Abstract

We present a method for the estimation of the reflection spectra of transient gratings in rare-earth doped fiber lasers having a self-sweeping of laser wavelength. We show that high reflectivities of several tens of percent can be achieved. An example of this is demonstrated through the use of an experimental Yb-doped Fabry-Perot fiber laser. The gratings' spectra are highly asymmetric due to the apodization of the refractive index modulation. The importance of the self-sweeping regime for triggering self-Q-switched laser instabilities is discussed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

P. Peterka, P. Honzátko, P. Koška, F. Todorov, J. Aubrecht, O. Podrazký, and I. Kašík, "Reflectivity of transient Bragg reflection gratings in fiber laser with laser-wavelength self-sweeping: erratum," Opt. Express 24, 16222-16223 (2016)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-24-14-16222

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References

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  1. A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and M. V. Andres, “An experimental analysis of self-Q-switching via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. L. Li, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, and L. X. Zhong, “Strong optical bistability in ytterbium-doped fibre laser with reabsorption,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 449–450 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. S. Kurkov, “Q-switched all-fiber lasers with saturable absorbers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 335–342 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. I. A. Lobach, S. I. Kablukov, E. V. Podivilov, and S. A. Babin, “Broad-range self-sweeping of a narrow-line self-pulsing Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17632–17640 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. V. Kir’yanov and N. Il’ichev, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in an ytterbium fiber laser with non-resonant Fabry-Perot cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(4), 305–312 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).
  10. X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Xiao, and L. Si, “Tm-Ho co-doped all-fiber brand-range self-sweeping laser around 1.9 μm,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16290–16295 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. I. A. Lobach and S. I. Kablukov, “Application of a self-sweeping Yb-doped fiber laser for high-resolution characterization of phase-shifted FBGs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(18), 2982–2987 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. J. Frisken, “Transient Bragg reflection gratings in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 17(24), 1776–1778 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, “Single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by spatial hole burning,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 40–42 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Stepanov, A. A. Fotiadi, and P. Mégret, “Effective recording of dynamic phase gratings in Yb-doped fibers with saturable absorption at 1064nm,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8832–8837 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. Peterka, P. Honzatko, F. Todorov, J. Aubrecht, O. Podrazky, and I. Kasik, “Self-Q-switched regime of fiber lasers as a transition from self-induced laser line sweeping,” in Advanced Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SoTh2B.6.
  16. J. W. Arkwright, P. Elango, G. R. Atkins, T. Whitbread, and J. F. Digonnet, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the resonant nonlinearity in ytterbium-doped fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 798–806 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Peterka, I. Kasik, A. Dhar, B. Dussardier, and W. Blanc, “Theoretical modeling of fiber laser at 810 nm based on thulium-doped silica fibers with enhanced 3H4 level lifetime,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2773–2781 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Tang, X. Li, and Q. J. Wang, “High-power passively Q-switched thulium fiber laser with distributed stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5474–5477 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Principles and Applications (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994).
  21. I. A. Lobach, S. I. Kablukov, E. V. Podivilov, and S. A. Babin, “Self-scanned single-frequency operation of a fiber laser driven by a self-induced phase grating,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 045103 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

I. A. Lobach, S. I. Kablukov, E. V. Podivilov, and S. A. Babin, “Self-scanned single-frequency operation of a fiber laser driven by a self-induced phase grating,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 045103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (2)

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).

2011 (4)

2009 (1)

P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. L. Li, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, and L. X. Zhong, “Strong optical bistability in ytterbium-doped fibre laser with reabsorption,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 449–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

Andres, M. V.

A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and M. V. Andres, “An experimental analysis of self-Q-switching via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arkwright, J. W.

Atkins, G. R.

Babin, S. A.

I. A. Lobach, S. I. Kablukov, E. V. Podivilov, and S. A. Babin, “Self-scanned single-frequency operation of a fiber laser driven by a self-induced phase grating,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 045103 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. A. Lobach, S. I. Kablukov, E. V. Podivilov, and S. A. Babin, “Broad-range self-sweeping of a narrow-line self-pulsing Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17632–17640 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and M. V. Andres, “An experimental analysis of self-Q-switching via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blanc, W.

Brunel, M.

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chartier, T.

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dhar, A.

Digonnet, J. F.

Dussardier, B.

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, A. Dhar, B. Dussardier, and W. Blanc, “Theoretical modeling of fiber laser at 810 nm based on thulium-doped silica fibers with enhanced 3H4 level lifetime,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2773–2781 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
[Crossref]

Elango, P.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fotiadi, A. A.

Frisken, S. J.

Hanna, D. C.

Hideur, A.

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Honzatko, P.

P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
[Crossref]

Honzátko, P.

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

Il’ichev, N.

A. V. Kir’yanov and N. Il’ichev, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in an ytterbium fiber laser with non-resonant Fabry-Perot cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(4), 305–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kablukov, S. I.

Kasik, I.

Kir’yanov, A. V.

