Abstract

We applied nonlinear optimization to design nanophotonics-based metamaterials for efficient free-space-to-waveguide coupling. Three devices were designed, fabricated and characterized. The first device couples incident light into a multi-mode waveguide, the second device couples incident light into a single-mode waveguide directly, and the third device couples and separates two orthogonal polarizations into two multi-mode waveguides. All devices offer comparable or higher coupling efficiencies, are easier to fabricate, and demonstrate higher bandwidth when compared to conventional devices. Furthermore, each device is at least an order of magnitude smaller in area than previously reported devices. The highly efficient single-mode waveguide-coupler is a unique device that has not been experimentally demonstrated before. We further performed careful simulations to underscore the tolerance of these devices to fabrication errors. Their robustness is primarily a result of the large number of coupled guided-mode resonances that are responsible for each device performance.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

2013 (4)

J. Lu and J. Vučković, “Nanophotonic computational design,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13351–13367 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abdalla, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Atta, R.

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

Y. Li, D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, G. Yurtsever, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Compact grating couplers on silicon-on-insulator with reduced backreflection,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4356–4358 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beckx, S.

Berroth, M.

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Chen, J.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-Band Transmission Filter using Phase-Shifted Bragg Gratings in SOI Waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), pp. 869–870.
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Dobbelaere, P. M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

De Koninck, Y.

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dominguez-Caballero, J.-A.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

Ensell, G.

Evans, A. G.

Fang, N.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

Foltz, D.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Friedman, D. J.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, C. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Grist, S.

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-Band Transmission Filter using Phase-Shifted Bragg Gratings in SOI Waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), pp. 869–870.
[Crossref]

Headley, W.

Hovey, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Hvam, J. M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-Band Transmission Filter using Phase-Shifted Bragg Gratings in SOI Waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), pp. 869–870.
[Crossref]

Kamei, T.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kunze, A.

Lee, H.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Letzkus, F.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Liang, Y.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lo, S. M.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

Luyssaert, B.

Mack, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Manako, S.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Masanovic, G. Z.

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

McNab, S.

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Menon, R.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moll, N.

Mori, M.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

O’Faolain, L.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Omoda, E.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Passaro, V. M.

Peterson, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

Roelkens, G.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Sakakibara, Y.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scheerlinck, S.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharp, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

Shi, W.

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-Band Transmission Filter using Phase-Shifted Bragg Gratings in SOI Waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), pp. 869–870.
[Crossref]

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.-H.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, P.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Sun, W.-M.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takei, R.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, D.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Timotijevic, B.

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vermeulen, D.

Verslegers, L.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y.

Vogel, W.

Vuckovic, J.

Wang, P.

Wang, X.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-Band Transmission Filter using Phase-Shifted Bragg Gratings in SOI Waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), pp. 869–870.
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Welch, B. P.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Wiaux, V.

Wu, A.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, K.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Yu, J.-Z.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.-D.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yun, H.

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-Band Transmission Filter using Phase-Shifted Bragg Gratings in SOI Waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), pp. 869–870.
[Crossref]

Yurtsever, G.

Yvind, K.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zaoui, W. S.

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-J.

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zou, S.

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Zhang, J.-H. Sun, X. Xiao, W.-M. Sun, X.-J. Zhang, T. Chu, J.-Z. Yu, and Y.-D. Yu, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Fang, Z. Yang, A. Wu, J. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Zou, and X. Wang, “Three-dimensional tapered spot-size converter based on (111) silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 820–822 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Fung, S. M. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

S. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2927–2939 (2003).
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W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, and S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
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G. Z. Masanovic, G. T. Reed, W. Headley, B. Timotijevic, V. M. Passaro, R. Atta, G. Ensell, and A. G. Evans, “A high efficiency input/output coupler for small silicon photonic devices,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7374–7379 (2005).
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W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
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J. Lu and J. Vučković, “Nanophotonic computational design,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13351–13367 (2013).
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P. Wang and R. Menon, “Optimization of generalized dielectric nanostructures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film photovoltaics via boosting the local density of optical states,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A99–A110 (2014).
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B. Shen, P. Wang, and R. Menon, “Optimization and analysis of 3D nanostructures for power-density enhancement in ultra-thin photovoltaics under oblique illumination,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A311–A319 (2014).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. J. Friedman, and R. Menon, “Increased photovoltaic power output via diffractive spectrum separation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 123901 (2013).
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S. K. Selvaraja, D. Vermeulen, M. Schaekers, E. Sleeckx, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Highly efficient grating coupler between optical fiber and silicon photonic circuit,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland (2009), CTuC6.
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 356–357.
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, and R. Baets, “Efficient coupling between submicron SOI-waveguides and singlemode fibers,” in Proceedings of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Enschede, The Netherlands (2003), pp. 289–292.

Refractive index for silicon and silica, http://refractiveindex.info/ .

X. Wang, W. Shi, S. Grist, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Narrow-Band Transmission Filter using Phase-Shifted Bragg Gratings in SOI Waveguide,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (2011), pp. 869–870.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (4487 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1119 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (4464 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (4550 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Metamaterial coupler designs. (a) Free-space to multi-mode waveguide coupler and (b) corresponding simulated time-averaged intensity distribution (see Media 1). (c) Free-space to single-mode waveguide coupler and (d) corresponding simulated time-averaged intensity distribution (see Media 2). (e) Free-space to multi-mode waveguide coupler and polarization splitter. Simulated time-averaged intensity distribution for light polarized along X and that polarized along Y are shown in (f) (see Media 3) and (g) (see Media 4), respectively. For (b) and (d), light is linearly polarized along Y-axis, while for (f) and (g), light is randomly polarized. In all cases, λ0 = 1550nm and light is normally incident from out of the plane of the figure. The arrows represent direction of light propagation in the waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning-electron micrographs of fabricated devices. (a) Free-space to multi-mode waveguide coupler. (b) Free-space to single-mode waveguide coupler. Note the taper from single-mode to multi-mode waveguide to facilitate butt coupling in order to measure the output. (c) Free-space to multi-mode waveguide coupler and polarization splitter. Red arrows indicate the direction of coupled (output) light flow.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (expt.) and simulated (sim.) efficiencies of (a) free-space to multi-mode coupler, (b) free-space to single-mode coupler and (c) free-space to multi-mode coupler and polarization splitter. In (c), the X and Y polarizations are shown in blue and red, respectively. In all plots, the simulation and experimental data are shown using solid and dashed lines, respectively. Simulated efficiencies as a function of the device thickness for (d) free-space to multi-mode coupler, (e) free-space to single-mode coupler and (f) free-space to multi-mode coupler and polarization splitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated (solid line) and measured (dashed line) extinction ratio of free-space to multi-mode coupler and polarization splitter.

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