Abstract

We report on the first experiments characterizing the complete time-dependent 2D vector potential of a few-cycle laser pulse. The instantaneous amplitude and orientation of the electric field is determined with sub-cycle resolution, directly giving access to the polarization state of the pulse at any instant in time. This is achieved by performing an attosecond streaking experiment using a reaction microscope, where the full pulse characterization is performed directly in the target region.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  35. M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attochirp-corrected photo ionization time delays using coincidence attosecond streaking,” arXiv:physics.atom-ph/1407.6623.
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, and U. Keller, “Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 84–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063404 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Köhler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 647 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42(18), 185402 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. A. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(2), 308–437 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, and R. Dörner., “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscope,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera, “”Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(1), 133–144 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, T. Rupp, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, and U. Keller, “Spatially resolved amplitude and phase characterization of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 96–98 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

R. Taïeb, V. Vniard, A. Maquet, N. L. Manakov, and S. I. Marmo, “Circular dichroism from unpolarized atoms in multiphoton multicolor ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 62(1), 013402 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70(1), 67–75 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Yu Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 542 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 501–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1314–1316 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

P. Antoine, Anne L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieères, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53(3), 1725 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, Anne L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieères, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53(3), 1725 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arissian, L.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42(18), 185402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aseyev, S. A.

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Yu Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 542 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assion, A.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumert, T.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Köhler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 647 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bayer, T.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Köhler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 647 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bergt, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boge, R.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attochirp-corrected photo ionization time delays using coincidence attosecond streaking,” arXiv:physics.atom-ph/1407.6623.

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(1), 133–144 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Büttiker, M.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caillat, J.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carré, B.

P. Antoine, Anne L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieères, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53(3), 1725 (1996).
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Caumes, J.P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cirelli, C.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, and U. Keller, “Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 84–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attochirp-corrected photo ionization time delays using coincidence attosecond streaking,” arXiv:physics.atom-ph/1407.6623.

Constant, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42(18), 185402 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera, “”Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Yu Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 542 (2000).
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Dahlström, J. M.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delfin, C.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dietrich, P.

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Yu Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 542 (2000).
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Dorn, A.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, and R. Dörner., “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscope,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner., R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, and R. Dörner., “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscope,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dorrer, C.

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elouga, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferencz, K.

Fie, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

W. J. Walecki, D. N. Fittinghoff, A. L. Smirl, and Rick Trebino, “Characterization of the polarization state of weak ultrashort coherent signals by dual-channel spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 22(2), 81–83 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fordell, T.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, Justin

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, T. Rupp, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, and U. Keller, “Spatially resolved amplitude and phase characterization of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 96–98 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70(1), 67–75 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1314–1316 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attochirp-corrected photo ionization time delays using coincidence attosecond streaking,” arXiv:physics.atom-ph/1407.6623.

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(1), 133–144 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gisselbrecht, M.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Graefe, O.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guénot, D.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heuser, S.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attochirp-corrected photo ionization time delays using coincidence attosecond streaking,” arXiv:physics.atom-ph/1407.6623.

Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horn, C.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iaconis, C.

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera, “”Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera, “”Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, and U. Keller, “Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 84–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, T. Rupp, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, and U. Keller, “Spatially resolved amplitude and phase characterization of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 96–98 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70(1), 67–75 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1314–1316 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attochirp-corrected photo ionization time delays using coincidence attosecond streaking,” arXiv:physics.atom-ph/1407.6623.

Kheifets, A. S.

A. S. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063404 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, B.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klünder, K.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, J.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Köhler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 647 (2009).
[Crossref]

Komninos, Y.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krampert, G.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(1), 133–144 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera, “”Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krug, M.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Köhler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 647 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krumbgel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, Anne

P. Antoine, Anne L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieères, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53(3), 1725 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landsman, A. S.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Antoine, Anne L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieères, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53(3), 1725 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liese, D.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindner, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lucchini, M.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attochirp-corrected photo ionization time delays using coincidence attosecond streaking,” arXiv:physics.atom-ph/1407.6623.

Ludwig, A.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Manakov, N. L.

R. Taïeb, V. Vniard, A. Maquet, N. L. Manakov, and S. I. Marmo, “Circular dichroism from unpolarized atoms in multiphoton multicolor ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 62(1), 013402 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maquet, A.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Taïeb, V. Vniard, A. Maquet, N. L. Manakov, and S. I. Marmo, “Circular dichroism from unpolarized atoms in multiphoton multicolor ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 62(1), 013402 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marmo, S. I.

R. Taïeb, V. Vniard, A. Maquet, N. L. Manakov, and S. I. Marmo, “Circular dichroism from unpolarized atoms in multiphoton multicolor ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 62(1), 013402 (2000).
[Crossref]

Matuschek, N.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70(1), 67–75 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1314–1316 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maurer, J.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mauritsson, J.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercer, I.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mercouris, Th.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meshulach, D.

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mével, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moshammer, R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, and R. Dörner., “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscope,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
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Muller, H. G.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagele, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neppl, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicolaides, C. A.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niklaus, P.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(1), 133–144 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nisoli, M.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, “Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 522 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pazourek, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, A. N.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, and U. Keller, “Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 84–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera, “”Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roos, L.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rupp, T.

Sabbar, M.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Attochirp-corrected photo ionization time delays using coincidence attosecond streaking,” arXiv:physics.atom-ph/1407.6623.

