Abstract

We demonstrate coherence between exciton-polariton condensates created resonantly at different times. The coherence persists much longer than the individual particle dephasing time, and this persistence increases as the particle density increases. The observed coherence time exceeds that of the injecting laser pulse by more than an order of magnitude. We show that this significant coherence enhancement relies critically on the many-body particle interactions, as verified by its dependence on particle density, interaction strength, and bath temperature, whereas the mass of the particles plays no role in the condensation of resonantly injected polaritons. Furthermore, we observe a large nonlinear phase shift resulting from intra-condensate interaction energy. Our results provide a new approach for probing ultrafast dynamics of resonantly-created condensates and open new directions in the study of coherence in matter.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  5. R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Shin, M. Saba, T. A. Pasquini, W. Ketterle, D. E. Pritchard, and A. E. Leanhardt, “Atom interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(5), 050405 (2004).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  28. J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical controlled-NOT gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 250502 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hayat, C. Lange, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, H. M. van Driel, A. M. Steinberg, B. Nelsen, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Dynamic Stark Effect in Strongly Coupled Microcavity Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033605 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Steger, C. Gautham, B. Nelsen, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Single-wavelength, all-optical switching based on exciton-polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131104 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Assmann, J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Bayer, A. Rahimi-Iman, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “From polariton condensates to highly photonic quantum degenerate states of bosonic matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1804–1809 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

V. E. Hartwell and D. W. Snoke, “Numerical simulations of the polariton kinetic energy distribution in GaAs quantum-well microcavity structures,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075307 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, D. Bajoni, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation of a polariton condensate in a planar GaAs microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051108 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton–polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 140402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. Shin, M. Saba, T. A. Pasquini, W. Ketterle, D. E. Pritchard, and A. E. Leanhardt, “Atom interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(5), 050405 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nemoto and W. J. Munro, “Nearly deterministic linear optical controlled-NOT gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 250502 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269(5221), 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(22), 2588–2591 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amo, A.

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269(5221), 198–201 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson, L. M.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

André, R.

N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton–polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. R.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(22), 2588–2591 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aßmann, M.

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Assmann, M.

M. Assmann, J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Bayer, A. Rahimi-Iman, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “From polariton condensates to highly photonic quantum degenerate states of bosonic matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1804–1809 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baas, A.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton–polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajoni, D.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, D. Bajoni, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation of a polariton condensate in a planar GaAs microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Balili, R.

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballarini, D.

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bar-Joseph, I.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baudisch, M.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
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Baumberg, J. J.

G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bayer, M.

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Assmann, J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Bayer, A. Rahimi-Iman, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “From polariton condensates to highly photonic quantum degenerate states of bosonic matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1804–1809 (2011).
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G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
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Bloch, J.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, D. Bajoni, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation of a polariton condensate in a planar GaAs microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051108 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
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Bradley, R. A.

N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bramati, A.

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
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Carusotto, I.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
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D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
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K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton–polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706–710 (2008).
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M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 140402 (2007).
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H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
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Chen, J.-X.

H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
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Chen, Y.-C.

H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
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H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
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Chen, Y.-F.

H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
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Christmann, G.

G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
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Ciuti, C.

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
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Cornell, E. A.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269(5221), 198–201 (1995).
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Cuadra, J.

Dang, L.

N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dang, L. S.

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton–polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706–710 (2008).
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Dang, S.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
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A. Hayat, C. Lange, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, H. M. van Driel, A. M. Steinberg, B. Nelsen, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Dynamic Stark Effect in Strongly Coupled Microcavity Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033605 (2012).
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K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
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D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
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del Valle, E.

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
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Deng, H.

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
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Deveaud, B.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
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N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
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K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton–polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706–710 (2008).
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Durfee, D. S.

K. B. Davis, M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, “Bose-Einstein condensation in a gas of sodium atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(22), 3969–3973 (1995).
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Eastham, P. R.

