Abstract

We study the exciton contribution to the third-order optical susceptibility of one-dimensional semiconductor quantum dots and show that the screening of the electron-hole interaction has a strong influence on the nonlinear optical properties in the weak confinement regime. Based on a density matrix formulation, we estimate the spectrum of the third-order optical susceptibility and its contribution to the refraction index and absorption coefficient. In particular, we show that the multipeaked spectrum of the nonlinear susceptibility, which results from the hydrogenoid character of the exciton eigenstates for a purely Coulombian electron-hole coupling, is reverted towards a single peaked structure as the interaction becomes strongly screened, thus leading to a substantial enhancement of the nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Giant, triply resonant, third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ3ω(3) in coupled quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1010–1013 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. H. Sargent, “Infrared quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 17, 515–522 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S.-F. Tang, S.-Y. Lin, and S.-C. Lee, “Near-room-temperature operation of an inas/GaAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2428 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Takagahara, “Excitonic optical nonlinearity and exciton dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293–9296 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Banyai, Y. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142–8153 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. V. Nair and T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton pair states and their nonlinear optical properties in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5153–5170 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Wang and K. Guo, “Excitonic effects on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in parabolic quantum dots,” Physica B 315, 234–239 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Ünlü, I. Karabulut, and H. Şafak, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum box with finite confining potential,” Physica E 33, 319–324 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Baskoutas, E. Paspalakis, and A. Terzis, “Effects of excitons in nonlinear optical rectification in semiparabolic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 153306 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. C.-J. Zhang, K.-X. Guo, and Z.-E. Lu, “Exciton effects on the optical absorptions in one-dimensional quantum dots,” Physica E 36, 92–97 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. I. Karabulut, H. Şafak, and M. Tomak, “Excitonic effects on the nonlinear optical properties of small quantum dots,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155104 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Flórez and A. Camacho, “Excitonic effects on the second-order nonlinear optical properties of semi-spherical quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 268 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. Q. Huong, “Exciton hybridization states in organicsemiconductor heterostructures containing quantum dots,” Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2, 013001 (2011).
  17. S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. E. Bautista, M. L. Lyra, and R. P. A. Lima, “Crossover from strong to weak exciton confinement and third-harmonic generation on one-dimensional quantum dots,” Photonic Nanostruct. 11, 8–14 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. P. A. Lima and M. Amado, “Electronic states of on- and off-center donors in quantum rings of finite width,” J. Lumin. 128, 858–861 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Amado, R. P. A. Lima, C. González-Santander, and F. Domínguez-Adame, “Donor-bound electrons in quantum rings under magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073312 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2008).
  24. Y. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003).

2014 (2)

E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. E. Bautista, M. L. Lyra, and R. P. A. Lima, “Crossover from strong to weak exciton confinement and third-harmonic generation on one-dimensional quantum dots,” Photonic Nanostruct. 11, 8–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Flórez and A. Camacho, “Excitonic effects on the second-order nonlinear optical properties of semi-spherical quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Q. Huong, “Exciton hybridization states in organicsemiconductor heterostructures containing quantum dots,” Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2, 013001 (2011).

2008 (2)

I. Karabulut, H. Şafak, and M. Tomak, “Excitonic effects on the nonlinear optical properties of small quantum dots,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. P. A. Lima and M. Amado, “Electronic states of on- and off-center donors in quantum rings of finite width,” J. Lumin. 128, 858–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Amado, R. P. A. Lima, C. González-Santander, and F. Domínguez-Adame, “Donor-bound electrons in quantum rings under magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073312 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.-J. Zhang, K.-X. Guo, and Z.-E. Lu, “Exciton effects on the optical absorptions in one-dimensional quantum dots,” Physica E 36, 92–97 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Ünlü, I. Karabulut, and H. Şafak, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum box with finite confining potential,” Physica E 33, 319–324 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Baskoutas, E. Paspalakis, and A. Terzis, “Effects of excitons in nonlinear optical rectification in semiparabolic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 153306 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

E. H. Sargent, “Infrared quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 17, 515–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

G. Wang and K. Guo, “Excitonic effects on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in parabolic quantum dots,” Physica B 315, 234–239 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S.-F. Tang, S.-Y. Lin, and S.-C. Lee, “Near-room-temperature operation of an inas/GaAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2428 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. V. Nair and T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton pair states and their nonlinear optical properties in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5153–5170 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Giant, triply resonant, third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ3ω(3) in coupled quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1010–1013 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

L. Banyai, Y. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142–8153 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

T. Takagahara, “Excitonic optical nonlinearity and exciton dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293–9296 (1987).
[Crossref]

Amado, M.

