Abstract

As the bit rates of routed data streams exceed the throughput of single wavelength-division multiplexing channels, spectral and spatial traffic aggregation become essential for optical network scaling. These aggregation techniques reduce network routing complexity by increasing spectral efficiency to decrease the number of fibers, and by increasing switching granularity to decrease the number of switching components. Spectral aggregation yields a modest decrease in the number of fibers but a substantial decrease in the number of switching components. Spatial aggregation yields a substantial decrease in both the number of fibers and the number of switching components. To quantify routing complexity reduction, we analyze the number of multi-cast and wavelength-selective switches required in a colorless, directionless and contentionless reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architecture. Traffic aggregation has two potential drawbacks: reduced routing power and increased switching component size.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  92. G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical traffic grooming in OFDM-based elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), B17–B25 (2012).
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2014 (13)

C. Laperle and M. O’Sullivan, “High-Speed DACs and ADCs for Next Generation Flexible Transceivers,” OSA Signal Processing in Photonics Communications, paper SM 2014, 3E–1 (2014).

P. Winzer, “Making spatial multiplexing a reality,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 345–348 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. O. Arik, J. M. Kahn, and K.-P. Ho, “MIMO signal processing for mode-division multiplexing,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 31(2), 25–34 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nazarathy and A. Tolmachev, “Subbanded DSP architectures based on underdecimated filter banks for coherent OFDM receivers,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 31(2), 70–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, J. Surof, M. Kuschnerov, V. Veljanovski, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, L. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, S. Calabrò, and H. de Waardt, “20 × 960-Gb/s Space-division-multiplexed 32QAM transmission over 60 km few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 22(1), 749–755 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Linear Propagation Effects in Mode-Division Multiplexing Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 614–628 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, M. D. Feuer, K. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. M. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “Spatial superchannel routing in a two-span ROADM system for space division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 783–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, P. J. Winzer, S. Randel, L. Salamanca, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, L. L. Buhl, S. Chandrashekhar, X. Chongin, S. Draving, M. Grove, K. Rush, and R. Urbanke, “High Symbol Rate Coherent Optical Transmission Systems: 80 and 107 Gbaud,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 824–831 (2014).
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J. Carpenter, S. G. L. Saval, J. R. S. Gil, J. B. Hawthorn, G. Baxter, L. Stewart, S. Frisken, M. A. F. Roelens, B. J. Eggleton, and J. Schröder, “1x11 few-mode fiber wavelength selective switch using photonics lanterns,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2216–2222 (2014).

S. O. Arik, D. Askarov, and J. M. Kahn, “Adaptive frequency-domain equalization in mode-division multiplexing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 1841–1852 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Sharif and J. M. Kahn, “Variable-bandwidth superchannels using synchronized colorless transceivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 1921–1929 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. N. Mahalati, D. Askarov, and J. M. Kahn, “Adaptive modal gain equalization techniques in multi-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(11), 2133–2143 (2014).
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S. O. Arık and J. M. Kahn, “Diversity-multiplexing tradeoff in mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3258–3261 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

S. Mumtaz, R. J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in multimode and multicore fibers: Generalization of the Manakov equations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(3), 398–406 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. O. Arik, D. Askarov, and J. M. Kahn, “Effect of mode coupling on signal processing complexity in mode-division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(3), 423–431 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “305 Tb/s space division multiplexed transmission using homogeneous 19-core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 554–562 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. I. Kroushkov, G. Rademacher, and K. Petermann, “Cross mode modulation in multimode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1642–1644 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, S. B. Ezra, P. C. Schindler, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Pulse-shaping with digital, electrical, and optical filters—a comparison,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(15), 2570–2577 (2013).

R. J. Essiambre, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental investigation of inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, C. Xie, and Z. Pan, “Optimization of DSP to generate spectrally efficient 16QAM Nyquist-WDM signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 772–775 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. O. Arik and J. M. Kahn, “Coupled-core multi-core fibers for spatial multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2054–2057 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (15)

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R. J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode couplers for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Askarov and J. M. Kahn, “Design of transmission fibers and doped fiber amplifiers for mode-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1945–1948 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), 12–20 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M.-J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H.-Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G.-D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2668–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kilmurray, T. Fehenberger, P. Bayvel, and R. I. Killey, “Comparison of the nonlinear transmission performance of quasi-Nyquist WDM and reduced guard interval OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4198–4205 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6x6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Takara, H. Ono, Y. Abe, H. Masuda, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, H. Kubota, K. Shibahara, T. Kobayashi, and Y. Miaymoto, “1000-km 7-core fiber transmission of 10 x 96-Gb/s PDM-16QAM using Raman amplification with 6.5 W per fiber,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10100–10105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, J. P. Wilde, and T. A. Zeid, “Bandwidth-scalable long-haul transmission using synchronized colorless transceivers and efficient wavelength-selective switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(16), 2646–2660 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Cladding-pumped Erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20191–20200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhang, M. D. Leenheer, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical traffic grooming in OFDM-based elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), B17–B25 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, L. Gao, G. Shen, and L. Peng, “Impact of ROADM colorless, directionless, and contentionless (CDC) features on optical network performance,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), B58–B67 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Shulkind and M. Nazarathy, “An analytical study of the improved nonlinear tolerance of DFT-spread OFDM and its unitary-spread OFDM generalization,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25884–25901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “OFDM based superchannel transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3816–3823 (2012).
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A. Li, X. Chen, G. Gao, and W. Shieh, “Transmission of 1 Tb/s unique-word DFT-spread OFDM superchannel over 8000 km EDFA-only SSMF link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3931–3937 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Frequency diversity in mode-division multiplexing systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(24), 3719–3726 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(9), 1354–1366 (2011).
[Crossref]