A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and M. V. Andres, “An experimental analysis of self-Q-switching via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kir’yanov and N. Il’ichev, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in an ytterbium fiber laser with non-resonant Fabry-Perot cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(4), 305–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kubecek, V.

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).

P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kurkov, A. S.

A. S. Kurkov, “Q-switched all-fiber lasers with saturable absorbers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J. L.

J. L. Li, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, and L. X. Zhong, “Strong optical bistability in ytterbium-doped fibre laser with reabsorption,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 449–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Lobach, I. A.

Maria, J.

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mégret, P.

Musha, M.

J. L. Li, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, and L. X. Zhong, “Strong optical bistability in ytterbium-doped fibre laser with reabsorption,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 449–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Navrátil, P.

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).

Nilsson, J.

Ozkul, C.

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

Peterka, P.

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, I. Kasik, A. Dhar, B. Dussardier, and W. Blanc, “Theoretical modeling of fiber laser at 810 nm based on thulium-doped silica fibers with enhanced 3H4 level lifetime,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2773–2781 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
[Crossref]

Podivilov, E. V.

I. A. Lobach, S. I. Kablukov, E. V. Podivilov, and S. A. Babin, “Self-scanned single-frequency operation of a fiber laser driven by a self-induced phase grating,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 045103 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. A. Lobach, S. I. Kablukov, E. V. Podivilov, and S. A. Babin, “Broad-range self-sweeping of a narrow-line self-pulsing Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17632–17640 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reekie, L.

Salhi, M.

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, F.

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shirakawa, A.

J. L. Li, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, and L. X. Zhong, “Strong optical bistability in ytterbium-doped fibre laser with reabsorption,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 449–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Si, L.

Slavik, R.

P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
[Crossref]

Slavík, R.

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).

Stepanov, S.

Tang, Y.

Trooper, A. C.

Ueda, K.-I.

J. L. Li, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, and L. X. Zhong, “Strong optical bistability in ytterbium-doped fibre laser with reabsorption,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 449–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. J.

Wang, X.

Whitbread, T.

Xiao, H.

Zhong, L. X.

J. L. Li, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, and L. X. Zhong, “Strong optical bistability in ytterbium-doped fibre laser with reabsorption,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 449–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. L. Li, M. Musha, A. Shirakawa, K.-I. Ueda, and L. X. Zhong, “Strong optical bistability in ytterbium-doped fibre laser with reabsorption,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 449–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Laser Phys. Lett. (6)

I. A. Lobach, S. I. Kablukov, E. V. Podivilov, and S. A. Babin, “Self-scanned single-frequency operation of a fiber laser driven by a self-induced phase grating,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(4), 045103 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and M. V. Andres, “An experimental analysis of self-Q-switching via stimulated Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kurkov, “Q-switched all-fiber lasers with saturable absorbers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(5), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kir’yanov and N. Il’ichev, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in an ytterbium fiber laser with non-resonant Fabry-Perot cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(4), 305–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavik, P. Honzatko, and V. Kubecek, “Long-period fiber grating as wavelength selective element in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(10), 732–736 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, J. Maria, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping in double-clad Yb-doped fiber-ring lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 445–450 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, M. Salhi, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Mode-lock, Q-switch and CW operation of an Yb-doped double-clad fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 198(1-3), 141–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Peterka, P. Navrátil, B. Dussardier, R. Slavík, P. Honzátko, and V. Kubeček, “Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities,” Proc. SPIE 8433, 843309 (2012).

Other (2)

P. Peterka, P. Honzatko, F. Todorov, J. Aubrecht, O. Podrazky, and I. Kasik, “Self-Q-switched regime of fiber lasers as a transition from self-induced laser line sweeping,” in Advanced Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SoTh2B.6.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Principles and Applications (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Laser setup and (b) Yb-doped fiber cross section.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Absorption spectrum of the experimental Yb-doped phospho-silicate fiber. (b) Laser output power vs. pump power.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Output spectra for three different laser output powers. The resolution (input slit width) of the optical spectrum analyzer was set to higher value for the low output power. (b) Optical spectrum analyzer output in the power meter mode at the wavelength of 1062 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Temporal characteristics of the laser output. (b) Details of the output pulses.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Optical power of the pump, forward and backward laser signal and interference fringes visibility along the resonator according to the numerical model for the output power of 360 mW. (b) Modulation of the refractive index along the active fiber. The fast modulation is shown in the inset in the position of maximum modulation depth.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Reflectivity of the dynamic FBG for three different levels of metastable level excitations. (b) Detail of the reflectivity in close proximity of the immediate laser wavelength.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Reflectivity of short sections around the peak refractive index modulation. The section length is 40 cm (a) and 10 cm (b). Maximum metastable level excitation was assumed.

Equations (2)

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Δn= e 2 ( n 0 2 +2) 2 72 n 0 m ε 0 c 0 S N 2 ,
N 2 = N tot W a W a +W + e 1/τ , W a(e) = Γ P σ a(e) hνA dν,

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