R. P. A. Lima and M. Amado, “Electronic states of on- and off-center donors in quantum rings of finite width,” J. Lumin. 128, 858–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Amado, R. P. A. Lima, C. González-Santander, and F. Domínguez-Adame, “Donor-bound electrons in quantum rings under magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073312 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ariyawansa, G.

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
[Crossref]

Banyai, L.

L. Banyai, Y. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142–8153 (1988).
[Crossref]

Baskoutas, S.

S. Baskoutas, E. Paspalakis, and A. Terzis, “Effects of excitons in nonlinear optical rectification in semiparabolic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 153306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bautista, J. E.

J. E. Bautista, M. L. Lyra, and R. P. A. Lima, “Crossover from strong to weak exciton confinement and third-harmonic generation on one-dimensional quantum dots,” Photonic Nanostruct. 11, 8–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R.

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2008).

Camacho, A.

J. Flórez and A. Camacho, “Excitonic effects on the second-order nonlinear optical properties of semi-spherical quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Giant, triply resonant, third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ3ω(3) in coupled quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1010–1013 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakrabarti, S.

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, A.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Giant, triply resonant, third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ3ω(3) in coupled quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1010–1013 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cyr, P. W.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domínguez-Adame, F.

M. Amado, R. P. A. Lima, C. González-Santander, and F. Domínguez-Adame, “Donor-bound electrons in quantum rings under magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073312 (2007).
[Crossref]

Duque, C.

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Flórez, J.

J. Flórez and A. Camacho, “Excitonic effects on the second-order nonlinear optical properties of semi-spherical quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gammon, D.

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gérard, J.-M.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Glotin, F.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

González-Santander, C.

M. Amado, R. P. A. Lima, C. González-Santander, and F. Domínguez-Adame, “Donor-bound electrons in quantum rings under magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073312 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, K.

G. Wang and K. Guo, “Excitonic effects on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in parabolic quantum dots,” Physica B 315, 234–239 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guo, K.-X.

C.-J. Zhang, K.-X. Guo, and Z.-E. Lu, “Exciton effects on the optical absorptions in one-dimensional quantum dots,” Physica E 36, 92–97 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

L. Banyai, Y. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142–8153 (1988).
[Crossref]

Huong, N. Q.

N. Q. Huong, “Exciton hybridization states in organicsemiconductor heterostructures containing quantum dots,” Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2, 013001 (2011).

Karabulut, I.

I. Karabulut, H. Şafak, and M. Tomak, “Excitonic effects on the nonlinear optical properties of small quantum dots,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155104 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Ünlü, I. Karabulut, and H. Şafak, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum box with finite confining potential,” Physica E 33, 319–324 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kasapoglu, E.

E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Katzer, D.

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klem, E. J. D.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, S.

L. Banyai, Y. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142–8153 (1988).
[Crossref]

Konstantatos, G.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-C.

S.-F. Tang, S.-Y. Lin, and S.-C. Lee, “Near-room-temperature operation of an inas/GaAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2428 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lemaître, A.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Levina, L.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lima, R. P. A.

J. E. Bautista, M. L. Lyra, and R. P. A. Lima, “Crossover from strong to weak exciton confinement and third-harmonic generation on one-dimensional quantum dots,” Photonic Nanostruct. 11, 8–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. P. A. Lima and M. Amado, “Electronic states of on- and off-center donors in quantum rings of finite width,” J. Lumin. 128, 858–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Amado, R. P. A. Lima, C. González-Santander, and F. Domínguez-Adame, “Donor-bound electrons in quantum rings under magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073312 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-F. Tang, S.-Y. Lin, and S.-C. Lee, “Near-room-temperature operation of an inas/GaAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2428 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lindberg, M.

L. Banyai, Y. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142–8153 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.-E.

