Abstract

We design and fabricate ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers (TOFs) with minimal lengths. We first optimize variations of the torch scan length using the flame-brush method for fabricating TOFs with taper angles that satisfy the adiabaticity criteria. We accordingly fabricate TOFs with optimal shapes and compare their transmission to TOFs with a constant taper angle and TOFs with an exponential shape. The highest transmission measured for TOFs with an optimal shape is in excess of 99.7% with a total TOF length of only 23mm, whereas TOFs with a constant taper angle of 2mrad reach 99.6% transmission for a 63mm TOF length.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

S. Kato, S. Chonan, and T. Aoki, “High-numerical-aperture microlensed tip on an air-clad optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 773–776 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chonan, S. Kato, and T. Aoki, “Efficient single-mode photon-coupling device utilizing a nanofiber tip,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4785 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

R. Rivière, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Evanescent straight tapered-fiber coupling of ultra-high Q optomechanical micro-resonators in a low-vibration helium-4 exchange-gas cryostat,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 043108 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ravets, J. E. Hoffman, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Intermodal energy transfer in a tapered optical fiber: optimizing transmission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2361–2371 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

T. Lee, Y. Jung, C. A. Codemard, M. Ding, N. G. R. Broderick, and G. Brambilla, “Broadband third harmonic generation in tapered silica fibres,” Opt. Express 20, 8503–8511 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yalla, Fam Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Efficient channeling of fluorescence photons from single quantum dots into guided modes of optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 063602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H. -Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, “Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers,” Nano Lett. 11, 4362–4365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, “Optical fibre nanowires and microwires: a review,” J. Opt. A 12, 043001 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Aoki, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss tapered optical fibers and microtoroidal resonators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 118001 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Stiebeiner, R. Garcia-Fernandez, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Design and optimization of broadband tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist,” Opt. Express 18, 22677–22685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

R. R. Gattass, G. T. Svacha, L. Tong, and E. Mazur, “Supercontinuum generation in submicrometer diameter silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 9408–9414 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

V. V. Klimov and M. Ducloy, “Spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom placed near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 013812 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, W. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 2864–2869 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).

1988 (1)

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, “Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimisation in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912–914 (1986).
[Crossref]

Akimov, D. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alfimov, M. V.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alt, W.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alton, D. J.

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, T.

S. Chonan, S. Kato, and T. Aoki, “Efficient single-mode photon-coupling device utilizing a nanofiber tip,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4785 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kato, S. Chonan, and T. Aoki, “High-numerical-aperture microlensed tip on an air-clad optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 773–776 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Aoki, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss tapered optical fibers and microtoroidal resonators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 118001 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arcizet, O.

R. Rivière, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Evanescent straight tapered-fiber coupling of ultra-high Q optomechanical micro-resonators in a low-vibration helium-4 exchange-gas cryostat,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 043108 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balykin, V. I.

Bilodeau, F.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, “Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482 (1988).
[Crossref]

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1129–1131 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
[Crossref]

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Bowen, W. P.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Bruse, F.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, G.

Choi, K. S.

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chonan, S.

S. Chonan, S. Kato, and T. Aoki, “Efficient single-mode photon-coupling device utilizing a nanofiber tip,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4785 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kato, S. Chonan, and T. Aoki, “High-numerical-aperture microlensed tip on an air-clad optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 773–776 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Codemard, C. A.

Dan, C.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dawkins, S. T.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dayan, B.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deasy, K.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, D.

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, M.

Ducloy, M.

V. V. Klimov and M. Ducloy, “Spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom placed near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 013812 (2004).
[Crossref]

Faucher, S.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, “Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482 (1988).
[Crossref]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Frawley, M.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H. -Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, “Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers,” Nano Lett. 11, 4362–4365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia-Fernandez, R.

Gattass, R. R.

Goban, A.

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Grover, J. A.

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
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Gu, F.

Hakuta, K.

R. Yalla, Fam Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Efficient channeling of fluorescence photons from single quantum dots into guided modes of optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 063602 (2012).
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Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).

