Abstract

An Auto Bias Control (ABC) technique for the IQ-modulator of a flexible optical QAM transmitter is described. This technique can support various optical QAM signal formats with Nyquist filtering and electronic dispersion pre-compensation. 16, 32 and 64-QAM signals (21 Gbaud) are successfully generated, and all bias voltages are held to their optimum value even when signal format is changed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, M. Yoshida, T. Sakano, H. Kubota, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, M. Mizoguchi, and M. Nagatani, “45.2Tb/s C-band WDM transmission over 240km using 538Gb/s PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM signal with digital pilot tone,” in Proceedings of ECOC2011, Th.13.C.6, (2011).
  2. K. Roberts and C. Laperle, “Flexible transceivers,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2012, We.3.A.3, (2012).
  3. M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Bias control technique based on asymmetric bias dithering for optical QPSK modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(7), 962–968 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Express 19(26), B308–B312 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, and H. Kawakami, “Pulse-carver-free RZ-64 QAM transmitter with electronic CD pre-compensation and auto bias control,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2013, We.4.C.4 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2011, JWA33.
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. H.

H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2011, JWA33.
[Crossref]

Cho, P. S.

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. G.

H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2011, JWA33.
[Crossref]

Choi, H. Y.

H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2011, JWA33.
[Crossref]

Chung, Y. C.

H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2011, JWA33.
[Crossref]

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, H.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Bias control technique based on asymmetric bias dithering for optical QPSK modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(7), 962–968 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Express 19(26), B308–B312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, and H. Kawakami, “Pulse-carver-free RZ-64 QAM transmitter with electronic CD pre-compensation and auto bias control,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2013, We.4.C.4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Express 19(26), B308–B312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, and H. Kawakami, “Pulse-carver-free RZ-64 QAM transmitter with electronic CD pre-compensation and auto bias control,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2013, We.4.C.4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laperle, C.

K. Roberts and C. Laperle, “Flexible transceivers,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2012, We.3.A.3, (2012).

Miyamoto, Y.

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Bias control technique based on asymmetric bias dithering for optical QPSK modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(7), 962–968 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Kawakami, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Auto bias control technique for optical 16-QAM transmitter with asymmetric bias dithering,” Opt. Express 19(26), B308–B312 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, and H. Kawakami, “Pulse-carver-free RZ-64 QAM transmitter with electronic CD pre-compensation and auto bias control,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2013, We.4.C.4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nazarathy, M.

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roberts, K.

K. Roberts and C. Laperle, “Flexible transceivers,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2012, We.3.A.3, (2012).

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takushima, Y.

H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2011, JWA33.
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yonenaga, K.

T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, and H. Kawakami, “Pulse-carver-free RZ-64 QAM transmitter with electronic CD pre-compensation and auto bias control,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2013, We.4.C.4 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, E.

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Asymmetric dithering technique for bias condition monitoring in optical QPSK modulator,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 430–431 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(8), 138–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. S. Cho and M. Nazarathy, “Bias control for optical OFDM transmitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(14), 1030–1032 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (4)

H. G. Choi, Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, J. H. Chang, and Y. C. Chung, “Modulation-format-free bias control technique for MZ modulator based on differential phasor monitor,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2011, JWA33.
[Crossref]

T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, and H. Kawakami, “Pulse-carver-free RZ-64 QAM transmitter with electronic CD pre-compensation and auto bias control,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2013, We.4.C.4 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, M. Yoshida, T. Sakano, H. Kubota, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, M. Mizoguchi, and M. Nagatani, “45.2Tb/s C-band WDM transmission over 240km using 538Gb/s PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM signal with digital pilot tone,” in Proceedings of ECOC2011, Th.13.C.6, (2011).

K. Roberts and C. Laperle, “Flexible transceivers,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2012, We.3.A.3, (2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Construction of the DP-2n-QAM transmitter with ABC based on asymmetric bias dithering
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 DATAk and Ek with and without bias drift (k = I or Q). (a) Simulated waveform of DATAk for 16-QAM with Nyquist filtering (b) |Ek|2 of each of the four signal levels (circle) and overshoot (triangle). Black: BIASk is optimum, White: BIASk has drifted
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Constellations with drifted BIASPH. θ = ± π /2 ± δ, where 0 < δ < π/2. Black: without dithering, Red: ωdt = + π/4, Green: ωdt = + 3π/4, Brown: ωdt = -π/4, Blue: ωdt = −3π/4
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated Error Signal for BIASPH. Solid line:with Nyquist filtering (α = 0.1),Dashed line:w/o Nyquist filtering
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Electronic pre-compensation with correct θ and incorrect θ.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Bias Voltages vs. time t. Only results for Y polarization shown. ABC started at t = 0. Shaded areas shows data upload periods.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Received optical power spectra and constellations (polarization y only). (a): 64-QAM (t = 11 min), (b): 32-QAM (t = 17min), (c): 16-QAM (t = 23min).

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