Abstract

The feasibility of super-resolution microscopy has been investigated based on random localization of surface plasmon using blocked random nanodot arrays. The resolution is mainly determined by the size of localized fields in the range of 100-150 nm. The concept was validated by imaging FITC-conjugated phalloidin that binds to cellular actin filaments. The experimental results confirm improved resolution in reconstructed images. Effect of far-field registration on image reconstruction was also analyzed. Correlation between reconstructed images was maintained to be above 81% after registration. Nanodot arrays are synthesized by temperature-annealing without sophisticated lithography and thus can be mass-produced in an extremely large substrate. The results suggest a super-resolution imaging technique that can be accessible and available in large amounts.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

J. Choi, K. Kim, Y. Oh, A. L. Kim, S. Y. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and D. Kim, “Extraordinary transmission-based plasmonic nanoarrays for axially super-resolved cell imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(1), 48–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Ng, X. Q. Lu, N. Ding, C.-M. L. Wu, and C.-S. Lee, “Plasmonic enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells with self-assembly gold-TiO2@core–shell nanoislands,” Sol. Energy 99, 115–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, K. Kim, K. Ma, W. Lee, J. W. Choi, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Enhanced detection of virus particles by nanoisland-based localized surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(15), 249–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Szmacinski, V. Toshchakov, W. Piao, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Imaging of protein secretion from a single cell using plasmonic substrates,” Bionanoscience 3(1), 30–36 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

W. Lee, K. Kim, and D. Kim, “Electromagnetic near-field nanoantennas for subdiffraction-limited surface plasmon-enhanced light microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 18(6), 1684–1691 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Urich, A. Pospischil, M. M. Furchi, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and T. Mueller, “Silver nanoisland enhanced Raman interaction in grapheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153113 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature 469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lohmüller, S. Triffo, G. P. O’Donoghue, Q. Xu, M. P. Coyle, and J. T. Groves, “Supported membranes embedded with fixed arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4912–4918 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, M. Sivaguru, Y. Chen, and G. L. Liu, “Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate,” Nanotechnology 22(36), 365203 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (5)

S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Light scattering into silicon-on-insulator waveguide modes by random and periodic gold nanodot arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christiansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2384–2389 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Le Moal, S. Lévêque-Fort, M.-C. Potier, and E. Fort, “Nanoroughened plasmonic films for enhanced biosensing detection,” Nanotechnology 20(22), 225502 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, H. P. Ho, R. K. Y. Lee, and S. K. Kong, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensor for DNA detection on nanoparticle island substrates,” Appl. Opt. 48(22), 4329–4337 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Giorgetti, S. Cicchi, M. Muniz-Miranda, G. Margheri, T. Del Rosso, A. Giusti, A. Rindi, G. Ghini, S. Sottini, A. Marcelli, and P. Foggi, “Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a donor-acceptor system adsorbed on silver or gold nanoisland films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(42), 9798–9803 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Szunerits, V. G. Praig, M. Manesse, and R. Boukherroub, “Gold island films on indium tin oxide for localized surface plasmon sensing,” Nanotechnology 19(19), 195712 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gao, W. Chen, A. Mulchandani, and J. S. Schultz, “Detection of tumor markers based on extinction spectra of visible light passing through gold nanoholes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073901 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. M. Byun, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Experimental study of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance biosensors by use of periodic metallic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1902–1904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111106 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kandere-Grzybowska, C. Campbell, Y. Komarova, B. A. Grzybowski, and G. G. Borisy, “Molecular dynamics imaging in micropatterned living cells,” Nat. Methods 2(10), 739–741 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Sibarita, “Deconvolution microscopy,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 201–243 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cesario, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and S. Enoch, “Electromagnetic coupling between a metal nanoparticle grating and a metallic surface,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3404–3406 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

L. Blanchoin, K. J. Amann, H. N. Higgs, J. -B. Marchand, D. A. Kaiser, and T. D. Pollard, “Direct observation of dendritic actin filament networks nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASP/Scar proteins,” Nature 404(6781), 1007–1011 (2000).