C.-J. Zhang, K.-X. Guo, and Z.-E. Lu, “Exciton effects on the optical absorptions in one-dimensional quantum dots,” Physica E 36, 92–97 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lyra, M. L.

J. E. Bautista, M. L. Lyra, and R. P. A. Lima, “Crossover from strong to weak exciton confinement and third-harmonic generation on one-dimensional quantum dots,” Photonic Nanostruct. 11, 8–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

McDonald, S. A.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mora-Ramos, M.

E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nair, S. V.

S. V. Nair and T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton pair states and their nonlinear optical properties in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5153–5170 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ortega, J.-M.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Park, D.

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paspalakis, E.

S. Baskoutas, E. Paspalakis, and A. Terzis, “Effects of excitons in nonlinear optical rectification in semiparabolic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 153306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Perera, A. G. U.

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
[Crossref]

Piermarocchi, C.

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prazeres, R.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Safak, H.

I. Karabulut, H. Şafak, and M. Tomak, “Excitonic effects on the nonlinear optical properties of small quantum dots,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155104 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Ünlü, I. Karabulut, and H. Şafak, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum box with finite confining potential,” Physica E 33, 319–324 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sargent, E. H.

E. H. Sargent, “Infrared quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 17, 515–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sari, H.

E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sham, L.

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

Y. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003).

Sirtori, C.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Giant, triply resonant, third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ3ω(3) in coupled quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1010–1013 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Giant, triply resonant, third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ3ω(3) in coupled quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1010–1013 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skmen, I.

E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sökmen, I.

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steel, D.

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stievater, T.

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiff-Roberts, A. D.

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
[Crossref]

Su, X. H.

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takagahara, T.

S. V. Nair and T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton pair states and their nonlinear optical properties in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5153–5170 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Takagahara, “Excitonic optical nonlinearity and exciton dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293–9296 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.-F.

S.-F. Tang, S.-Y. Lin, and S.-C. Lee, “Near-room-temperature operation of an inas/GaAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2428 (2001).
[Crossref]

Terzis, A.

S. Baskoutas, E. Paspalakis, and A. Terzis, “Effects of excitons in nonlinear optical rectification in semiparabolic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 153306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thierry-Mieg, V.

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tiutiunnyk, A.

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tomak, M.

I. Karabulut, H. Şafak, and M. Tomak, “Excitonic effects on the nonlinear optical properties of small quantum dots,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tulupenko, V.

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ungan, F.

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ünlü, S.

S. Ünlü, I. Karabulut, and H. Şafak, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum box with finite confining potential,” Physica E 33, 319–324 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang and K. Guo, “Excitonic effects on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in parabolic quantum dots,” Physica B 315, 234–239 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.-J.

C.-J. Zhang, K.-X. Guo, and Z.-E. Lu, “Exciton effects on the optical absorptions in one-dimensional quantum dots,” Physica E 36, 92–97 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. H. Sargent, “Infrared quantum dots,” Adv. Mater. 17, 515–522 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Q. Huong, “Exciton hybridization states in organicsemiconductor heterostructures containing quantum dots,” Adv. Nat. Sci: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2, 013001 (2011).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S.-F. Tang, S.-Y. Lin, and S.-C. Lee, “Near-room-temperature operation of an inas/GaAs quantum-dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2428 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

R. P. A. Lima and M. Amado, “Electronic states of on- and off-center donors in quantum rings of finite width,” J. Lumin. 128, 858–861 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, X. H. Su, P. Bhattacharya, G. Ariyawansa, and A. G. U. Perera, “High-performance mid-infrared quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2135–2141 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. Karabulut, H. Şafak, and M. Tomak, “Excitonic effects on the nonlinear optical properties of small quantum dots,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

J. Flórez and A. Camacho, “Excitonic effects on the second-order nonlinear optical properties of semi-spherical quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed Pbs quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photonic Nanostruct. (1)

J. E. Bautista, M. L. Lyra, and R. P. A. Lima, “Crossover from strong to weak exciton confinement and third-harmonic generation on one-dimensional quantum dots,” Photonic Nanostruct. 11, 8–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, F. Glotin, R. Prazeres, J.-M. Ortega, A. Lemaître, J.-M. Gérard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Third-harmonic generation in inas/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 9830–9833 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Baskoutas, E. Paspalakis, and A. Terzis, “Effects of excitons in nonlinear optical rectification in semiparabolic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 153306 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Takagahara, “Excitonic optical nonlinearity and exciton dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 36, 9293–9296 (1987).
[Crossref]