Ensher, J. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269(5221), 198–201 (1995).
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Ferrier, L.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, D. Bajoni, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation of a polariton condensate in a planar GaAs microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fluegel, B.

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(22), 2588–2591 (1987).
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Forchel, A.

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Assmann, J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Bayer, A. Rahimi-Iman, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “From polariton condensates to highly photonic quantum degenerate states of bosonic matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1804–1809 (2011).
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S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
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Fujisawa, T.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
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Gao, T.

G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
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Gautham, C.

M. Steger, C. Gautham, B. Nelsen, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Single-wavelength, all-optical switching based on exciton-polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131104 (2012).
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Giacobino, E.

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
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Gigli, G.

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
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Groth, S.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
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Grousson, R.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guda, K.

N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Guimaraes, P. S. S.

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
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R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
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V. E. Hartwell and D. W. Snoke, “Numerical simulations of the polariton kinetic energy distribution in GaAs quantum-well microcavity structures,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075307 (2010).
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G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hayat, A.

A. Hayat, C. Lange, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, H. M. van Driel, A. M. Steinberg, B. Nelsen, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Dynamic Stark Effect in Strongly Coupled Microcavity Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033605 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hivet, R.

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofferberth, S.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Höfling, S.

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Assmann, J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Bayer, A. Rahimi-Iman, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “From polariton condensates to highly photonic quantum degenerate states of bosonic matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1804–1809 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hulin, D.

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(22), 2588–2591 (1987).
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Hvam, J. M.

Ishikawa, A.

C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
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Jeambrun, P.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joffre, M.

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(22), 2588–2591 (1987).
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Johne, R.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
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R. Spano, J. Cuadra, C. Lingg, D. Sanvitto, M. D. Martin, P. R. Eastham, M. van der Poel, J. M. Hvam, and L. Viña, “Build up of off-diagonal long-range order in microcavity exciton-polaritons across the parametric threshold,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10792–10800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amo, S. Pigeon, D. Sanvitto, V. G. Sala, R. Hivet, I. Carusotto, F. Pisanello, G. Leménager, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, and A. Bramati, “Polariton superfluids reveal quantum hydrodynamic solitons,” Science 332(6034), 1167–1170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savona, V.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savvidis, P. G.

G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmiedmayer, J.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schumm, T.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
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Senellart, P.

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, D. Bajoni, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation of a polariton condensate in a planar GaAs microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051108 (2009).
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Y. Shin, M. Saba, T. A. Pasquini, W. Ketterle, D. E. Pritchard, and A. E. Leanhardt, “Atom interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(5), 050405 (2004).
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D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

Snoke, D.

M. Steger, C. Gautham, B. Nelsen, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Single-wavelength, all-optical switching based on exciton-polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
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Snoke, D. W.

A. Hayat, C. Lange, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, H. M. van Driel, A. M. Steinberg, B. Nelsen, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Dynamic Stark Effect in Strongly Coupled Microcavity Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033605 (2012).
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V. E. Hartwell and D. W. Snoke, “Numerical simulations of the polariton kinetic energy distribution in GaAs quantum-well microcavity structures,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075307 (2010).
[Crossref]

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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, D. Bajoni, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation of a polariton condensate in a planar GaAs microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spano, R.

Staehli, J. L.

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steger, M.

M. Steger, C. Gautham, B. Nelsen, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Single-wavelength, all-optical switching based on exciton-polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131104 (2012).
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Steinberg, A. M.

A. Hayat, C. Lange, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, H. M. van Driel, A. M. Steinberg, B. Nelsen, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Dynamic Stark Effect in Strongly Coupled Microcavity Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033605 (2012).
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H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
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Szymanska, M. H.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
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J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tejedor, C.

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
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Tempel, J. S.

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Assmann, J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Bayer, A. Rahimi-Iman, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “From polariton condensates to highly photonic quantum degenerate states of bosonic matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1804–1809 (2011).
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Tian, L.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tosi, G.

