided mode. The inset shows the histogram of the cavity Q-factors. (b),(c) and (d) Histograms displaying the Purcell factor measured on Anderson-localized modes for the fundamental guided mode of a PhCW with a = 240 nm and r = 74 nm and for σ = 0%, σ = 3% σ = 9%, respectively. The insets show the measured Purcell factor vs. the corresponding cavity Q-factor. The lack of clear correlation between Q factor and decay rates is attributed to the uncontrolled spatial and spectral matching of the dominant emitter to the cavity. (e) Mean and variance of the measured Purcell factors vs. disorder degree for the data of (b)–(d). The variance is defined as Var ( F p ) = F p 2 F p 2 and the error bars in 〈Fp〉 are the square root of the variance.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Statistical distribution of Purcell factors from single quantum dots on resonance with Anderson-localized cavities. (a) Emission spectrum of the fastest quantum dot (Purcell factor of 23.8±1.5) while temperature tuning it through resonance of an Anderson-localized mode. (b) Decay curve recorded from the quantum dot in (a) at resonance with the cavity. The fit is shown as the solid red line. The green curve is the instrument response function(IRF) of the detector). (c) Purcell factor statistics obtained after tuning single quantum dots into resonance for a PhCW with r = 69 nm, a = 230 nm, and σ = 1% (Blue histogram). The red histogram shows the theoretically calculated distribution using the theory in [29]. (d) Extracted upper bound on the mode volume vs. the corresponding cavity Q-factor.

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