Abstract

Femtosecond pulse laser with tilted intensity front demonstrates the capability of rotating the writing of nanograting in glass in 3D space. Other than the light polarization, this phenomenon is also associated with the quill-writing effect, which depends on the correlation between the sample movement and the pulse front tilt. This is because a pondermotive force, perpendicular to the tilted intensity plane, can push the excited electron plasma forward towards the pulse front. This behavior further tilts the electrical field plane and eventually result in a forced rotation of nanograting in 3D space.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in Glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).
  4. S. Richter, C. Miese, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Laser induced nanogratings beyond fused silica – periodic nanostructures in borosilicate glasses and ULETM,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1161–1166 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(652), 646–656 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Brasselet, A. Royon, and L. Canioni, “Dense arrays of microscopic optical vortex generators from femtosecond direct laser writing of radial birefringence in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181901 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Cheng, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, “Fabrication of polarization-dependent light attenuator in fused silica using a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2212–2214 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. N. Vitek, E. Block, Y. Bellouard, D. E. Adams, S. Backus, D. Kleinfeld, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24673–24678 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. Salter and M. Booth, “Dynamic control of directional asymmetry observed in ultrafast laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141109 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Poumellec, M. Lancry, R. Desmarchelier, E. Hervé, F. Brisset, and J. C. Poulin, “Asymmetric Orientation Writing in glass with femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(10), 1586–1599 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Poumellec, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser irradiation stress induced in pure silica,” Opt. Express 11(9), 1070–1079 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Dai, G. Wu, X. Lin, G. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced rotated 3D self-organized nanograting in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18072–18078 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 482–484 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Measuring pulse-front tilt in ultrashort pulses using GRENOUILLE,” Opt. Express 11(5), 491–501 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, J. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Takebe, and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary anisotropy of ultrafast laser writing in glass,” Opt. Express 21(4), 3959–3968 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(1–2), 26–46 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (4)

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, G. Wu, X. Lin, G. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced rotated 3D self-organized nanograting in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18072–18078 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Salter and M. Booth, “Dynamic control of directional asymmetry observed in ultrafast laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141109 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Brasselet, A. Royon, and L. Canioni, “Dense arrays of microscopic optical vortex generators from femtosecond direct laser writing of radial birefringence in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181901 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2008 (2)

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(1–2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(652), 646–656 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

Adams, D. E.

Akturk, S.

Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Block, E.

Booth, M.

P. Salter and M. Booth, “Dynamic control of directional asymmetry observed in ultrafast laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brandt, N.

Brasselet, E.

E. Brasselet, A. Royon, and L. Canioni, “Dense arrays of microscopic optical vortex generators from femtosecond direct laser writing of radial birefringence in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bricchi, E.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brisset, F.

Canioni, L.

E. Brasselet, A. Royon, and L. Canioni, “Dense arrays of microscopic optical vortex generators from femtosecond direct laser writing of radial birefringence in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chahid-Erraji, A.

Cheng, C.

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Desmarchelier, R.

Döring, S.

Durfee, C. G.

Franco, M.

Gecevicius, M.

Gertus, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gottmann, J.

Heinrich, M.

Hervé, E.

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in Glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(652), 646–656 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(1–2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horn-Solle, H.

Jia, F.

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, J. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Takebe, and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary anisotropy of ultrafast laser writing in glass,” Opt. Express 21(4), 3959–3968 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lancry, B. Poumellec, A. Chahid-Erraji, M. Beresna, and P. G. Kazansky, “Dependence of the femtosecond laser refractive index change thresholds on the chemical composition of doped-silica glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(4), 711–723 (2011).

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in Glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimmel, M.

Kleinfeld, D.

Lancry, M.

Lin, X.

Ma, G.

Miese, C.

Miura, K.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in Glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(652), 646–656 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nolte, S.

O’Shea, P.

Peschel, U.

Poulin, J. C.

Poumellec, B.

Prade, B.

Qiu, J.

F. Zhang, Y. Yu, C. Cheng, Y. Dai, and J. Qiu, “Fabrication of polarization-dependent light attenuator in fused silica using a low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(13), 2212–2214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, G. Wu, X. Lin, G. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser induced rotated 3D self-organized nanograting in fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(16), 18072–18078 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in Glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(652), 646–656 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, S.

Royon, A.

E. Brasselet, A. Royon, and L. Canioni, “Dense arrays of microscopic optical vortex generators from femtosecond direct laser writing of radial birefringence in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sakakura, M.

Salter, P.

P. Salter and M. Booth, “Dynamic control of directional asymmetry observed in ultrafast laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in Glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(652), 646–656 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(1–2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

Sudrie, L.

Svirko, Y.

Takebe, H.

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(1–2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Tünnermann, A.

Vitek, D. N.

Withford, M. J.

Wortmann, D.

Wu, G.

Yang, W.

M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, J. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Takebe, and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary anisotropy of ultrafast laser writing in glass,” Opt. Express 21(4), 3959–3968 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, J.

Zimmermann, F.

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in Glass,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Brasselet, A. Royon, and L. Canioni, “Dense arrays of microscopic optical vortex generators from femtosecond direct laser writing of radial birefringence in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181901 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “‘Quill’ writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Salter and M. Booth, “Dynamic control of directional asymmetry observed in ultrafast laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141109 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(652), 646–656 (2006).
[Crossref]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(1–2), 26–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, and R. Trebino, “Measuring pulse-front tilt in ultrashort pulses using GRENOUILLE,” Opt. Express 11(5), 491–501 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, J. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Takebe, and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary anisotropy of ultrafast laser writing in glass,” Opt. Express 21(4), 3959–3968 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM images of self-organized NGs in transversal cross-section of the written lines with varied polarization plane azimuth. The red curve highlights the varying trend for the longitudinal length of NG.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of 3D rotation of NGs by a PFT fs laser direct writing. (b) The architectural diagram of NGs when φ = 4.9 ° and θ = 10°, 50° and 90° respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Sketch of a PFT fs laser direct writing NG in glass. (b) The sheet containing the laser parameters measured by GRENOUILLE. (c) SEM images of the written NGs in the transversal cross-section with two opposite scan directions S and S’.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dependence of the gap d (a) and the orientation angle β (b) on the polarization plane azimuth of laser pulse. The blue and red dots present the experimental data on S and S’ scan directions respectively. Solid lines correspond to the fitting results of geometrical formulas. The error bars come from a calculation of mean square root (MSR) error.

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