Abstract

We report the design and fabrication of three-dimensional integrated mode couplers operating in the C-band. These mode-selective couplers were inscribed into a boro-aluminosilicate photonic chip using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Horizontally and vertically written two-core couplers are shown to allow for the multiplexing of the LP11a and LP11b spatial modes of an optical fiber, respectively, with excellent mode extinction ratios (25-37 + dB) and low loss (~1 dB) between 1500 and 1580 nm. Furthermore, optimized fabrication parameters enable coupling ratios close to 100%. When written in sequence, the couplers allow for the multiplexing of all LP01, LP11a and LP11b modes. This is also shown to be possible using a single 3-dimensional three-core coupler. These integrated mode couplers have considerable potential to be used in mode-division multiplexing for increasing optical fiber capacity. The three-dimensional capability of the femtosecond direct-write technique provides the versatility to write linear cascades of such two- and three-core couplers into a single compact glass chip, with arbitrary routing of waveguides to ensure a small footprint. This technology could be used for high-performance, compact and cost-effective multiplexing of large numbers of modes of an optical fiber.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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2014 (5)

2013 (9)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Science 7, 354–362 (2013).

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Tapered velocity mode-selective couplers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Ultra-broadband tapered mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Phot. Tech. L. 25(24), 2501–2504 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, J. Xu, F. Da Ros, B. Huang, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10376–10382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, M. Lu, and R. M. Osgood., “Asymmetric Y junctions in silicon waveguides for on-chip mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1854–1856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Alberich, A. Arriola, M. J. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, “Fabrication of fully integrated antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1872–1874 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Jung, R. Chen, R. Ismaeel, G. Brambilla, S.-U. Alam, I. P. Giles, and D. J. Richardson, “Dual mode fused optical fiber couplers suitable for mode division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(20), 24326–24331 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, M. Koshiba, and F. Yamamoto, “Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25752–25760 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” Phot. Tech. L. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Weakly-guiding mode-selective fiber couplers,” J. Quant. Elect. 48(7), 941–945 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M.-J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H.-Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G.-D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2668–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 3990–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2007 (1)

1996 (1)

1986 (1)

Al Amin, A.

Alam, S.-U.

Alberich, M.

Arkwright, J. W.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” Phot. Tech. L. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arriola, A.

Bai, N.

Bickham, S.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bolle, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

Burrows, E. C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. H.

Charles, N.

Chen, R.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

Chung, H. S.

Da Ros, F.

Dadap, J. I.

Davis, K. M.

Ding, Y.

Dreisow, F.

Driscoll, J. B.

Ercan, B.

Esmaeelpour, M.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Essiambre, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Science 7, 354–362 (2013).

Fontaine, N. K.

Fuerbach, A.

Gao, G.

Giles, I. P.

Gnauck, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gris-Sánchez, I.

Gross, S.

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Alberich, A. Arriola, M. J. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, “Fabrication of fully integrated antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1872–1874 (2013).
[PubMed]

Grote, R. R.

Hanzawa, N.

Hirao, K.

Huang, B.

Huang, Y.-K.

Ip, E.

Ismaeel, R.

Jovanovic, N.

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, K.

Kim, Y. K.

Koshiba, M.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lee, J. C.

Lee, J. H.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, A.

Li, G.

Li, M.-J.

Liñares, J.

Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Love, J. D.

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Tapered velocity mode-selective couplers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Ultra-broadband tapered mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Phot. Tech. L. 25(24), 2501–2504 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Weakly-guiding mode-selective fiber couplers,” J. Quant. Elect. 48(7), 941–945 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 3990–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” Phot. Tech. L. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

Lu, M.

Luo, Y.

Man Chung, K.

Mateo, E.

Matsui, T.

McCurdy, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meany, T.

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).

Miura, K.

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Mumtaz, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Science 7, 354–362 (2013).

Nolte, S.

Olaizola, S. M.

Osgood, R. M.

