Abstract

A bandpass sampling based digital coherent receiver is presented for phase modulated radio-over-fiber links with coherent detection. In the scheme, the bandpass sampling technique is introduced in RoF systems to overcome the high sampling rate requirement and front-end hardware dependency of conventional digtal coherent receivers. In particular, the selection rule of bandpass sampling rate was defined by taking into account the frequency offset induced by free-running optical local oscillator. Analytical assessment and simulations are used to determine the ultimate performance in terms of tolerances to ADC bit resolution and laser linewidth. Thereafter, a 40Mbps QPSK modulated data signal at 2.4GHz RF carrier frequency is experimentally demonstrated over the proposed 50.6-km radio-over-fiber link employing bandpass sampling.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, P. Faccin, and L. Tarlazzi, “Cost-effective radio over fiber system for multi service wireless signal,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2751–2754 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Caballero, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Performance evaluation of digital coherent receivers for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3282–3292 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, M. S. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mechanical vibrations on laser stability and carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1114–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2456–2464 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Multichannel digitized RF-over-fiber transmission based on bandpass sampling and FPGA,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3181–3188 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Nirmalathas, P. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized RF transmission over fiber,” Microwave Mag. 10(4), 75–81 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Zibar, X. Yu, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, and I. T. Monroy, “Digital coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 155–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, W. D. Zhong, P. Shum, and Y. J. Wen, “Simultaneous multichannel photonic up-conversion based on nonlinear polarization rotation of an SOA for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(9), 563–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

C. A. DeVries and R. D. Mason, “Subsampling architecture for low power receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. II 55(4), 304–308 (2008).

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, and J. M. Kahn, “Coherent detection in optical fiber systems,” Opt. Express 16(2), 753–791 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

E. Ip and J. Kahn, “Feed forward carrier recovery for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(9), 2675–2692 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. R. Clark and M. L. Dennis, “Coherent optical phase-modulation link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1206–1208 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. M. Akos, M. Stockmaster, J. B. Y. Tsui, and J. Caschera, “Direct bandpass sampling of multiple distinct RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47(7), 983–988 (1999).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. G. Vaughan, N. L. Scott, and D. R. White, “The theory of bandpass sampling,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39(9), 1973–1984 (1991).
[Crossref]

Akos, D. M.

D. M. Akos, M. Stockmaster, J. B. Y. Tsui, and J. Caschera, “Direct bandpass sampling of multiple distinct RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47(7), 983–988 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alfiad, M. S.

M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, M. S. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mechanical vibrations on laser stability and carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1114–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P. A.

Avramopoulos, H.

Bakopoulos, P.

Barros, D. J. F.

Beacham, K.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, “Radio over fiber for mobile communications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, pp.157–160 (2004).

Caballero, A.

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Caschera, J.

D. M. Akos, M. Stockmaster, J. B. Y. Tsui, and J. Caschera, “Direct bandpass sampling of multiple distinct RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47(7), 983–988 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.-K.

Cheng, L.

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark and M. L. Dennis, “Coherent optical phase-modulation link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1206–1208 (2007).
[Crossref]

Crawford, L.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, “Radio over fiber for mobile communications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, pp.157–160 (2004).

Dennis, M. L.

T. R. Clark and M. L. Dennis, “Coherent optical phase-modulation link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1206–1208 (2007).
[Crossref]

DeVries, C. A.

C. A. DeVries and R. D. Mason, “Subsampling architecture for low power receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. II 55(4), 304–308 (2008).

Dris, S.

Eriksson, T.

Faccin, P.

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, P. Faccin, and L. Tarlazzi, “Cost-effective radio over fiber system for multi service wireless signal,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2751–2754 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

S. Fu, W. D. Zhong, P. Shum, and Y. J. Wen, “Simultaneous multichannel photonic up-conversion based on nonlinear polarization rotation of an SOA for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(9), 563–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gamage, P.

A. Nirmalathas, P. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized RF transmission over fiber,” Microwave Mag. 10(4), 75–81 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gomes, N. J.

Hong, X.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ip, E.

Jeppesen, P.

D. Zibar, X. Yu, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, and I. T. Monroy, “Digital coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 155–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kahn, J.

Kahn, J. M.

Karlsson, M.

Kuschnerov, M.

M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, M. S. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mechanical vibrations on laser stability and carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1114–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lankl, B.

