Abstract

Satellite-ground quantum key distribution has embarked on the stage of engineering implementation, and a global quantum-secured network is imminent in the foreseeable future. As one payload of the quantum-science satellite which will be ready before the end of 2015, we report our recent work of the space-bound decoy-state optical source. Specialized 850 nm laser diodes have been manufactured and the integrated optical source has gotten accomplished based on these LDs. The weak coherent pulses produced by our optical source feature a high clock rate of 100 MHz, intensity stability of 99.5%, high polarization fidelity of 99.7% and phase randomization. A series of space environment tests have been conducted to verify the optical source’s performance and the results are satisfactory. The emulated final secure keys are about 120 kbits during one usable pass of the low Earth orbit satellite. This work takes a significant step forward towards satellite-ground QKD and the global quantum-secured network.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2013 (5)

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X.-F. Ma, S.-J. Pelc, M.-M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, J.-P. Bourgoin, B.-L. Higgins, N. Gigov, A. MacDonald, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “Novel high-speed polarization source for decoy state BB84 quantum key distribution over free space and satellite links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1399–1408 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (5)

S. Nauerth, M. Fürst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

R.-Y. Cai and V. Scarani, “Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17, 22333–22340 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R.-T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V.-D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J.-G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free space decoy state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

P. Paulus, R. Langenhorst, and D. Jager, “Generation and optimum control of picosecond optical pulses from gain-switched semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1519–1523 (1988).
[Crossref]

Amaya, W.

Anzolin, G.

Bennett, C.-H.

C.-H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (1984), pp. 175–179.

Bernabeu, E.

Bonato, C.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V.-D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bourgoin, J.-P.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, J.-P. Bourgoin, B.-L. Higgins, N. Gigov, A. MacDonald, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “Novel high-speed polarization source for decoy state BB84 quantum key distribution over free space and satellite links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1399–1408 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C.-H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (1984), pp. 175–179.

Cai, R.-Y.

R.-Y. Cai and V. Scarani, “Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045024 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.-Q.

Capmany, J.

Carrasco, J.-A.

Chen, K.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express 18, 8587–8594 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-K.

Chen, T.-Y.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X.-F. Ma, S.-J. Pelc, M.-M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, J. Wang, W.-Q. Cai, X. Wan, L.-K. Chen, J.-H. Wang, S.-B. Liu, H. Liang, L. Yang, C.-Z. Peng, K. Chen, Z.-B. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Decoy-state quantum key distribution with polarized photons over 200 km,” Opt. Express 18, 8587–8594 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-A.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-B.

Cui, K.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X.-F. Ma, S.-J. Pelc, M.-M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Souza, I.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deppo, V.-D.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V.-D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Erven, C.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M.-M.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X.-F. Ma, S.-J. Pelc, M.-M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frick, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Furst, M.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J.-G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free space decoy state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fürst, M.

S. Nauerth, M. Fürst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Garcia, F.

Gardelein, A.

Gigov, N.

Girard, R.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R.-T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gray, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R.-T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Helou, B.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Higgins, B.-L.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, J.-P. Bourgoin, B.-L. Higgins, N. Gigov, A. MacDonald, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “Novel high-speed polarization source for decoy state BB84 quantum key distribution over free space and satellite links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1399–1408 (2013).
[Crossref]

Horwath, J.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.-F.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.-H.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-M.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hübel, H.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-Z. Yan, E. Meyer-Scott, J.-P. Bourgoin, B.-L. Higgins, N. Gigov, A. MacDonald, H. Hübel, and T. Jennewein, “Novel high-speed polarization source for decoy state BB84 quantum key distribution over free space and satellite links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 1399–1408 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jager, D.

P. Paulus, R. Langenhorst, and D. Jager, “Generation and optimum control of picosecond optical pulses from gain-switched semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1519–1523 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jennewein, T.

Jia, J.-J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jofre, M.

Koyama, Y.

Kumar, B.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B.-L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, and R. Girard, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15, 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kunimori, H.