J. Kottmann, O. Martin, D. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Spectral response of plasmon resonant nanoparticles with a non-regular shape,” Opt. Express 6(11), 213–219 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, “Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76(1), 509–516 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gresillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, X. Quelin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1987 (2)

J. A. Barden, M. Miki, B. D. Hambly, and C. G. Dos Remedios, “Localization of the phalloidin and nucleotide-binding sites on actin,” Eur. J. Biochem. 162(3), 583–588 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Cooper, “Effects of cytochalasin and phalloidin on actin,” J. Cell Biol. 105(4), 1473–1478 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aigouy, L.

S. Gresillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, X. Quelin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[Crossref]

Amann, K. J.

L. Blanchoin, K. J. Amann, H. N. Higgs, J. -B. Marchand, D. A. Kaiser, and T. D. Pollard, “Direct observation of dendritic actin filament networks nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASP/Scar proteins,” Nature 404(6781), 1007–1011 (2000).

Badenes, G.

Barden, J. A.

J. A. Barden, M. Miki, B. D. Hambly, and C. G. Dos Remedios, “Localization of the phalloidin and nucleotide-binding sites on actin,” Eur. J. Biochem. 162(3), 583–588 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastmeyer, M.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, “Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76(1), 509–516 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechinger, C.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, “Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76(1), 509–516 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, M.

Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christiansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2384–2389 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchoin, L.

L. Blanchoin, K. J. Amann, H. N. Higgs, J. -B. Marchand, D. A. Kaiser, and T. D. Pollard, “Direct observation of dendritic actin filament networks nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASP/Scar proteins,” Nature 404(6781), 1007–1011 (2000).

Boccara, A. C.

S. Gresillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, X. Quelin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borisy, G. G.

K. Kandere-Grzybowska, C. Campbell, Y. Komarova, B. A. Grzybowski, and G. G. Borisy, “Molecular dynamics imaging in micropatterned living cells,” Nat. Methods 2(10), 739–741 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boukherroub, R.

S. Szunerits, V. G. Praig, M. Manesse, and R. Boukherroub, “Gold island films on indium tin oxide for localized surface plasmon sensing,” Nanotechnology 19(19), 195712 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byun, K. M.

Campbell, C.

K. Kandere-Grzybowska, C. Campbell, Y. Komarova, B. A. Grzybowski, and G. G. Borisy, “Molecular dynamics imaging in micropatterned living cells,” Nat. Methods 2(10), 739–741 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cang, H.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature 469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cesario, J.

Chang, N.-S.

Chen, C. Y.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-J.

Chen, W.

D. Gao, W. Chen, A. Mulchandani, and J. S. Schultz, “Detection of tumor markers based on extinction spectra of visible light passing through gold nanoholes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, M. Sivaguru, Y. Chen, and G. L. Liu, “Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate,” Nanotechnology 22(36), 365203 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, K.-C.

Cho, W. J.

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

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H. Yu, K. Kim, K. Ma, W. Lee, J. W. Choi, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Enhanced detection of virus particles by nanoisland-based localized surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(15), 249–255 (2013).
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E. Le Moal, S. Lévêque-Fort, M.-C. Potier, and E. Fort, “Nanoroughened plasmonic films for enhanced biosensing detection,” Nanotechnology 20(22), 225502 (2009).
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A. Urich, A. Pospischil, M. M. Furchi, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and T. Mueller, “Silver nanoisland enhanced Raman interaction in grapheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153113 (2012).
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M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, M. Sivaguru, Y. Chen, and G. L. Liu, “Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate,” Nanotechnology 22(36), 365203 (2011).
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E. Giorgetti, S. Cicchi, M. Muniz-Miranda, G. Margheri, T. Del Rosso, A. Giusti, A. Rindi, G. Ghini, S. Sottini, A. Marcelli, and P. Foggi, “Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a donor-acceptor system adsorbed on silver or gold nanoisland films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(42), 9798–9803 (2009).
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K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, “Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76(1), 509–516 (1999).
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E. Giorgetti, S. Cicchi, M. Muniz-Miranda, G. Margheri, T. Del Rosso, A. Giusti, A. Rindi, G. Ghini, S. Sottini, A. Marcelli, and P. Foggi, “Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a donor-acceptor system adsorbed on silver or gold nanoisland films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(42), 9798–9803 (2009).
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E. Giorgetti, S. Cicchi, M. Muniz-Miranda, G. Margheri, T. Del Rosso, A. Giusti, A. Rindi, G. Ghini, S. Sottini, A. Marcelli, and P. Foggi, “Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) with a donor-acceptor system adsorbed on silver or gold nanoisland films,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(42), 9798–9803 (2009).
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H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature 469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
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Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christiansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2384–2389 (2009).
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S. Gresillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, X. Quelin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
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T. Lohmüller, S. Triffo, G. P. O’Donoghue, Q. Xu, M. P. Coyle, and J. T. Groves, “Supported membranes embedded with fixed arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4912–4918 (2011).
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K. Kandere-Grzybowska, C. Campbell, Y. Komarova, B. A. Grzybowski, and G. G. Borisy, “Molecular dynamics imaging in micropatterned living cells,” Nat. Methods 2(10), 739–741 (2005).
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J. A. Barden, M. Miki, B. D. Hambly, and C. G. Dos Remedios, “Localization of the phalloidin and nucleotide-binding sites on actin,” Eur. J. Biochem. 162(3), 583–588 (1987).
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Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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L. Blanchoin, K. J. Amann, H. N. Higgs, J. -B. Marchand, D. A. Kaiser, and T. D. Pollard, “Direct observation of dendritic actin filament networks nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASP/Scar proteins,” Nature 404(6781), 1007–1011 (2000).

