Abstract

Increases in the laser damage threshold of fused silica have been driven by the successive elimination of near-surface damage precursors such as polishing residue, fractures, and inorganic salts. In this work, we show that trace impurities in ultrapure water used to process fused silica optics may be responsible for the formation of carbonaceous deposits. We use surrogate materials to show that organic compounds precipitated onto fused silica surfaces form discrete damage precursors. Following a standard etching process, solvent-free oxidative decomposition using oxygen plasma or high-temperature thermal treatments in air reduced the total density of damage precursors to as low as <50 cm−2. Finally, we show that inorganic compounds are more likely to cause damage when they are tightly adhered to a surface, which may explain why high-temperature thermal treatments have been historically unsuccessful at removing extrinsic damage precursors from fused silica.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli
Opt. Express 22(5) 5839-5851 (2014)

Reaction ion etching process for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surface

Laixi Sun, Hongjie Liu, Jin Huang, Xin Ye, Handing Xia, Qingzhi Li, Xiaodong Jiang, Weidong Wu, Liming Yang, and Wanguo Zheng
Opt. Express 24(1) 199-211 (2016)

Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems

J. Bude, C. W. Carr, P. E. Miller, T. Parham, P. Whitman, M. Monticelli, R. Raman, D. Cross, B. Welday, F. Ravizza, T. Suratwala, J. Davis, M. Fischer, R. Hawley, H. Lee, M. Matthews, M. Norton, M. Nostrand, D. VanBlarcom, and S. Sommer
Opt. Express 25(10) 11414-11435 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. B. Glebov, “Intrinsic laser-induced breakdown of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 321–331 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, and P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28(10), 1039–1068 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. V. Smith and B. T. Do, “Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm,” Appl. Opt. 47(26), 4812–4832 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. A. Haynam, P. J. Wegner, J. M. Auerbach, M. W. Bowers, S. N. Dixit, G. V. Erbert, G. M. Heestand, M. A. Henesian, M. R. Hermann, K. S. Jancaitis, K. R. Manes, C. D. Marshall, N. C. Mehta, J. Menapace, E. Moses, J. R. Murray, M. C. Nostrand, C. D. Orth, R. Patterson, R. A. Sacks, M. J. Shaw, M. Spaeth, S. B. Sutton, W. H. Williams, C. C. Widmayer, R. K. White, S. T. Yang, and B. M. Van Wonterghem, “National Ignition Facility laser performance status,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3276–3303 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J. C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. M. Brusasco, B. M. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, S. M. Maricle, and J. E. Peterson, “CO2-laser polishing for reduction of 351-nm surface damage initiation in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001 Proceedings, G. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (2002), pp. 34–39.
  13. R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, J. J. Adams, and S. G. Demos, “Monitoring annealing via CO2 laser heating of defect populations on fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15207–15215 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. Bien-Aimé, C. Belin, L. Gallais, P. Grua, E. Fargin, J. Néauport, and I. Tovena-Pecault, “Impact of storage induced outgassing organic contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18703–18713 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. K. Bien-Aimé, J. Néauport, I. Tovena-Pecault, E. Fargin, C. Labrugère, C. Belin, and M. Couzi, “Laser induced damage of fused silica polished optics due to a droplet forming organic contaminant,” Appl. Opt. 48(12), 2228–2235 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

K. Bien-Aimé, J. Néauport, I. Tovena-Pecault, E. Fargin, C. Labrugère, C. Belin, and M. Couzi, “Laser induced damage of fused silica polished optics due to a droplet forming organic contaminant,” Appl. Opt. 48(12), 2228–2235 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bien-Aimé, C. Belin, L. Gallais, P. Grua, E. Fargin, J. Néauport, and I. Tovena-Pecault, “Impact of storage induced outgassing organic contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18703–18713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

L. B. Glebov, “Intrinsic laser-induced breakdown of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 321–331 (2002).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, and P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28(10), 1039–1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

Adams, J. J.

R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, J. J. Adams, and S. G. Demos, “Monitoring annealing via CO2 laser heating of defect populations on fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15207–15215 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Auerbach, J. M.

Baxamusa, S.

Belin, C.

Bercegol, H.

Bien-Aimé, K.

Birolleau, J. C.

Bisson, S. E.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bowers, M. W.

Braunlich, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, and P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28(10), 1039–1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bude, J.

Bude, J. D.

N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Carr, C. W.

N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carr, W.

Casper, R. T.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, and P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28(10), 1039–1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

Couzi, M.

Cross, D.

Cross, D. A.

DeMange, P.

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Demos, S. G.

Dixit, S. N.

Do, B. T.

Draggoo, V. G.

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Elhadj, S.

R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Erbert, G. V.

Fargin, E.

Feit, M. D.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gallais, L.

Glebov, L. B.

L. B. Glebov, “Intrinsic laser-induced breakdown of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 321–331 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grua, P.

Haynam, C. A.

Heestand, G. M.

Henesian, M. A.

Hermann, M. R.

Jancaitis, K. S.

Jones, S. C.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, and P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28(10), 1039–1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kelly, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, and P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28(10), 1039–1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

Labrugère, C.

Lamaignere, L.

