Abstract

We report electron-hole plasma (EHP) lasing in hexagonal ZnO microrods and thin nanobelts. Under the excitation of 325 nm line femtosecond pulsed laser, ultraviolet whispering-gallery mode (WGM) lasing was observed from hexagonal ZnO microrods. When EHP was formed at high excitation energy density, the center wavelength of the WGM lasing band presented a redshift from 387.5 nm to 397.5 nm, and the full width of half maximum (FWHM) of the WGM lasing band increased from 2.5 nm to 7 nm. Each lasing mode showed obvious blueshift and broadening. Such lasing characteristics were attributed to the band gap renormalization (BGR) due to the high carrier concentration at the EHP condition. In addition, EHP Fabry-Perot (F-P) mode lasing from thin ZnO nanobelt was also observed and discussed. According to the phenomenological BGR calculation with including the carrier density dependent screening effect, the values of the band gap of ZnO at different excitation energy densities were obtained, which agree well with the experimental results.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  17. C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. M. A. M. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature Laser Emission of ZnO Nanowires Explained by Many-Body Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 157402 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  24. R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and adsorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. Nakamura, K. Firdaus, and S. Adachi, “Electron-hole plasma lasing in a ZnO random laser,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205103 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. M. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature Laser Emission of ZnO Nanowires Explained by Many-Body Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 157402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Mitsubori, I. Katayama, S. H. Lee, T. Yao, and J. Takeda, “Ultrafast lasing due to electron-hole plasma in ZnO nano-multipods,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(6), 064211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Fallert, F. Stelzl, H. J. Zhou, A. Reiser, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Lasing dynamics in single ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1125–1131 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Higuchi, K. Omae, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Room-temperature CW lasing of a GaN-based verticalcavity surface-emitting laser by current injection,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 121102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5764 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and adsorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

L. W. Casperson, “Threshold Characteristics of Multimode Laser Oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 5194–5201 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

G. Göbel, “Recombination without k‐selection rules in dense electron‐hole plasmas in high‐purity GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 492–494 (1974).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

P. A. Wolff, “Theory of the band structure of very degenerate semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 126(2), 405–412 (1962).
[Crossref]

Abiyasa, A. P.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

T. Nakamura, K. Firdaus, and S. Adachi, “Electron-hole plasma lasing in a ZnO random laser,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cao, B. Q.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Casperson, L. W.

L. W. Casperson, “Threshold Characteristics of Multimode Laser Oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 5194–5201 (1975).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. W.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. P.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y. P.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Czekalla, C.

R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dijkhuis, J. I.

M. A. M. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature Laser Emission of ZnO Nanowires Explained by Many-Body Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 157402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Fallert, F. Stelzl, H. J. Zhou, A. Reiser, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Lasing dynamics in single ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1125–1131 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Firdaus, K.

T. Nakamura, K. Firdaus, and S. Adachi, “Electron-hole plasma lasing in a ZnO random laser,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gargas, D. J.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Göbel, G.

G. Göbel, “Recombination without k‐selection rules in dense electron‐hole plasmas in high‐purity GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 492–494 (1974).
[Crossref]

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M.

R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hauschild, R.

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Higuchi, Y.

Y. Higuchi, K. Omae, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Room-temperature CW lasing of a GaN-based verticalcavity surface-emitting laser by current injection,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 121102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jogai, B.

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5764 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Fallert, F. Stelzl, H. J. Zhou, A. Reiser, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Lasing dynamics in single ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1125–1131 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Katayama, I.

S. Mitsubori, I. Katayama, S. H. Lee, T. Yao, and J. Takeda, “Ultrafast lasing due to electron-hole plasma in ZnO nano-multipods,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(6), 064211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawasaki, M.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Fallert, F. Stelzl, H. J. Zhou, A. Reiser, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Lasing dynamics in single ZnO nanorods,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1125–1131 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koinuma, H.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kolbas, R. M.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and adsorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kühne, P.

R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuis, T.

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lau, S. P.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. Mitsubori, I. Katayama, S. H. Lee, T. Yao, and J. Takeda, “Ultrafast lasing due to electron-hole plasma in ZnO nano-multipods,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(6), 064211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leong, E. S. P.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, H. D.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liang, H. K.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ling, B.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5764 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, M.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lv, C. G.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsumura, H.

Y. Higuchi, K. Omae, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Room-temperature CW lasing of a GaN-based verticalcavity surface-emitting laser by current injection,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 121102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mitsubori, S.

S. Mitsubori, I. Katayama, S. H. Lee, T. Yao, and J. Takeda, “Ultrafast lasing due to electron-hole plasma in ZnO nano-multipods,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(6), 064211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, M. C.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

Y. Higuchi, K. Omae, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Room-temperature CW lasing of a GaN-based verticalcavity surface-emitting laser by current injection,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 121102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Muth, J. F.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and adsorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, K. Firdaus, and S. Adachi, “Electron-hole plasma lasing in a ZnO random laser,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Narayan, J.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and adsorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ng, C. Y.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ni, A.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtomo, A.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oktyabrsky, S.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and adsorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Omae, K.

Y. Higuchi, K. Omae, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Room-temperature CW lasing of a GaN-based verticalcavity surface-emitting laser by current injection,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 121102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reiser, A.

