Abstract

A vertical multimode waveguide enabling micro-bends is proposed for mode-multiplexed optical interconnect links. The multimode waveguide is designed to be singlemode in the lateral direction and support higher-order modes in the vertical direction. The characteristic analysis for an SOI (silicon-on-insulator)-based vertical multimode waveguide with a ~0.3μm × ~1.5μm cross section is given as an example. The theoretical pure bending loss is negligible for all the lowest eight modes when the bending radius is even less than 5μm. When light goes through the structure consisting of a straight section connected with a bent section, it is found that some inter-mode crosstalk is caused by the significant mode hybridization happening in the sharply bent multimode waveguide. For the designed SOI-based vertical multimode waveguide, the inter-mode crosstalk is lower than −20dB even when the bending radius is chosen as small as R = 10μm, which is one order smaller than that for the traditional lateral multimode waveguide (whose minimal bending radius is about 130μm). The inter-mode crosstalk can be even reduced to −30dB when choosing R = 30μm. Such a multimode optical waveguide microbend with low inter-mode crosstalk is promising for realizing compact mode-multiplexing links.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (7)

K. S. Abedin, J. M. Fini, T. F. Thierry, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, L. Bansal, F. V. Dimarcello, E. M. Monberg, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Seven-core erbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifier pumped simultaneously by side-coupled multimode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 993–996 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for Peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophoton. 3(4-5), 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai and J. Wang, “Multi-channel silicon mode (de)multiplexer based on asymmetrical directional couplers for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Society News. 28, 8–14 (2014).

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

J. Xing, Z. Li, X. Xiao, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “Two-mode multiplexer and demultiplexer based on adiabatic couplers,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3468–3470 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Silicon mode (de) multiplexer enabling high capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelength-carrier light,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1422–1424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, J. Xu, F. Da Ros, B. Huang, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “On-chip two-mode division multiplexing using tapered directional coupler-based mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10376–10382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Qiu, H. Yu, T. Hu, G. Jiang, H. Shao, P. Yu, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Silicon mode multi/demultiplexer based on multimode grating-assisted couplers,” Opt. Express 21(15), 17904–17911 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, M. Koshiba, and F. Yamamoto, “Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25752–25760 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sakaguchi, B. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “305 Tb/s space division multiplexed transmission using homogeneous 19-core fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 554–562 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and S. He, “Silicon multimode photonic integrated devices for on-chip mode-division-multiplexed optical interconnects,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 773–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, M. Lu, and R. M. Osgood, “Asymmetric Y junctions in silicon waveguides for on-chip mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1854–1856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat Commun 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. J. Koonen, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Uematsu, Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of a compact two-mode multi/demultiplexer consisting of multi-mode interference waveguides and a wavelength insensitive phase shifter for mode-division multiplexing transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2421–2426 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

Abedin, K. S.

Awaji, Y.

Baets, R.

Bansal, L.

Bergman, K.

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 422–432 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bolle, C. A.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for Peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophoton. 3(4-5), 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

J. B. Driscoll, C. P. Chen, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, A. Stein, M. Lu, K. Bergman, and R. M. Osgood., “A 60 Gb/s MDM-WDM Si photonic link with < 0.7 dB power penalty per channel,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18543–18555 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

A. M. J. Koonen, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

Chen, S.

Da Ros, F.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

D. Dai and J. Wang, “Multi-channel silicon mode (de)multiplexer based on asymmetrical directional couplers for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Society News. 28, 8–14 (2014).

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for Peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophoton. 3(4-5), 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and S. He, “Silicon multimode photonic integrated devices for on-chip mode-division-multiplexed optical interconnects,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 773–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Silicon mode (de) multiplexer enabling high capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelength-carrier light,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1422–1424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, and S. He, “Comparative study of the integration density for passive linear planar light-wave circuits based on three different kinds of nanophotonic waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1126–1131 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai and Y. Shi, “Deeply-etched SiO2 ridge waveguide for sharp bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 5019–5024 (2006).
[Crossref]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Ding, Y.

Driscoll, J. B.

Essiambre, R. J.

Feng, N.-N.

Fini, J. M.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat Commun 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gnauck, A. H.

Grote, R. R.

Hanzawa, N.

He, S.

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and S. He, “Silicon multimode photonic integrated devices for on-chip mode-division-multiplexed optical interconnects,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 773–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, and S. He, “Comparative study of the integration density for passive linear planar light-wave circuits based on three different kinds of nanophotonic waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1126–1131 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, T.