Langenhorst, R.

P. Paulus, R. Langenhorst, and D. Jager, “Generation and optimum control of picosecond optical pulses from gain-switched semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1519–1523 (1988).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X.-F. Ma, S.-J. Pelc, M.-M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, H.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X.-F. Ma, S.-J. Pelc, M.-M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X.-F. Ma, S.-J. Pelc, M.-M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhong, B.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (2)

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards satellite-ground quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7, 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, J. Horwath, S. Frick, C. Fuchs, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7, 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (5)

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R.-T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibers,” New J. Phys. 11, 075003 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Nauerth, M. Fürst, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, and H. Weinfurter, “Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 11, 065001 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V.-D. Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11, 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y. Liu, T.-Y. Chen, L.-J. Wang, H. Liang, G.-L. Shentu, J. Wang, K. Cui, H.-L. Yin, N.-L. Liu, L. Li, X.-F. Ma, S.-J. Pelc, M.-M. Fejer, Q. Zhang, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Furst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, J.-G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental demonstration of free space decoy state quantum key distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010504 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. Xin, “Chinese Academy takes space under its wing,” Science 332, 904 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

C.-H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (1984), pp. 175–179.

In fact, commercial QKD systems have already been available in the market, for example, www.magiqtech.com ; www.idquantique.com ; www.quantum-info.com .

European Space Agency, “Space Engineering: Testing,” ECSS-E-10-03A (2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

External structure (a) and internal components (b) of the laser diode (LD). The LD, which adopts a standard butterfly package, contains a laser chip, a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), a thermistor (TR) and a photodiode (PD).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the integrated optical source. Eight LDs are adopted to realize the four polarization states with the two intensity states of decoy state BB84 protocol. The bias voltage of the BJT can be regulated so as to modulate the output optical power of each LD, and the internal PD provides a reference of it. Through the closed loop power control, the intensity states of the optical source can get accurate monitoring and stable control. The specially designed polarization-encoding module is of small size and easy to use, with eight PMF inputs and one free-space output. DFF: D Flip-Flop; DAC: digital-to-analog-converter; BJT: bipolar junction transistor; OA: operational amplifier; ADC: analog-to-digital-converter; R: resistor; C: capacitor; BS: beam splitter; PBS: polarization beam splitter; HWP: half wave plate; PMF: polarization maintaining fiber; FBS: fiber beam splitter; FC: fiber coupler; RNG: random number generator; FPGA: field programmable gate array; ATT: attenuator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical pulse width of the integrated optical source (the inserted section shows the setup of the measurement). Coincidence counts using the TCSPC module shows a FWHM of 128 ps. The diffusion tail of about 2 ns is due to carrier generation in the neutral layers below the avalanche region. (b) Intensity stability of the optical power emitted by one LD, showing that the fluctuation is below 0.5% over consecutive 3600 seconds. TC-SPC: time-correlated single photon counting; FWHM: full width at half maximum; SPAD: single photon avalanche diode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Internal structure (a) and external structure (b) of the integrated optical source. The structure of the integrated optical source is carefully designed for strengthening and heat dissipation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulation results of decoy state BB84 QKD based on our optical source. The two points in the figure represent the experimental results of the in-door QKD experiment. The temporal filtering window width for satellite-ground link is chosen to be 2 ns with 100 MHz clock rate. The background counts are set as 200 per second, and the rest of parameters are kept identical in simulation. LBSKR: lower bound of secure key rate.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Obtained polarization extinction ratios of the four polarization states which are all better than 25 dB. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) caused by the imperfect polarization states is below 0.32%.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Performance deviations of the LDs before and after the 30 g root-mean-square (grms) random vibration, 10 times of thermal cycling between −40 °C and 85 °C, 240 hours of 60 °C continuous life test. Tests are at the same working condition of 5 mA driving current and 20 °C working temperature in a room-temperature environment.

Equations (1)

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R = q N μ t { Q μ f ( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ ) + Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] }

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