M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, M. S. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mechanical vibrations on laser stability and carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1114–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lau, A. P. T.

Lazarou, I.

Li, J.

Lim, C.

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Multichannel digitized RF-over-fiber transmission based on bandpass sampling and FPGA,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3181–3188 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Nirmalathas, P. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized RF transmission over fiber,” Microwave Mag. 10(4), 75–81 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Mason, R. D.

C. A. DeVries and R. D. Mason, “Subsampling architecture for low power receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. II 55(4), 304–308 (2008).

Monroy, I. T.

A. Caballero, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Performance evaluation of digital coherent receivers for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3282–3292 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Zibar, X. Yu, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, and I. T. Monroy, “Digital coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 155–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

Napoli, A.

M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, M. S. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mechanical vibrations on laser stability and carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1114–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nirmalathas, A.

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Multichannel digitized RF-over-fiber transmission based on bandpass sampling and FPGA,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3181–3188 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Nirmalathas, P. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized RF transmission over fiber,” Microwave Mag. 10(4), 75–81 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nkansah, A.

Novak, D.

A. Nirmalathas, P. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized RF transmission over fiber,” Microwave Mag. 10(4), 75–81 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

D. Zibar, X. Yu, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, and I. T. Monroy, “Digital coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 155–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piyawanno, K.

M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, M. S. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mechanical vibrations on laser stability and carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1114–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schrenk, B.

Scott, N. L.

R. G. Vaughan, N. L. Scott, and D. R. White, “The theory of bandpass sampling,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39(9), 1973–1984 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

S. Fu, W. D. Zhong, P. Shum, and Y. J. Wen, “Simultaneous multichannel photonic up-conversion based on nonlinear polarization rotation of an SOA for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(9), 563–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spinnler, B.

M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, M. S. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mechanical vibrations on laser stability and carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1114–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stockmaster, M.

D. M. Akos, M. Stockmaster, J. B. Y. Tsui, and J. Caschera, “Direct bandpass sampling of multiple distinct RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47(7), 983–988 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tarlazzi, L.

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, P. Faccin, and L. Tarlazzi, “Cost-effective radio over fiber system for multi service wireless signal,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2751–2754 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tartarini, G.

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, P. Faccin, and L. Tarlazzi, “Cost-effective radio over fiber system for multi service wireless signal,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2751–2754 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Tsui, J. B. Y.

D. M. Akos, M. Stockmaster, J. B. Y. Tsui, and J. Caschera, “Direct bandpass sampling of multiple distinct RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47(7), 983–988 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vaughan, R. G.

R. G. Vaughan, N. L. Scott, and D. R. White, “The theory of bandpass sampling,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39(9), 1973–1984 (1991).
[Crossref]

Visani, D.

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, P. Faccin, and L. Tarlazzi, “Cost-effective radio over fiber system for multi service wireless signal,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2751–2754 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wake, D.

D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2456–2464 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, “Radio over fiber for mobile communications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, pp.157–160 (2004).

Wang, J.

Waterhouse, R.

A. Nirmalathas, P. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized RF transmission over fiber,” Microwave Mag. 10(4), 75–81 (2009).
[Crossref]

Webster, M.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, “Radio over fiber for mobile communications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, pp.157–160 (2004).

Wen, Y. J.

S. Fu, W. D. Zhong, P. Shum, and Y. J. Wen, “Simultaneous multichannel photonic up-conversion based on nonlinear polarization rotation of an SOA for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(9), 563–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

White, D. R.

R. G. Vaughan, N. L. Scott, and D. R. White, “The theory of bandpass sampling,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39(9), 1973–1984 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wimpenny, G.

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, “Radio over fiber for mobile communications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, pp.157–160 (2004).

Wu, J.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Multichannel digitized RF-over-fiber transmission based on bandpass sampling and FPGA,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3181–3188 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Nirmalathas, P. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized RF transmission over fiber,” Microwave Mag. 10(4), 75–81 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yin, J.

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

D. Zibar, X. Yu, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, and I. T. Monroy, “Digital coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 155–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhong, W. D.

S. Fu, W. D. Zhong, P. Shum, and Y. J. Wen, “Simultaneous multichannel photonic up-conversion based on nonlinear polarization rotation of an SOA for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(9), 563–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

Zibar, D.