Ho, H. P.

Homola, J.

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
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Höök, F.

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
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M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, M. Sivaguru, Y. Chen, and G. L. Liu, “Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate,” Nanotechnology 22(36), 365203 (2011).
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D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
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Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
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Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
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L. Blanchoin, K. J. Amann, H. N. Higgs, J. -B. Marchand, D. A. Kaiser, and T. D. Pollard, “Direct observation of dendritic actin filament networks nucleated by Arp2/3 complex and WASP/Scar proteins,” Nature 404(6781), 1007–1011 (2000).

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, “100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 142–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kandere-Grzybowska, K.

K. Kandere-Grzybowska, C. Campbell, Y. Komarova, B. A. Grzybowski, and G. G. Borisy, “Molecular dynamics imaging in micropatterned living cells,” Nat. Methods 2(10), 739–741 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, A. L.

J. Choi, K. Kim, Y. Oh, A. L. Kim, S. Y. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and D. Kim, “Extraordinary transmission-based plasmonic nanoarrays for axially super-resolved cell imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(1), 48–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

J. Choi, K. Kim, Y. Oh, A. L. Kim, S. Y. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and D. Kim, “Extraordinary transmission-based plasmonic nanoarrays for axially super-resolved cell imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(1), 48–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, K. Kim, K. Ma, W. Lee, J. W. Choi, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Enhanced detection of virus particles by nanoisland-based localized surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(15), 249–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lee, K. Kim, and D. Kim, “Electromagnetic near-field nanoantennas for subdiffraction-limited surface plasmon-enhanced light microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 18(6), 1684–1691 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, Y. Oh, W. Lee, and D. Kim, “Plasmonics-based spatially activated light microscopy for super-resolution imaging of molecular fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3501–3503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K. H. Yoo, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Nanoisland-based random activation of fluorescence for visualizing endocytotic internalization of adenovirus,” Small 6(12), 1293–1299 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Byun, S. J. Yoon, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Experimental study of sensitivity enhancement in surface plasmon resonance biosensors by use of periodic metallic nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1902–1904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christiansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2384–2389 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

J. Choi, K. Kim, Y. Oh, A. L. Kim, S. Y. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and D. Kim, “Extraordinary transmission-based plasmonic nanoarrays for axially super-resolved cell imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(1), 48–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, K. Kim, K. Ma, W. Lee, J. W. Choi, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Enhanced detection of virus particles by nanoisland-based localized surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(15), 249–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lee, K. Kim, and D. Kim, “Electromagnetic near-field nanoantennas for subdiffraction-limited surface plasmon-enhanced light microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 18(6), 1684–1691 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, Y. Oh, W. Lee, and D. Kim, “Plasmonics-based spatially activated light microscopy for super-resolution imaging of molecular fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3501–3503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K. H. Yoo, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Nanoisland-based random activation of fluorescence for visualizing endocytotic internalization of adenovirus,” Small 6(12), 1293–1299 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. J.

Kim, S. Y.

J. Choi, K. Kim, Y. Oh, A. L. Kim, S. Y. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and D. Kim, “Extraordinary transmission-based plasmonic nanoarrays for axially super-resolved cell imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(1), 48–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kochuveedu, S. T.

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komarova, Y.