G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
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D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsotsis, P.

G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
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S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
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van der Poel, M.

van Driel, H. M.

A. Hayat, C. Lange, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, H. M. van Driel, A. M. Steinberg, B. Nelsen, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Dynamic Stark Effect in Strongly Coupled Microcavity Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033605 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veit, F.

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
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M. Assmann, J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Bayer, A. Rahimi-Iman, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “From polariton condensates to highly photonic quantum degenerate states of bosonic matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1804–1809 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viña, L.

R. Spano, J. Cuadra, C. Lingg, D. Sanvitto, M. D. Martin, P. R. Eastham, M. van der Poel, J. M. Hvam, and L. Viña, “Build up of off-diagonal long-range order in microcavity exciton-polaritons across the parametric threshold,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10792–10800 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
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Weihs, G.

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
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C. Weisbuch, M. Nishioka, A. Ishikawa, and Y. Arakawa, “Observation of the coupled exciton-photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69(23), 3314–3317 (1992).
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E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, D. Bajoni, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation of a polariton condensate in a planar GaAs microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051108 (2009).
[Crossref]

West, K.

M. Steger, C. Gautham, B. Nelsen, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Single-wavelength, all-optical switching based on exciton-polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Balili, V. Hartwell, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Bose-Einstein condensation of microcavity polaritons in a trap,” Science 316(5827), 1007–1010 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, K. W.

A. Hayat, C. Lange, L. A. Rozema, A. Darabi, H. M. van Driel, A. M. Steinberg, B. Nelsen, D. W. Snoke, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Dynamic Stark Effect in Strongly Coupled Microcavity Exciton Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033605 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whittaker, D. M.

N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
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M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269(5221), 198–201 (1995).
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Wildermuth, S.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

Worschech, L.

M. Assmann, J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Bayer, A. Rahimi-Iman, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, and A. Forchel, “From polariton condensates to highly photonic quantum degenerate states of bosonic matter,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(5), 1804–1809 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wouters, M.

N. Krizhanovskii, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, B. Pietka, R. A. Bradley, K. Guda, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, B. Deveaud-Plédran, M. Richard, R. André, and L. Dang, “Coexisting nonequilibrium condensates with long-range spatial coherence in semiconductor microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 045317 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton–polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706–710 (2008).
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M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 140402 (2007).
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Yamamoto, Y.

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Deng, G. Weihs, C. Santori, J. Bloch, and Y. Yamamoto, “Condensation of semiconductor microcavity exciton polaritons,” Science 298(5591), 199–202 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, I. A.

H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Steger, C. Gautham, B. Nelsen, D. Snoke, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Single-wavelength, all-optical switching based on exciton-polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131104 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, P. Senellart, D. Bajoni, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation of a polariton condensate in a planar GaAs microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 051108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Sanvitto, S. Pigeon, A. Amo, D. Ballarini, M. De Giorgi, I. Carusotto, R. Hivet, F. Pisanello, V. G. Sala, P. S. S. Guimaraes, R. Houdré, E. Giacobino, C. Ciuti, A. Bramati, and G. Gigli, “All-optical control of the quantum flow of a polariton condensate,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 610–614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (6)

D. Sanvitto, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, G. Tosi, M. Baudisch, F. P. Laussy, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, L. Marrucci, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Persistent currents and quantized vortices in a polariton superfluid,” Nat. Phys. 6(7), 527–533 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Wouters, M. Richard, A. Baas, I. Carusotto, R. André, L. S. Dang, and B. Deveaud-Plédran, “Quantized vortices in an exciton–polariton condensate,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 706–710 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer, and P. Krüger, “Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip,” Nat. Phys. 1(1), 57–62 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Wertz, L. Ferrier, D. D. Solnyshkov, R. Johne, D. Sanvitto, A. Lemaître, I. Sagnes, R. Grousson, A. V. Kavokin, P. Senellart, G. Malpuech, and J. Bloch, “Spontaneous formation and optical manipulation of extended polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 6(11), 860–864 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Tosi, G. Christmann, N. G. Berloff, P. Tsotsis, T. Gao, Z. Hatzopoulos, P. G. Savvidis, and J. J. Baumberg, “Sculpting oscillators with light within a nonlinear quantum fluid,” Nat. Phys. 8(3), 190–194 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Utsunomiya, L. Tian, G. Roumpos, C. W. Lai, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, A. Löffler, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates,” Nat. Phys. 4(9), 700–705 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

