Abstract

We demonstrate silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators that enable quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) with high signal quality and record-low energy consumption. SOH integration combines highly efficient electro-optic organic materials with conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slot waveguides, and allows to overcome the intrinsic limitations of silicon as an optical integration platform. We demonstrate QPSK and 16QAM signaling at symbol rates of 28 GBd with peak-to-peak drive voltages of 0.6 Vpp. For the 16QAM experiment at 112 Gbit/s, we measure a bit-error ratio of 5.1 × 10˗5 and a record-low energy consumption of only 19 fJ/bit.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

2013 (6)

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Jenett, and A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

1992 (1)

F. Derr, “Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: concept and digital receiver realization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(9), 1290–1296 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Akelaitis, A. J. P.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

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Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
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Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
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J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

Bojko, R.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
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Bolten, J.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
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J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
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R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
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Boyko, B.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
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C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
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Brosi, J.-M.

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

Chakravarty, S.

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

Chen, B.

Chen, R. T.

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

Chmielak, B.

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
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R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
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S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

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R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
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Dinu, R.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

Dottermusch, S.

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multi-core fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
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Dumon, P.

Eich, M.

Elder, D.

Elder, D. L.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
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Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J.

Fedeli, J.-M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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Foschini, G. J.

Fournier, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
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L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
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D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
[Crossref]

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multi-core fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Goebel, B.

Goedecke, M. L.

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multi-core fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Goi, K.

Gunnerson, K. N.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gunter, P.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hampe, J.

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heni, W.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Hofmann, A.

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multi-core fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Hoose, T.

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multi-core fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Hosseini, A.

Huang, S.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
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Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jacob, A.

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jazbinsek, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Jenett, and A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenett, M.

Karl, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, W.-J.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koeber, S.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

Koenig, S.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
[Crossref]

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multi-core fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

Korn, D.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

Kramer, G.

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kusaka, H.

Kwong, D.-L.

Lauermann, M.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawson, R.

Lepage, G.

Leuthold, J.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, X.

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, X.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lindenmann, N.

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multi-core fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, X.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1–8 (2014).

Lo, G.-Q.

Luo, J.

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Jenett, and A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matheisen, C.

Merget, F.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagel, M.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, K.

Oka, A.

Olbricht, B. C.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

Onanuga, T.

N. Lindenmann, S. Dottermusch, M. L. Goedecke, T. Hoose, M. R. Billah, T. Onanuga, A. Hofmann, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “Connecting silicon photonic circuits to multi-core fibers by photonic wire bonding,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, R.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

Pantouvaki, M.

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

Pereverzev, Y. V.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

Petrov, A.

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeifle, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polishak, B. M.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Prezhdo, O. V.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prorok, S.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reinhardt, W.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
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Ripperda, C.

Roelkens, G.

Scherer, A.

Schindler, P. C.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

Schmogrow, R.

Selvaraja, S.

Selvaraja, S. K.

Shi, Z.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
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Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Spott, A.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
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Subbaraman, H.

X. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly efficient mode converter for coupling light into wide slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20678–20690 (2014).
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X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, X. Lin, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Polymer-based hybrid-integrated photonic devices for silicon on-chip modulation and board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 196–210 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, P. A.

Y. V. Pereverzev, K. N. Gunnerson, O. V. Prezhdo, P. A. Sullivan, Y. Liao, B. C. Olbricht, A. J. P. Akelaitis, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Guest−host cooperativity in organic materials greatly enhances the nonlinear optical response,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4355–4363 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sürgers, C.

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Terada, Y.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

Van Campenhout, J.

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Wahlbrink, T.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
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B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
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Waldow, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
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C. Koos, J. Brosi, M. Waldow, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-on-insulator modulators for next-generation 100 Gbit/s-ethernet,” in 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC) (VDE, 2007).
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Wang, G.

Wehrli, S.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wieland, J.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Witzens, J.

Woessner, M.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Heni, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

Wouters, J. M. D.

Wülbern, J. H.

Younkin, T. R.

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

D. Korn, R. Palmer, H. Yu, P. C. Schindler, L. Alloatti, M. Baier, R. Schmogrow, W. Bogaerts, S. K. Selvaraja, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. M. D. Wouters, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, B. Chen, R. Baets, P. Absil, R. Dinu, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) IQ modulator using the linear electro-optic effect for transmitting 16QAM at 112 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13219–13227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, W. Freude, L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, D. Korn, J. Pfeifle, M. Lauermann, R. Dinu, S. Wehrli, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, H. Yu, and W. Bogaerts, “Silicon-organic hybrid electro-optical devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 114–126 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, M. Woessner, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light Sci. Appl. (to be published).