L. Banyai, Y. Hu, M. Lindberg, and S. Koch, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in semiconductor microstructures,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 8142–8153 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. V. Nair and T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton pair states and their nonlinear optical properties in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 5153–5170 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Amado, R. P. A. Lima, C. González-Santander, and F. Domínguez-Adame, “Donor-bound electrons in quantum rings under magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 073312 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, and A. Cho, “Giant, triply resonant, third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ3ω(3) in coupled quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1010–1013 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Stievater, X. Li, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Piermarocchi, and L. Sham, “Rabi oscillations of excitons in single quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133603 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica B (1)

G. Wang and K. Guo, “Excitonic effects on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in parabolic quantum dots,” Physica B 315, 234–239 (2002).
[Crossref]

Physica E (3)

S. Ünlü, I. Karabulut, and H. Şafak, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum box with finite confining potential,” Physica E 33, 319–324 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-J. Zhang, K.-X. Guo, and Z.-E. Lu, “Exciton effects on the optical absorptions in one-dimensional quantum dots,” Physica E 36, 92–97 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Tiutiunnyk, V. Tulupenko, M. Mora-Ramos, E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Sökmen, and C. Duque, “Electron-related optical responses in triangular quantum dots,” Physica E 60, 127–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Superlattice. Microst. (1)

E. Kasapoglu, F. Ungan, H. Sari, I. Skmen, M. Mora-Ramos, and C. Duque, “Donor impurity states and related optical responses in triangular quantum dots under applied electric field,” Superlattice. Microst. 73, 171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2008).

Y. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1: (a) Normalized resonance frequencies ωn/(0) versus the confinement coefficient β = L/a0 for the first three excited states and λ = 1.0. The collapse of the curves for β ≪ 1 indicates the uniformity of the level spacing distribution in the strong confinement regime. The splitting of the curves as β increases signals the non-uniformity of the level spacings. (b) ωn/(0) versus the screening parameter λ = a0/ and β = 3.0. The uniformity of the energy levels separation is recovered in the strong screening regime λ ≫ 1.
Fig. 2:
Fig. 2: (a) Dimensionless third-order susceptibility (|χ̃(3)(3ω)|) as a function of the radiation frequency ω/ω0 and screening parameter λ for a confinement parameter β = L/a0 = 3.0. In the weak screening regime λ << 1 the susceptibility spectrum depicts three peaks signaling distinct resonance frequencies. In the extreme confinement regime, the uniform level spacing leads to a triple resonance condition with very large nonlinearity. (b) Peak values of the susceptibility as a function of the screening strength parameter λ. The three peaks coalesce as λ increases. The susceptibility is enhanced by over two orders of magnitude as compared to the non-screened regime.
Fig. 3:
Fig. 3: (a) The nonlinear refractive index ñ2 and (b) the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient α̃2 as a function of the radiation frequency ω/ω0 and screening parameter λ for a confinement parameter β = L/a0 = 3.0. As the screening becomes stronger, the resonance is enhanced and displaced to lower frequencies.

Equations (4)

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= p e 2 2 m e * + p h 2 2 m h * + V 0 e ( x e ) + V 0 h ( x h ) q 2 e | x e x h | / 4 π ε | x e x h | ,
[ 2 u 2 + u 2 2 β e λ β | u | | u | ] Φ ( u ) = 2 E ω 0 Φ ( u )
χ ˜ ( 3 ) ( 3 ω ) = M 01 M 12 M 23 M 30 [ f 1 ( ω ) f 2 ( ω ) f 3 ( ω ) + f 1 ( ω ) f 2 ( ω ) g 3 ( ω ) + f 1 ( ω ) f 2 + ( ω ) g 3 ( ω ) + g 1 ( ω ) f 2 + ( ω ) g 3 ( ω ) ]
n 2 ( ω ) = 3 e χ ( 3 ) ( 3 ω ) 4 ε 0 n 0 2 c , α 2 ( ω ) = 3 ω m χ ( 3 ) ( 3 ω ) 2 ε 0 n 0 2 c 2

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