K. Kandere-Grzybowska, C. Campbell, Y. Komarova, B. A. Grzybowski, and G. G. Borisy, “Molecular dynamics imaging in micropatterned living cells,” Nat. Methods 2(10), 739–741 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, S. K.

Kottmann, J.

Labno, A.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature 469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

H. Szmacinski, V. Toshchakov, W. Piao, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Imaging of protein secretion from a single cell using plasmonic substrates,” Bionanoscience 3(1), 30–36 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Moal, E.

E. Le Moal, S. Lévêque-Fort, M.-C. Potier, and E. Fort, “Nanoroughened plasmonic films for enhanced biosensing detection,” Nanotechnology 20(22), 225502 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-S.

S.-P. Ng, X. Q. Lu, N. Ding, C.-M. L. Wu, and C.-S. Lee, “Plasmonic enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells with self-assembly gold-TiO2@core–shell nanoislands,” Sol. Energy 99, 115–125 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. E.

Y. H. Jang, K. Chung, L. N. Quan, B. Špačková, H. Šípová, S. Moon, W. J. Cho, H. Y. Shin, Y. J. Jang, J. E. Lee, S. T. Kochuveedu, M. J. Yoon, J. Kim, S. Yoon, J. K. Kim, D. Kim, J. Homola, and D. H. Kim, “Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors,” Nanoscale 5(24), 12261–12271 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R.

K. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K. H. Yoo, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Nanoisland-based random activation of fluorescence for visualizing endocytotic internalization of adenovirus,” Small 6(12), 1293–1299 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K. Y.

Lee, W.

H. Yu, K. Kim, K. Ma, W. Lee, J. W. Choi, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Enhanced detection of virus particles by nanoisland-based localized surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(15), 249–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yajima, Y. Oh, W. Lee, S. Oowada, T. Nishizaka, and D. Kim, “Nanoscale localization sampling based on nanoantenna arrays for super-resolution imaging of fluorescent monomers on sliding microtubules,” Small 8(6), 892–900 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lee, K. Kim, and D. Kim, “Electromagnetic near-field nanoantennas for subdiffraction-limited surface plasmon-enhanced light microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 18(6), 1684–1691 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, Y. Oh, W. Lee, and D. Kim, “Plasmonics-based spatially activated light microscopy for super-resolution imaging of molecular fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3501–3503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leiderer, P.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, “Imaging of cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface plasmon resonance microscopy,” Biophys. J. 76(1), 509–516 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lévêque-Fort, S.

E. Le Moal, S. Lévêque-Fort, M.-C. Potier, and E. Fort, “Nanoroughened plasmonic films for enhanced biosensing detection,” Nanotechnology 20(22), 225502 (2009).
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D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
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D. Gao, W. Chen, A. Mulchandani, and J. S. Schultz, “Detection of tumor markers based on extinction spectra of visible light passing through gold nanoholes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073901 (2007).
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J. Choi, K. Kim, Y. Oh, A. L. Kim, S. Y. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and D. Kim, “Extraordinary transmission-based plasmonic nanoarrays for axially super-resolved cell imaging,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(1), 48–55 (2014).
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S. Gresillon, L. Aigouy, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, X. Quelin, C. Desmarest, P. Gadenne, V. A. Shubin, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Experimental observation of localized optical excitations in random metal-dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(22), 4520–4523 (1999).
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M. R. Gartia, A. Hsiao, M. Sivaguru, Y. Chen, and G. L. Liu, “Enhanced 3D fluorescence live cell imaging on nanoplasmonic substrate,” Nanotechnology 22(36), 365203 (2011).
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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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Szmacinski, H.