A. Amo, D. Sanvitto, F. P. Laussy, D. Ballarini, E. del Valle, M. D. Martin, A. Lemaître, J. Bloch, D. N. Krizhanovskii, M. S. Skolnick, C. Tejedor, and L. Viña, “Collective fluid dynamics of a polariton condensate in a semiconductor microcavity,” Nature 457(7227), 291–295 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasprzak, M. Richard, S. Kundermann, A. Baas, P. Jeambrun, J. M. J. Keeling, F. M. Marchetti, M. H. Szymańska, R. André, J. L. Staehli, V. Savona, P. B. Littlewood, B. Deveaud, and S. Dang, “Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons,” Nature 443(7110), 409–414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

J. S. Tempel, F. Veit, M. Aßmann, L. E. Kreilkamp, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and M. Bayer, “Temperature dependence of pulsed polariton lasing in a GaAs microcavity,” New J. Phys. 14(8), 083014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H.-Y. Lo, Y.-C. Chen, P.-C. Su, H.-C. Chen, J.-X. Chen, Y.-C. Chen, I. A. Yu, and Y.-F. Chen, “Electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based cross-phase-modulation at attojoule levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 041804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

V. E. Hartwell and D. W. Snoke, “Numerical simulations of the polariton kinetic energy distribution in GaAs quantum-well microcavity structures,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075307 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time-dependent polariton experiments. (a) Polariton dephasing time, T2 measurements:. differential reflectance ΔR/R spectra in ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy at 10K temperature and zero detuning measured (left) and calculated (right). T2 < 1 ps is observed in the decay of the coherent oscillations. (b) LP and UP calculated dispersions with a schematic representation of the resonant excitation at different inplane momenta, k1 and k2, and at different times t = 0 and t = Δt. (c) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. (d) Measured reflectance from the sample for various detuning values ΔE.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference pattern for different delay times. LP resonant excitation and UP resonant excitation. The average excitation intensity is ~10 mWcm−2 – well above the threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coherence measurements. (a) fringe visibility as a function of delay time for various cavity-exciton detunings. The solid lines are the calculated dependence. (b) fringe visibility as a function of excitation intensity for various lattice temperatures and for Δt=6 ps. The solid lines are power-law fits as a guide to the eye. The black line is the calculated dependence for T = 0 K, with the maximum visibility as a fitting parameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonlinear phase shift measurements (a) Interference pattern shift with increasing pump power at Δt = 6 ps delay. The curves are horizontal slices of interference patterns with high-frequency noise filtered out. The curves are shifted vertically on the figure for clarity. The dashed lines are a guide to the eye following the fringe pattern minima, with Λ = 2π/k||. (b) Interference pattern shift with increasing pump power at Δt = 16 ps delay. (c) Nonlinear phase shift vs. pump power at Δt = 16 ps delay. The solid red line is the calculated dependence.

Equations (5)

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I t ( t )=I( t )+I( tΔt )+2 I( t )I( tΔt ) cos( 2kx ) e Δt / T 2c +noise
V( t,Δt )= 2 I( t )I( tΔt ) I( t )+I( tΔt )+noise e Δt / T 2c
i Ψ t =[ 2 2 m LP + i[ R( n R )γ ] 2 +g | Ψ | 2 + g R n R ]Ψ
n R / t =γ n R R( n R ) | Ψ | 2 D 2 n R
Δφ= 0 Δt g | Ψ | 2 ( t,I ) dt.

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