Reynolds, D. C.

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5764 (2000).
[Crossref]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sauer, R.

Schmidt-Grund, R.

R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, D.

R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Segawa, Y.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A. K.

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and adsorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stelzl, F.

Stoof, H. T. C.

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sturm, C.

R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. D.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeda, J.

S. Mitsubori, I. Katayama, S. H. Lee, T. Yao, and J. Takeda, “Ultrafast lasing due to electron-hole plasma in ZnO nano-multipods,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(6), 064211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Z. K.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thonke, K.

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

M. A. M. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature Laser Emission of ZnO Nanowires Explained by Many-Body Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 157402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Versteegh, M. A. M.

M. A. M. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature Laser Emission of ZnO Nanowires Explained by Many-Body Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 157402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

P. A. Wolff, “Theory of the band structure of very degenerate semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 126(2), 405–412 (1962).
[Crossref]

Wong, G. K. L.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C. X.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, H. Q.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H. Y.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, P. D.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, T.

S. Mitsubori, I. Katayama, S. H. Lee, T. Yao, and J. Takeda, “Ultrafast lasing due to electron-hole plasma in ZnO nano-multipods,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(6), 064211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. F.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. Y.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zheng, K.

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H. J.

Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S. W. Chang, Z. Y. Zhang, S. L. Chuang, and P. D. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater. 23(19), 2199–2204 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-Temperature Lasing Characteristics of ZnO Epilayers,” Adv. Mater. 18(6), 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Higuchi, K. Omae, H. Matsumura, and T. Mukai, “Room-temperature CW lasing of a GaN-based verticalcavity surface-emitting laser by current injection,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 121102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

G. Göbel, “Recombination without k‐selection rules in dense electron‐hole plasmas in high‐purity GaAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24(10), 492–494 (1974).
[Crossref]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, “Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(25),3270–3272 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, “High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(8), 1038–1040 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Q. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. X. Xu, K. Zheng, C. G. Lv, and Y. P. Cui, “Whispering gallery-mode lasing in ZnO microrods at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 241110 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. W. Casperson, “Threshold Characteristics of Multimode Laser Oscillations,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 5194–5201 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. F. Muth, R. M. Kolbas, A. K. Sharma, S. Oktyabrsky, and J. Narayan, “Excitonic structure and adsorption coefficient measurements of ZnO single crystal epitaxial films deposited by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(11), 7884–7887 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, and B. Jogai, “Combined effects of screening and band gap renormalization on the energy of optical transitions in ZnO and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5760–5764 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. Mitsubori, I. Katayama, S. H. Lee, T. Yao, and J. Takeda, “Ultrafast lasing due to electron-hole plasma in ZnO nano-multipods,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(6), 064211 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. A. Wolff, “Theory of the band structure of very degenerate semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 126(2), 405–412 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

T. Nakamura, K. Firdaus, and S. Adachi, “Electron-hole plasma lasing in a ZnO random laser,” Phys. Rev. B 86(20), 205103 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. M. Versteegh, T. Kuis, H. T. C. Stoof, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Ultrafast screening and carrier dynamics in ZnO: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035207 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Klingshirn, R. Hauschild, J. Fallert, and H. Kalt, “Room-temperature stimulated emission of ZnO: Alternatives to excitonic lasing,” Phys. Rev. B 75(11), 115203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. A. M. Versteegh, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and J. I. Dijkhuis, “Room-temperature Laser Emission of ZnO Nanowires Explained by Many-Body Theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 157402 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Schmidt-Grund, P. Kühne, C. Czekalla, D. Schumacher, C. Sturm, and M. Grundmann, “Determination of the refractive index of single crystal bulk samples and micro-structures,” Thin Solid Films 519(9), 2777–2781 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. S. Al-Ajmi, “Stimulated Emission and Laser Action from Gallium Nitride, Aluminium Gallium Nitride, Aluminium Gallium Nitride/Gallium NitrideQuantum Wells and Heterostructures,” Ph. D. Dissertation, North Carolina State University (2007).

C. Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd ed., (Springer, Berlin, 2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (2728 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of the ZnO microrod (D = 6.55 μm), the inset shows a hexagonal cavity with WGM optical resonance loop. (b) Microscopy image of the ZnO microrod at lasing condition. (c) PL emission spectra from the ZnO microrod for Iexc increasing from 25 μJ/cm−2 to 150 μJ/cm−2. (d) Output-input relationship of the ZnO microrod laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a,b) WGM lasing spectra from the ZnO microrods with D = 13.05 and 12.0 μm, respectively. (c) The relationship between band gap and the carrier concentration for the three ZnO microrod and a ZnO nanobelt discussed in the next paragraph, the solid line is the theoretical result.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) SEM image of the ZnO nanobelt (W = 25.5 μm), the inset shows the SEM image of the end. (b) Microscopy image of the ZnO nanobelt at lasing condition (Media 1). (c) PL emission spectra from the ZnO nanobelt for Iexc increasing from 50 μJ/cm2 to 150 μJ/cm2. (d) Output-input relationship of the ZnO nanobelt laser.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N = 3 3 n D 2 λ 6 π tan 1 ( n 3 n 2 4 )
Δ λ = λ 2 2 L ( n λ d n d λ )

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