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J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
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S. Ravets, J. E. Hoffman, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Intermodal energy transfer in a tapered optical fiber: optimizing transmission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2361–2371 (2013).
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D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
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Jacques, F.

Johnson, D. C.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, “Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482 (1988).
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R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
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A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

R. Rivière, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Evanescent straight tapered-fiber coupling of ultra-high Q optomechanical micro-resonators in a low-vibration helium-4 exchange-gas cryostat,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 043108 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
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Kolevatova, O. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
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Kordell, P. R.

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ravets, J. E. Hoffman, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Intermodal energy transfer in a tapered optical fiber: optimizing transmission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2361–2371 (2013).
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M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
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Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Lacroûte, C.

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Kien, Fam

R. Yalla, Fam Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Efficient channeling of fluorescence photons from single quantum dots into guided modes of optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 063602 (2012).
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K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, Fam Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15, 5431–5438 (2007).
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Lee, T.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

Leon-Saval, S.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432–438 (1992).
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Lou, J.

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimisation in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912–914 (1986).
[Crossref]

Mansuripur, M.

Mason, M.

Mazur, E.

Melentiev, P. N.

Meschede, D.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
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F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 11952–11958 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Morinaga, M.

R. Yalla, Fam Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Efficient channeling of fluorescence photons from single quantum dots into guided modes of optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 063602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, Fam Le Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15, 5431–5438 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrissey, M. J.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nayak, K. P.

Nic Chormaic, S.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
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Noda, T.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H. -Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, “Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers,” Nano Lett. 11, 4362–4365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orozco, L. A.

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ravets, J. E. Hoffman, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Intermodal energy transfer in a tapered optical fiber: optimizing transmission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2361–2371 (2013).
[Crossref]

Orucevic, F.

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parkins, A. S.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

Podshivalov, A. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Pototschnig, M.

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prel, E.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Rauschenbeutel, A.

Ravets, S.

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ravets, J. E. Hoffman, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Intermodal energy transfer in a tapered optical fiber: optimizing transmission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2361–2371 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rehband, O.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Stiebeiner, O. Rehband, R. Garcia-Fernandez, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of isolated surface-adsorbed molecules using an optical nanofiber,” Opt. Express 17, 21704–21711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reitz, D.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivière, R.

R. Rivière, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Evanescent straight tapered-fiber coupling of ultra-high Q optomechanical micro-resonators in a low-vibration helium-4 exchange-gas cryostat,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 043108 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ravets, J. E. Hoffman, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Intermodal energy transfer in a tapered optical fiber: optimizing transmission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2361–2371 (2013).
[Crossref]

Russel, P. St. J.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

Russell, L.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sagué, G.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savchenko, A.

Schliesser, A.

R. Rivière, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Evanescent straight tapered-fiber coupling of ultra-high Q optomechanical micro-resonators in a low-vibration helium-4 exchange-gas cryostat,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 043108 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, R.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolowski, M.

Solano, P.

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stern, N. P.

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Stiebeiner, A.

Svacha, G. T.

Takeuchi, S.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H. -Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, “Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers,” Nano Lett. 11, 4362–4365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Thiele, T.

A. Goban, K. S. Choi, D. J. Alton, D. Ding, C. Lacroûte, M. Pototschnig, T. Thiele, N. P. Stern, and H. J. Kimble, “Demonstration of a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

Toubaru, K.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H. -Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, “Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers,” Nano Lett. 11, 4362–4365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Truong, V. G.

M. J. Morrissey, K. Deasy, M. Frawley, R. Kumar, E. Prel, L. Russell, V. G. Truong, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: A review,” Sensors 13, 10449–10481 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vetsch, E.

E. Vetsch, D. Reitz, G. Sagué, R. Schmidt, S. T. Dawkins, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical interface created by laser-cooled atoms trapped in the evanescent field surrounding an optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203603 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Warken, E. Vetsch, D. Meschede, M. Sokolowski, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultra-sensitive surface absorption spectroscopy using sub-wavelength diameter optical fibers,” Opt. Express 15, 11952–11958 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University, 2007).

Villatoro, J.

Wadsworth, W.