Ou, H.

Park, K. J.

Peckham, D. W.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, G.-D.

Pertsch, T.

Peucheret, C.

Prieto, X.

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Riesen, N.

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Tapered velocity mode-selective couplers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Ultra-broadband tapered mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Phot. Tech. L. 25(24), 2501–2504 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Weakly-guiding mode-selective fiber couplers,” J. Quant. Elect. 48(7), 941–945 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 3990–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” Phot. Tech. L. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Saitoh, K.

Sakamoto, T.

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Shaw, H. J.

Shieh, W.

Sierra, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sorin, W. V.

Souhan, B.

Steel, M. J.

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).

Sugimoto, N.

Szameit, A.

Tam, H.-Y.

Ten, S.

Tse, V.

Tsujikawa, K.

Tünnermann, A.

Tuthill, P. G.

Wang, T.

Winzer, P. J.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
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S. Gross, M. Alberich, A. Arriola, M. J. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, “Fabrication of fully integrated antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1872–1874 (2013).
[PubMed]

Xu, J.

Yamamoto, F.

Yaman, F.

Yerolatsitis, S.

Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. J. Steel, and M. J. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Adv. Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).

J. Lightw. Tech. (3)

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-division multiplexing over 96 km of few-mode fiber using coherent 6 × 6 MIMO processing,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(4), 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightw. Tech. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Tapered velocity mode-selective couplers,” J. Lightw. Tech. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Elect. (1)

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Weakly-guiding mode-selective fiber couplers,” J. Quant. Elect. 48(7), 941–945 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
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Opt. Express (10)

Y. Jung, R. Chen, R. Ismaeel, G. Brambilla, S.-U. Alam, I. P. Giles, and D. J. Richardson, “Dual mode fused optical fiber couplers suitable for mode division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(20), 24326–24331 (2013).
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N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, M. Koshiba, and F. Yamamoto, “Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25752–25760 (2013).
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S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
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S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
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N. Bai, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, M.-J. Li, S. Bickham, S. Ten, J. Liñares, C. Montero, V. Moreno, X. Prieto, V. Tse, K. Man Chung, A. P. T. Lau, H.-Y. Tam, C. Lu, Y. Luo, G.-D. Peng, G. Li, and T. Wang, “Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2668–2680 (2012).
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A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
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Y. Ding, J. Xu, F. Da Ros, B. Huang, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10376–10382 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Phot. Tech. L. (2)

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Ultra-broadband tapered mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Phot. Tech. L. 25(24), 2501–2504 (2013).
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N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” Phot. Tech. L. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
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Science (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Science 7, 354–362 (2013).

Other (2)

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. Salazar Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” in Proc. of ECOC (2013), PD1-C-3.
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P. Mitchell, G. Brown, R. Thomson, N. Psaila, and A. Kar, “57 channel (19×3) spatial multiplexer fabricated using direct laser inscription,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M3k.5.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The mode-selective couplers fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Schematic showing the (a) horizontal and vertical two-couplers, each comprising of a multimode (MM) and single-mode (SM) core, and (b) the three-core coupler. The insets show brightfield microscope images of the end-faces of the fabricated two-core couplers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The measured coupling ratios for the (a) horizontal (105 nJ) and (b) vertical couplers (131 nJ) as compared with approximate analytic models. The coupling ratios of two other horizontal couplers written using the same pulse energy but with different interaction length are also shown. The LP11a and LP11b mode profiles are shown in the inset.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The mode extinction ratios for the horizontal and vertical mode couplers, and (b) the dependency of coupling ratio on interaction length for a series of horizontal couplers written at 100 and 105 nJ.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) An end-face microscope image of the three-core mode-selective coupler fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. Different pulse energies were required compared with the two-core devices because of drift in the laser between fabrication runs. Also shown is the multiplexing of all three modes of the multimode core at 1540 nm. (b) The wavelength-dependence of the coupling and mode extinction ratios.

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