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Korn, H. Yu, L. Alloatti, S. Koenig, P. C. Schindler, W. Bogaerts, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Baets, L. R. Dalton, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “High-Speed Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Modulator with 1.6 fJ/bit and 180 pm/V In-Device Nonlinearity,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC 2013) (IET, 2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhou, X.-H.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid polymer/sol-gel silica waveguide switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Alloatti, M. Lauermann, C. Sürgers, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Optical absorption in silicon layers in the presence of charge inversion/accumulation or ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051104 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, and M. Hochberg, “Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 233303 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-section of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). Each arm contains a slot waveguide (rail width wrail = 240 nm, slot width wslot = 80 nm). The device is coated with an electro-optic (EO) organic cladding material, consisting of a mixture of the EO chromophores YLD124 and PSLD41 [21,22]. The waveguides are electrically connected to a ground-signal-ground (GSG) RF transmission line via n-doped silicon slabs (thickness hslab = 70 nm). A gate voltage UGate between the Si substrate and the SOI device layer improves the conductivity of the silicon slab and hence the bandwidth of the device. A poling voltage Upol is initially applied via the floating ground electrodes of the device to align the chromophores in the slots of both waveguides (green arrows). When operating the device via the GSG line, the modulating electric RF field (blue arrows) is anti-parallel (parallel) to the chromophore orientation in the left (right) half of the GSG line. This results in opposite phase shifts in the two arms of the MZM and hence in push-pull operation. (b) Transmission vs. DC voltage of a MZM having 1.5 mm long phase shifters. At bias voltages above 2.9 V, the π-voltage of the device amounts to Uπ = 0.35 V. For smaller DC voltages, free charges in the cladding lead to a partial screening of the applied electric field and hence to increased π-voltages. (c) Ex component of the optical field in the slot waveguide. (d) Dominant Ex component of the electrical drive signal. Both fields are confined to the slot, resulting in strong interaction and hence efficient modulation. (e) Optical micrograph of the IQ modulator structure prior to depositing the organic cladding. The GSG transmission lines of both MZM are clearly visible. For contacting, the GSG line is up-tapered at both ends of the slot waveguide section to match the 100 µm pitch of the microwave probe.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental setup. (a) Two nested MZM form an IQ modulator. An intentional path-length imbalance in the parent Mach-Zehnder interferometer allows for adjusting the phase difference of in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) component of the signal to π/2 by wavelength tuning. Electrical multilevel drive signals are generated by field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and high-speed digital-to-analog converters (DAC), the outputs of which are directly coupled to the silicon chip via microwave probes. Bias-Ts are used to apply DC bias voltages to the MZM for adjusting the operating points. An external-cavity laser (ECL) is used as an optical source and coupled to the chip via fibers and grating couplers. The optical output signal is amplified by an EDFA and subsequently fed into an optical modulation analyzer (OMA) with a second laser as local oscillator (LO). (b) Equivalent-circuit diagram of the experimental setup for calculation of the energy consumption. Each MZM features a 50 Ω GSG transmission line which is terminated by an external 50 Ω resistor and is driven directly by one DAC, represented by an ideal voltage source and an internal resistance of 50 Ω. The GSG line of the MZM is matched to the 50 Ω output of the DAC. To estimate the energy consumption, we can replace the transmission line and its termination by an equivalent resistor of R = 50 Ω.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured eye diagrams and constellations for a symbol rate of 28 GBd. (a) Eye diagram of the electrical drive signals for one MZM in the case of QPSK (top) and 16QAM (bottom). Peak-to-peak drive voltages of 0.6 Vpp are sufficient to generate a high-quality optical signal. The eye diagrams were obtained by connecting an oscilloscope with a 50 Ω input impedance to the DAC that are used to drive the modulators. (b) Corresponding optical eye diagrams, measured with the optical modulation analyzer. (c) Corresponding constellation diagrams of the optical signals. The measured EVMm of the QPSK signal is 10.9%; no errors could be measured. From the measured EVMm, the BER can be estimated to be well below to 1 × 10−10. For the 16QAM signal, the EVMm is 8.7% and the measured BER amounts to 5.1 × 10−5.

Equations (3)

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r 33 = w slot λ c 2L U π Γ n slot 3 ,
W bit,QPSK =[ ( U d1 2 ) 2 1 R + ( U d2 2 ) 2 1 R ]× 1 r QPSK .
W bit,16QAM =( 1 2 [ ( U d1 2 ) 2 1 R + ( 1 3 U d1 2 ) 2 1 R ]+ 1 2 [ ( U d2 2 ) 2 1 R + ( 1 3 U d2 2 ) 2 1 R ] )× 1 r 16QAM .

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