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Mode-dependent loss and gain: statistics and effect on mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16612–16635 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Krummrich, “Optical amplification and optical filter based signal processing for cost and energy efficient spatial multiplexing,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16636–16652 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-km seven-core fiber,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16665–16671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle., “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16697–16707 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Cartledge, J. D. Downie, J. E. Hurley, A. S. Karar, Y. Jiang, and K. Roberts, “Pulse shaping for 112 Gbit/s polarization multiplexed 16-QAM signals using a 21 GSa/s DAC,” Opt. Express 19(26), B628–B635 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, A. Li, G. Gao, and W. Shieh, “Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26198–26207 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-P. Ho, “Effects of Homodyne Crosstalk on Dual-Polarization QPSK Signals,” J. Lightw. Tech. 29(1), 124–131 (2011).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1250–1252 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2006 (2)

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, “Wavelength-routing capability of reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers in dynamic optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4296–4303 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, “Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part I-multigranular cross-connect architectures,” J. of Opt. Netw. 5(12), 1043–1055 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Zhu, H. Zang, and B. Mukherjee, “A comprehensive study on next-generation optical grooming switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 21(7), 1173–1186 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Optical frequency comb generator using phase modulation in amplified circulating loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(6), 721–725 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abe, Y.

Abedin, K.

Abedin, K. S.

Adamiecki, A.

Agrawal, G. P.

Alam, S. U.

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, “Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part I-multigranular cross-connect architectures,” J. of Opt. Netw. 5(12), 1043–1055 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arik, S. O.

Askarov, D.

Awaji, Y.

Baeuerle, B.

Bai, N.

Barros, D. J. F.

Basch, B.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baxter, G.

Bayvel, P.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ben Ezra, S.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ben-Ezra, S.

Bergano, N. S.

Bickham, S.

Bolle, C.

Bolle, C. A.

Bonk, R.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

Burrows, E. C.

Calabrò, S.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, “Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: part I-multigranular cross-connect architectures,” J. of Opt. Netw. 5(12), 1043–1055 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carena, A.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carpenter, J.

Cartledge, J. C.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chandrashekhar, S.

Chen, X.

Chongin, X.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

R. J. Essiambre, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental investigation of inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christodoulopoulos, K.

Cohen, G.

Corbett, B.

Curri, V.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davidson, C. R.

de Waardt, H.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Downie, J. D.

Draving, S.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dupuy, J.-Y.

Eggleton, B. J.

Egorov, R.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 40–50 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ellermeyer, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambre, M. A. Mestre, R. Ryf, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Experimental investigation of inter-modal four-wave mixing in few-mode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 539–542 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Mumtaz, R. J. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear propagation in multimode and multicore fibers: Generalization of the Manakov equations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(3), 398–406 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R. J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode couplers for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.-J.

Ezra, S. B.

Fehenberger, T.

Feuer, M. D.

Fini, J. M.

Fishteyn, M.

Fontaine, N. K.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, and R. J. Essiambre, “Spot-based mode couplers for mode-multiplexed transmission in few-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1973–1976 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forghieri, F.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[Crossref]

Foschini, G. J.

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, S. B. Ezra, P. C. Schindler, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Pulse-shaping with digital, electrical, and optical filters—a comparison,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(15), 2570–2577 (2013).

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
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R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
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R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transmit and receive architectures for: (a) non-overlapping spectral superchannels, (b) overlapping spectral superchannels. Enc.: encoder, mod.: modulator, det.: optical hybrid and detectors, eq.: equalizer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectral and spatial patterns for: (a) non-overlapping spectral superchannels, (b) overlapping spectral superchannels. WDM: wavelength-division multiplexing, DFT: discrete Fourier transform, OFDM: orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, NGI: no-guard-interval.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmit and receive architectures per frequency channel for (a) uncoupled spatial superchannels, and (b) coupled spatial superchannels. Enc.: encoder, mod.: modulator, det.: optical hybrid and detectors, eq.: equalizer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectral and spatial patterns for: (a) uncoupled spatial superchannels, and (b) coupled spatial superchannels. MCF: multi-core fiber, MMF: multi-mode fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Number of fibers required per link PF,SL vs. aggregate throughput per link for different spectral and link spatial aggregation factors F and SL. The figure assumes Rs = 35 Gbaud, Δν = 50 GHz, QPSK modulation, 20% FEC overhead and use of the entire C band. Curves labeled “overlapping” assume the full spectral efficiency increase achieved by NGI-OFDM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Route-and-select ROADM of degree three (d = 3), showing some exemplary port connections for: (1) express functionality for same incoming and outgoing directions, (2) express functionality for different incoming and outgoing directions, (3) drop functionality, and (4) add functionality. For simplicity, a single-WSS-stage architecture is shown and optical amplifiers at the input and output ports of WSSs and MCSs are not shown. WSS: wavelength-selective switch, MCS: multi-cast switch, FSP: fiber shuffle panel.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Number of multi-cast switches (MCSs) and wavelength-selective switches (WSSs) required at a node, for different spectral and node spatial aggregation factors F and SN, for aggregate throughputs per direction of: (a) 11 Tbit/s, (b) 54 Tbit/s, (c) 112 Tbit/s and (d) 336 Tbit/s. The same parameters as in Fig. 5 are assumed.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral superchannel comparison.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spatial superchannel comparison.

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