A. Caballero, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Performance evaluation of digital coherent receivers for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3282–3292 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Zibar, X. Yu, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, and I. T. Monroy, “Digital coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 155–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

K. Xu, X. Sun, J. Yin, H. Huang, J. Wu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “Enabling ROF technologies and integration architectures for in-building optical–wireless access networks,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 102–112 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

T. R. Clark and M. L. Dennis, “Coherent optical phase-modulation link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1206–1208 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Fu, W. D. Zhong, P. Shum, and Y. J. Wen, “Simultaneous multichannel photonic up-conversion based on nonlinear polarization rotation of an SOA for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(9), 563–565 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, M. S. Alfiad, B. Spinnler, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mechanical vibrations on laser stability and carrier phase estimation in coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1114–1116 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Zibar, X. Yu, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, and I. T. Monroy, “Digital coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 155–157 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. II (1)

C. A. DeVries and R. D. Mason, “Subsampling architecture for low power receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. II 55(4), 304–308 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. M. Akos, M. Stockmaster, J. B. Y. Tsui, and J. Caschera, “Direct bandpass sampling of multiple distinct RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47(7), 983–988 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

Y. Yang, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Multichannel digitized RF-over-fiber transmission based on bandpass sampling and FPGA,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3181–3188 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

R. G. Vaughan, N. L. Scott, and D. R. White, “The theory of bandpass sampling,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39(9), 1973–1984 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Microwave Mag. (1)

A. Nirmalathas, P. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized RF transmission over fiber,” Microwave Mag. 10(4), 75–81 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, P. Faccin, and L. Tarlazzi, “Cost-effective radio over fiber system for multi service wireless signal,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2751–2754 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (3)

D. Wake, M. Webster, G. Wimpenny, K. Beacham, and L. Crawford, “Radio over fiber for mobile communications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, pp.157–160 (2004).

N. Yoshimoto, “Operator perspective on next-generation optical access for high-speed mobile backhaul,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC 2013, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2013, paper OTu2E.1.
[Crossref]

A. Kanno, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, Y. Yasumura, and K. Kitayama, “Coherent optical and radio seamless transmission based on DSP-aided radio-over-fiber technology,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC 2013, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2013, paper OTu3D.7.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The typical setup of a DSP-aided optical coherent receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral replications in frequency domain from bandpass sampling of (a) a bandpass signal; (b) aliasing-free sampling; (c) frequency offset (Δc) caused aliasing; (d) ADC jitter (Δs) caused aliasing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Regions of acceptable sampling rates (white wedges).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The first Nyquist zone for bandpass sampling. (a) without frequency offset; (b) with 200MHz frequency offset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Operation region in the presence of time-varying frequency offset and sampling jitter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the PM-CD RoF system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Digital phase locked loop topology.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

EVM as a function of ADC quantization resolution for different sampling rates.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

EVM as a function of laser linewidth for different MI.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

EVM as a function of combined linewidth of Tx and Rx lasers for different ADC sampling rates.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

A RF signal at 2.4 GHz with 100 MHz bandwidth before (black) and after (red) DPLL with 200 M frequency offset. (a) oversampled at 12 GSa/s; (b) undersampled at 2 GSa/s.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental setup for a PM-CD RoF link under investigation.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

I/Q Signals sampled by DSO.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured spectra of the bandpass sampled signals before and after DPLL (50.6 MHz offset at sampling time) (a) the measured in-phase signal; (b) the measured complex signal (I + jQ) and (c) the phase locked signal centered at 400 MHz.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

EVM as a function of ADC sampling rate for different RF signal input power (back-to-back) and the signal constellations of four cases marked with A, B, C and D.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Measured EVM versus RF input power for different ADC sampling rates (a) 10 dBm received optical power; (b) 0 dBm received optical power; (c) −10 dBm received optical power.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

EVM versus received optical power at different ADC sampling rates for (a) 10 dBm RF input power; (b) 0 dBm RF input power; (c) −10 dBm RF input power.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

BER as a function of received optical power for (a) 10 dBm RF input power; (b) 0 dBm RF input power; (c) −10 dBm RF input power.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Acceptable sampling frequency ranges

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Table 2 Receiver sensitivity for frequency offset at different ADC sample rate

Equations (3)

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2 f H m f s 2 f L m-1
2( f c +Δc)+B m +Δs f s 2( f c Δc)B m1 Δs
Y(k)= I i (k)+j I q (k)=exp(j(Δw(k)+ K p S RF (k)+n(k)))

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