Huang, B.

Huang, W.-P.

Imamura, K.

Inaba, H.

Ishizaka, Y.

Jiang, G.

Jiang, X.

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat Commun 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanno, A.

Kawaguchi, Y.

Kawanishi, T.

Klaus, W.

Kobayashi, T.

Koonen, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Koonen, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. M. J. Koonen, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

Li, Z.

Lingle, R.

Lipson, M.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat Commun 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat Commun 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M.

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsui, T.

McCurdy, A.

McNab, S.

Monberg, E. M.

Mukasa, K.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Ou, H.

Peckham, D. W.

Peucheret, C.

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puttnam, B.

Qiu, H.

Randel, S.

Raz, O.

A. M. J. Koonen, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Ryf, R.

Saitoh, K.

Sakaguchi, J.

Sakamoto, T.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 422–432 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shao, H.

Shi, Y.

Sierra, A.

Souhan, B.

Stein, A.

Sugizaki, R.

Thierry, T. F.

Tsujikawa, K.

Uematsu, T.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vlasov, Y.

Wada, N.

Wang, J.

D. Dai and J. Wang, “Multi-channel silicon mode (de)multiplexer based on asymmetrical directional couplers for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Society News. 28, 8–14 (2014).

J. Wang, P. Chen, S. Chen, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “Improved 8-channel silicon mode demultiplexer with grating polarizers,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12799–12807 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and S. He, “Silicon multimode photonic integrated devices for on-chip mode-division-multiplexed optical interconnects,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 143, 773–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, J. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Silicon mode (de) multiplexer enabling high capacity photonic networks-on-chip with a single-wavelength-carrier light,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1422–1424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

Winzer, P. J.

Xiao, X.

Xing, J.

Xu, C.

Xu, J.

Yamamoto, F.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, J.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Yu, P.

Yu, Y.

Zhou, G.-R.

Zhu, B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 422–432 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. M. J. Koonen, A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1961–1964 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Society News. (1)

D. Dai and J. Wang, “Multi-channel silicon mode (de)multiplexer based on asymmetrical directional couplers for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Society News. 28, 8–14 (2014).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Laser and Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 8(2), 18–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanophoton. (1)

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for Peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophoton. 3(4-5), 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat Commun (2)

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat Commun 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat Commun 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The cross section of the proposed vertical multimode optical waveguide; (b) the effective indices of all the guided-modes as the core height hco varies when wco = 0.3μm; (c) the mode profiles for the multimode optical waveguide with wco = 0.3μm and hco = 1.5μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The normalized effective indices of the eigen-modes supported in the bent multimode waveguide as the bending radius R decreases; The modal field profiles of the minor components (Ey) for the TE02 mode (i = 7) when R = ∞ (b), 10μm (c), 5μm (d), and 3μm (e). Here wco = 0.3μm and hco = 1.5μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The theoretical pure bending losses of the eigen-modes supported by the bent multimode waveguide as the bending radius R decreases. Here wco = 0.3μm and hco = 1.5μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The mode excitation ratios ηij for all the guided-modes in the bending section when the i-th guided-mode of the straight waveguide is launched. (a) i = 1; (b) i = 2; (c) i = 3; (d) i = 4; (e) i = 5; (f) i = 6; (g) i = 7; (a) i = 8. Here wco = 0.3μm and the core height hco = 1.5μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The modal field profiles including the major component and the minor component (Ex, Ey) for (a) the TM03 mode (R = ∞), (b) the TE02 mode (R = ∞), (c) the TM03 mode (R = 10μm), and (d) the TE02 mode (R = 10μm). Here wco = 0.3μm and the core height hco = 1.5μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The mode excitation ratios ηij for all the guided-modes in the bending section when the i-th guided-mode of the straight waveguide is launched. (a) i = 1; (b) i = 2; (c) i = 3; (d) i = 4; (e) i = 5; (f) i = 6; (g) i = 7; (h) i = 8. Here hco = 1.5μm and R = 10μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The modal field profiles including the major component and the minor component (Ex, Ey) for (a) the TM02 mode (i = 4) with wco = 0.381μm, (b) the TE01 mode (i = 5) with wco = 0.381μm, (c) the TM02 mode (i = 4) with wco = 0.36μm, (d) the TE01 mode (i = 5) with wco = 0.36μm. Here hco = 1.5μm, and R = 10μm.

Equations (2)

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f TE = E x H y dS P z (x,y)dS ,
η ij = S E Si (x,y)× H Bj * (x,y)dS,

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