Wadsworth, W. J.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russel, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417 (2000).
[Crossref]

Warken, F.

Wiedemann, U.

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilcut, E.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong-Campos, J. D.

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ravets, J. E. Hoffman, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, S. L. Rolston, and L. A. Orozco, “Intermodal energy transfer in a tapered optical fiber: optimizing transmission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2361–2371 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yalla, R.

R. Yalla, Fam Le Kien, M. Morinaga, and K. Hakuta, “Efficient channeling of fluorescence photons from single quantum dots into guided modes of optical nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 063602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, H. -Q.

M. Fujiwara, K. Toubaru, T. Noda, H. -Q. Zhao, and S. Takeuchi, “Highly efficient coupling of photons from nanoemitters into single-mode optical fibers,” Nano Lett. 11, 4362–4365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheltikov, A. M.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

J. E. Hoffman, S. Ravets, J. A. Grover, P. Solano, P. R. Kordell, J. D. Wong-Campos, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers,” AIP Adv. 4, 067124 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russel, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Garcia-Fernandez, W. Alt, F. Bruse, C. Dan, K. Karapetyan, O. Rehband, A. Stiebeiner, U. Wiedemann, D. Meschede, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Optical nanofibers and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 105, 3–15 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. D. Love and W. M. Henry, “Quantifying loss minimisation in single-mode fibre tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912–914 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc. (1)

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Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (11)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The calculated delineation angle Ω as a function of the fiber radius r of a step-index fiber for the wavelength λ = 852nm, where the refractive indices and the radii of the core (cladding) are ncore = 1.4574 (nclad = 1.4525) and rcore = 2.4μm (rclad = 62.5μm), respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the TOF elongation after the k-th scan of the torch with the flame-brush method. The origin of the z-axis is taken as the position of the torch at the beginning of the k-th scan (i.e., at the end of the (k − 1)-th scan). The torch scans in the positive direction over a length of Lk, and the radius is reduced from rk−1 to rk after the k-th scan.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optimized profiles of Lk for adiabaticity factors of F = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The transmission change during the pull of the tapered fiber optimized with F = 0.4. The inset shows the magnified plot for the last ∼ 0.6mm of the pull.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The transmissions of fabricated TOFs with the adiabaticity factors of F = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, a constant taper angle of 2mrad, and an exponential shape with a decay constant of 3mm. Five TOFs are fabricated for each profile. The inset shows the transmissions for F = 0.2, 0.4, and 2mrad with a magnified scale for the vertical axis. The relative error in the transmission is ±0.1%, which is limited by the laser output power stability.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Comparison of the predicted and measured TOF shapes. Red and blue colored plots represent the shapes optimized for the F = 0.4 and the 2mrad profiles, respectively. The solid lines are the theoretically predicted curves. (b) The magnified plot for the region around the waist (r ≲ 4μm) of (a). Examples of SEM images of the 2mrad TOF (c) around the waist and (d) around r ≈ 20μm, respectively. (e) and (f) show the intensity profiles of (c) and (d), respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of the predicted and measured taper angles. The cyan, green, red, magenta, blue, and black solid lines are the predicted taper angles for F = 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 2mrad, and 3 mm exponential TOFs, respectively. Red circles and blue squares are measured taper angles for the fabricated F = 0.4 and 2mrad TOFs, respectively. The black dashed lines are FΩ with F = 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2.

Equations (7)

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Ω ( r ) = r 2 π ( β 1 ( r ) β 2 ( r ) ) ,
θ ( r ) < F Ω ( r ) .
π r k 2 ( v 2 + v 1 v 2 ) L k = π r k 1 2 ( v 2 v 1 v 2 ) L k ,
r k = v 2 v 1 v 2 + v 1 r k 1 .
tan θ k = r k 3 r k 1 ( v 2 + v 1 v 2 L k 1 + v 1 v 2 L k ) L k .
L k < ( v 2 + v 1 v 2 v 1 ) L k 1 .
L total = ( v 2 + v 1 v 2 ) L 1 + k = 2 n 2 v 1 v 2 L k .

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