Laurence, T.

Laurence, T. A.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Ly, S.

Manes, K. R.

Marshall, C. D.

Matthews, M. J.

R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, J. J. Adams, and S. G. Demos, “Monitoring annealing via CO2 laser heating of defect populations on fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15207–15215 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mehta, N. C.

Menapace, J.

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, P.

Miller, P. E.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Monticelli, M.

Monticelli, M. V.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moses, E.

Murray, J. R.

Neauport, J.

Néauport, J.

Negres, R. A.

Norton, M. A.

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nostrand, M. C.

Orth, C. D.

Patterson, R.

Pilon, F.

Raman, R. N.

Sacks, R. A.

Settgast, R. R.

R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shaw, M. J.

Shen, N.

N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.-A.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, and P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28(10), 1039–1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. V.

Soules, T. F.

R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spaeth, M.

Steele, W.

Steele, W. A.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Stolken, J. S.

R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T.

Suratwala, T. I.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Sutton, S. B.

Tovena-Pecault, I.

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Vignes, R. M.

R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wegner, P. J.

White, R. K.

Widmayer, C. C.

Williams, W. H.

Wong, L.

Wong, L. L.

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. I. Suratwala, N. Shen, T. A. Laurence, W. A. Steele, J. Menapace, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Fracture-induced subbandgap absorption as a precursor to optical damage on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2702–2704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. T.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

R. M. Vignes, T. F. Soules, J. S. Stolken, R. R. Settgast, S. Elhadj, and M. J. Matthews, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Laser-Induced Structural Relaxation and Deformation of Glass: Volume Changes in Fused Silica at High Temperatures,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(1), 137–145 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-Based Etching Processes for Improving Laser Damage Resistance of Fused Silica Optical Surfaces,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(2), 416–428 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. T. Yang, M. J. Matthews, S. Elhadj, V. G. Draggoo, and S. E. Bisson, “Thermal transport in CO2 laser irradiated fused silica: In situ measurements and analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

N. Shen, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, T. I. Suratwala, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, and L. L. Wong, “Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121817 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X.-A. Shen, and P. Kelly, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28(10), 1039–1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

N. Shen, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “Model laser damage precursors for high quality optical materials,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3393–3404 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J. C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, D. A. Cross, M. A. Norton, and R. A. Negres, “The effect of laser pulse shape and duration on the size at which damage sites initiate and the implications to subsequent repair,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A859–A864 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bien-Aimé, C. Belin, L. Gallais, P. Grua, E. Fargin, J. Néauport, and I. Tovena-Pecault, “Impact of storage induced outgassing organic contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18703–18713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bude, P. Miller, S. Baxamusa, N. Shen, T. Laurence, W. Steele, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, W. Carr, D. Cross, and M. Monticelli, “High fluence laser damage precursors and their mitigation in fused silica,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5839–5851 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, S. Ly, N. Shen, and M. D. Feit, “Extracting the distribution of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces for 351 nm, 3 ns laser pulses at high fluences (20-150 J/cm2),” Opt. Express 20(10), 11561–11573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Raman, M. J. Matthews, J. J. Adams, and S. G. Demos, “Monitoring annealing via CO2 laser heating of defect populations on fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15207–15215 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B 82(18), 184304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. B. Glebov, “Intrinsic laser-induced breakdown of silicate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 4679, 321–331 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, “Laser damage precursors in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. M. Brusasco, B. M. Penetrante, J. A. Butler, S. M. Maricle, and J. E. Peterson, “CO2-laser polishing for reduction of 351-nm surface damage initiation in fused silica,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001 Proceedings, G. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, and C. J. Stolz, eds. (2002), pp. 34–39.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: SEM image of residue from ultrapure process water deposited on a silicon wafer. Scale bar = 100 μm. Center: Close-up of same residue. Scale bar = 50 μm. Red box indicates location of EDX analysis. Right: EDX spectrum showing carbon signal from residue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical micrographs of spray-deposited organic contaminants on fused silica. Left: as-prepared surface. Right: after small-area (S/1) damage test. Damage is coincident with the polymer contaminant. Scale bar = 50 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Damage probability of as-etched surface and surface contaminated with spray-deposited polymer, as determined from small-beam laser damage tests (S/1). The contaminants lower the laser damage threshold of the surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top row: Optical micrographs of residues from ultrapure process water. Bottom row: residues after UV-O3 (left) and 35 W O2 plasma (right) treatments. The arrow highlights residue that remains after the treatment. The three spots visible in the bottom-right image are microscope artifacts. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left: Optical micrographs of residue from ultrapure process water. Center: Residue after 500 °C thermal treatment in air. Arrow highlights remaining residue. Left: No observable residue after 990 °C thermal treatment in air. The three spots visible in the center image are microscope artifacts. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Saturated damage density as determined by large-area damage test. The calculation of the saturated damage density is described in the main text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Damage probability before and after thermal treatment in air. Note that this sample was prepared prior to protocols designed to eliminate sources of inorganic damage precursors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Damage (S/1) and cleaning (R/1) thresholds for NaCl grains as a function of adhesive strength. The adhesion is rank-ordered weakest to greatest from left to right.

Metrics