Abstract

Germanium-on-silicon thermo-optic phase shifters are demonstrated in the 5 μm wavelength range. Basic phase shifters require 700 mW of power for a 2π phase shift. The required power is brought down to 80 mW by complete undercut using focused ion beam. Finally an efficient thermo-optic phase shifter is demonstrated on the germanium on SOI platform. A tuning power (for a 2π phase shift) of 105 mW is achieved for a Ge-on-SOI structure which is lowered to 16 mW for a free standing phase shifter.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, D. Goossens, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Fabrication and characterization of CMOS-compatible integrated tungsten heaters for thermo-optic tuning in silicon photonics devices,” Opt. Mater. Express 4 (7), 1383–1388 (2014).

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Agarwal, A.

Arnauts, S.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Bogaerts, W.

Cerutti, L.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Chen, X.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cornelissen, I.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Danto, S.

Dave, U.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Degendt, S.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Frey, B. J.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Gencarelli, F.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Goossens, D.

Green, W.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Hattasan, N.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Healy, N.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Hens, Z.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Heyns, M. M.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Hu, C.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Hu, J.

Kenis, K.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Khokhar, A. Z.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kozacik, S.

Kuyken, B.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Leo, F.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Lepage, G.

Leviton, D. B.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, M.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

Lin, P. T.

Littlejohns, C. G.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Loewenstein, L.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Loo, R.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and mach-zehnder interferometers,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IEEE2013) pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

Lux, M.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Madison, T. J.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malik, A.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and mach-zehnder interferometers,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IEEE2013) pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Mashanovich, G. Z.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Masood, A.

Mertens, P.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Meuris, M.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Mitchell, C. J.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and mach-zehnder interferometers,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IEEE2013) pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

Murakowski, M.

Musgraves, J. D.

Nedeljkovic, M.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Osgood, R.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Pantouvaki, M.

Pathak, S.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peacock, A. C.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Prather, D.

Reed, G. T.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, S. A.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

Rodriguez, Jean-Baptiste

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and mach-zehnder interferometers,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IEEE2013) pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

Ryckeboer, E.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Sanchez, D.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Shimura, Y.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and mach-zehnder interferometers,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IEEE2013) pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

Singh, V.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stankovic, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Teerlinck, I.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Thomson, D. J.

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

Tournie, E.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uvin, S.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Van Campenhout, J.

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, D. Goossens, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Fabrication and characterization of CMOS-compatible integrated tungsten heaters for thermo-optic tuning in silicon photonics devices,” Opt. Mater. Express 4 (7), 1383–1388 (2014).

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and mach-zehnder interferometers,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IEEE2013) pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Verheyen, P.

Vincent, B.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, S. Uvin, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1523–1536 (2013).

Vos, R.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Wang, R.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wolke, K.

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

ACS Nano (1)

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics (1)

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics 20(4), 394–404 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Nedeljkovic, S. Stankovic, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. A. Reynolds, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, C. G. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Mid-infrared thermo-optic modulators in SoI,” IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett. 26 (13), 1352–1355, (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” Proc. SPIE 6273, 62732 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Meuris, S. Arnauts, I. Cornelissen, K. Kenis, M. Lux, S. Degendt, P. Mertens, I. Teerlinck, R. Vos, L. Loewenstein, M. M. Heyns, and K. Wolke, “Implementation of the IMEC-Clean in advanced CMOS manufacturing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Semicond. Manuf. (IEEE1999), pp. 157–160.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and mach-zehnder interferometers,” in Proc. of IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IEEE2013) pp. 104–105.
[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The 3-D simulation window showing the germanium waveguide and heater in a side heating configuration on a silicon substrate along with the spatial temperature distribution.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A schematic diagram showing the 1×2 MZI with heater in one of the arms along with the zoomed window showing the delay waveguide and the heater and (b) normalized spectra of the MZI with and without heater actuation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 2-D cross section in the middle of the simulation window, (b) line plot along the waveguide showing the temperature profile. The length of the heater was kept 700 μm and the power dissipated in the heater was 700 mW, (c) experimentally measured phase shift as a function of power dissipation along with the linear fit.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) SEM image of fully undercut heater and (b) top view of a fully undercut heater.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) 2-D cross section in the middle of the simulation window of a fully undercut heater, (b) line plot along the waveguide showing the temperature profile. The length of the heater was kept 210 μm and the power dissipated was 80 mW, (c) experimentally measured phase shift as a function of power dissipation along with the linear fit.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation showing the absorption loss of the fundamental TM mode at 5.3 μm in the germanium-on-SOI waveguide as a function of silicon thickness.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Schematic fabrication scheme of Ge-on-SOI phase shifters (a) 200 mm SOI wafer with 220 nm silicon layer, (b) epitaxial growth of 3 μm thick silicon and 2 μm thick germanium layers, (c) waveguide definition by lift-off and dry etching, (d) lithography and metal deposition, (e) PECVD oxide deposition, (f) lithography for defining trenches, (g) dry etching of PECVD silicon oxide and silicon and (h) removal of PECVD oxide and buried oxide by HF dip
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 SEM image showing (a) the cross section of the Ge-on-SOI waveguide where the underlying oxide has been removed and (b) top view of a MZI with a heater on one of the arms.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured waveguide loss of Ge-on-SOI waveguides (2.2 μm wide waveguide) for TM polarization.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) 2-D cross section in the middle of the simulation window of a Ge-on-SOI heater, (b) line plot along the waveguide showing the temperature profile. The length of the heater was kept 210 μm and the power dissipated was 100 mW. (c) experimentally measured phase shift as a function of power dissipation along with the linear fit.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Tuning power to achieve 2π phase shift as a function of length for a Ge-on-SOI phase shifter without undercut.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) 2-D cross section in the middle of the simulation window for an undercut Ge-on-SOI phase shifter, (b) line plot along the waveguide showing the temperature profile. The length of the heater was kept 210 μm and the power dissipated was 20 mW. (c) experimentally measured phase shift as a function of power dissipation along with the linear fit.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Tuning power to achieve 2π phase shift as a function of length for a Ge-on-SOI phase shifter with undercut.

Equations (2)

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d n d T = 8.2443.10 7 T + 0.00017234 .
Δ ϕ = 0 L 2 π λ Δ n ( z ) d z

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