H. Szmacinski, V. Toshchakov, W. Piao, and J. R. Lakowicz, “Imaging of protein secretion from a single cell using plasmonic substrates,” Bionanoscience 3(1), 30–36 (2013).
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S. Szunerits, V. G. Praig, M. Manesse, and R. Boukherroub, “Gold island films on indium tin oxide for localized surface plasmon sensing,” Nanotechnology 19(19), 195712 (2008).
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T. Lohmüller, S. Triffo, G. P. O’Donoghue, Q. Xu, M. P. Coyle, and J. T. Groves, “Supported membranes embedded with fixed arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4912–4918 (2011).
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A. Urich, A. Pospischil, M. M. Furchi, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and T. Mueller, “Silver nanoisland enhanced Raman interaction in grapheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153113 (2012).
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A. Urich, A. Pospischil, M. M. Furchi, D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and T. Mueller, “Silver nanoisland enhanced Raman interaction in grapheme,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153113 (2012).
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Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christiansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2384–2389 (2009).
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Y. Wang, M. Becker, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. Scholz, J. Peng, U. Gösele, S. Christiansen, D. H. Kim, and M. Steinhart, “Nanostructured gold films for SERS by block copolymer-templated galvanic displacement reactions,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2384–2389 (2009).
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S.-P. Ng, X. Q. Lu, N. Ding, C.-M. L. Wu, and C.-S. Lee, “Plasmonic enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells with self-assembly gold-TiO2@core–shell nanoislands,” Sol. Energy 99, 115–125 (2014).
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Wu, H.-L.

Xu, Q.

T. Lohmüller, S. Triffo, G. P. O’Donoghue, Q. Xu, M. P. Coyle, and J. T. Groves, “Supported membranes embedded with fixed arrays of gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4912–4918 (2011).
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D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
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D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
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Yin, X.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature 469(7330), 385–388 (2011).
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K. Kim, J. W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K. H. Yoo, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Nanoisland-based random activation of fluorescence for visualizing endocytotic internalization of adenovirus,” Small 6(12), 1293–1299 (2010).
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Yu, E. T.

S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, and E. T. Yu, “Light scattering into silicon-on-insulator waveguide modes by random and periodic gold nanodot arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073101 (2009).
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H. Yu, K. Kim, K. Ma, W. Lee, J. W. Choi, C. O. Yun, and D. Kim, “Enhanced detection of virus particles by nanoisland-based localized surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 41(15), 249–255 (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of SP-enhanced randomly activated (SUPRA) microscopy. In conventional microscopy in (a), fluorescent molecules (shown in orange) are excited within a field-of-view. In contrast, SUPRA microscopy in (b) has target fluorescence excited by the field that is localized by nanodot arrays within a field-of-view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the optical set-up used for SUPRA microscopy (OB.: objective lens (60x, NA 1.49), DL: diode laser, CO: beam expanding collimator, P: polarizer, Ex: excitation fluorescence filter, DM: dichroic mirror, Em: emission filter, M: mirror, L: relay lenses, EM-CCD: EM-CCD camera). The illustration also shows a cell on the nanodot array sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 3D and 2D near-field intensity (|E|2) distribution overlayed with a nanodot array pattern of Fig. 1. (b) Histogram of spot size from size analyses performed for the near-field data. The results show that the size is the most likely to fall in the range of 100 – 150 nm in terms of modes. The histogram is fitted well with a Lorentz-Cauchy distribution function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM images of blocked random nanodot array samples. Inset: magnified image of nanodot arrays shown as a square in an area of 2 × 2 μm2. (b) AFM image of nanodots. (c) Size distribution of nanodot arrays.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of J774 cells on the substrates: (a) metal film and (b) random nanodot arrays. Overall, good adhesion of cultured cells was observed on all the substrates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured images of J774 cells on the glass substrate (top row), metal film (middle row) and nanodot arrays (bottom row): (a) bright-field, (b) epifluorescence, and (c) TIRFM images. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Epifluorescence and SUPRA images of cells after reconstruction measured at two different sample points (1,2). (a) Epifluorescence image: the squares represent a nanodot block. Magnified images are in (b-d): (b) epifluorescence, (c) raw data, and (d) SUPRA after reconstruction. Scale bar: 2 μm. For (e), reconstructed SUPRA images were used in place of raw images. Scale bar: 5 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Correlation coefficient between the reconstructed far-field image with perfect alignment and one reconstructed with displacement from the near-field distribution in terms of CCD pixels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effects of registration in the lateral plane on the image reconstruction: reconstructed image for perfect registration (no misalignment) at the center and images reconstructed with misalignment by one CCD pixel in the right, left, top, and bottom direction (direction shown as arrow). Correlation coefficient R is shown to remain higher than 81% regardless of the way that the registration takes place.

Equations (3)

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I( x,y )=[ f( ξ,η )g( ξ,η ) ]h( xξ,yη ).
I ^ ( x,y )=[ f( ξ,η ) g ^ ( ξ,η ) ]h( xξ,yη )
ε= x,y [ I( x,y ) I ^ ( x,y ) ] 2

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