Salieères, P.

P. Antoine, Anne L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieères, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53(3), 1725 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Köhler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 647 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sartania, S.

Schlup, P.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schöffler, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selle, R.

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seyfried, V.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smeenk, C.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42(18), 185402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smirl, A. L.

Smolarski, M.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, and U. Keller, “Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 84–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sola, I. J.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spanner, M.

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Yu Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 542 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

Stagira, S.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starczewski, T.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Staudte, A.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42(18), 185402 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, T. Rupp, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, and U. Keller, “Spatially resolved amplitude and phase characterization of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 96–98 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70(1), 67–75 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1314–1316 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Strehle, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 282(5390), 919–922 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strelkov, V.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sutter, D. H.

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, T. Rupp, C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, and U. Keller, “Spatially resolved amplitude and phase characterization of femtosecond optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 96–98 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70(1), 67–75 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1314–1316 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svelto, O.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Swoboda, M.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szipöcs, R.

Taïeb, R.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Taïeb, V. Vniard, A. Maquet, N. L. Manakov, and S. I. Marmo, “Circular dichroism from unpolarized atoms in multiphoton multicolor ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 62(1), 013402 (2000).
[Crossref]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Trebino, Rick

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, and R. Dörner., “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscope,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D. M.

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42(18), 185402 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Yu Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 542 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vniard, V.

R. Taïeb, V. Vniard, A. Maquet, N. L. Manakov, and S. I. Marmo, “Circular dichroism from unpolarized atoms in multiphoton multicolor ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 62(1), 013402 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vozzi, C.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wahlström, C-G.

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Walecki, W. J.

Walmsley, I. A.

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weger, M.

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, Th

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wollenhaupt, M.

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Köhler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 647 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, M. Fie, N. Karpowicz, Justin Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu Ivanov, M.

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Yu Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 542 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera, “”Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, P. Niklaus, and G. Gerber, “Generation and characterization of polarization-shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(1), 133–144 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison,” Appl. Phys. B 70(1), 67–75 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Wollenhaupt, M. Krug, J. Köhler, T. Bayer, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, and T. Baumert, “Three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of ultrashort free electron wave packets,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 647 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (1)

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, and U. Keller, “Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization,” Chem. Phys. 414, 84–91 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 501–509 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

C. Smeenk, L. Arissian, A. Staudte, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Momentum space tomographic imaging of photoelectrons,” J. Phys. B 42(18), 185402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396(6708), 239–242 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

R. Taïeb, V. Vniard, A. Maquet, N. L. Manakov, and S. I. Marmo, “Circular dichroism from unpolarized atoms in multiphoton multicolor ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 62(1), 013402 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063404 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Antoine, Anne L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salieères, and B. Carré, “Theory of high-order harmonic generation by an elliptically polarized laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 53(3), 1725 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, C. Delfin, L. Roos, M. B. Gaarde, A. L’Huillier, I. Mercer, T. Starczewski, and C-G. Wahlström, “Frequency-resolved time-gated high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 58(5), 3934 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

D. M. Villeneuve, S. A. Aseyev, P. Dietrich, M. Spanner, M. Yu Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Forced molecular rotation in an optical centrifuge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(3), 542 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, G. Krampert, T. Pfeifer, R. Selle, G. Gerber, M. Wollenhaupt, O. Graefe, C. Horn, D. Liese, and T. Baumert, “Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 208301 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing single-photon ionization on the attosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Boge, C. Cirelli, A. S. Landsman, S. Heuser, A. Ludwig, J. Maurer, M. Weger, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Probing nonadiabatic effects in strong-field tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(10), 103003 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(25), 253004 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera, “”Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, and R. Dörner., “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscope,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(9), 1463–1545 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbgel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Science (5)

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the setup with the XUV front-end on the left and the reaction microscope on the right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Streaking traces of a pulse with PS1 along px (a) and along py (b) overlapped with the extracted time-dependent momentum shift for each delay (black solid line), together with the streaking traces of a pulse with PS2 along px (c) and along py (d). For the definition of PS1 and PS2 refer to text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Momentum shift along the x (red) and y axis (blue) for each delay step with raw data (crosses) and smoothed data (solid lines) for PS1 (a) and PS2 (b). p0 was removed from pfinal(τ) along the x axis to center both curves at zero. For the definition of PS1 and PS2 refer to text. Henceforth, the smoothed data are used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Visualization of the temporal behavior of the pulse electric field for PS1 (a) and PS2 (b). In (b) one can clearly see a change in helicity with a linear part in the center of the pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electric field along the x and y axis (red and blue crosses, respectively), fit of analytical expression of elliptically polarized pulse along x and y axis (red and blue solid lines, respectively), instantaneous ellipticity (black solid line), and ε = 0.52 from fit (dashed black line) for elliptically polarized pulse (PS1) (a). Note how the ellipticity is not constant but slightly varies over the pulse duration. Measured electric field along x and y axis (red and blue solid lines, respectively) and time-dependent ellipticity (black solid line) for the pulse with PS2 (b). Here, the changes in the ellipticity are more pronounced, it even changes sign indicating the change of helicity of the pulse. In the region of the sign change, the polarization becomes linear.

Equations (5)

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p final ( τ ) = p 0 + τ F ( t ) d t = p 0 τ E ( t ) d t = p 0 A ( τ )
E Exp . ( τ ) = d p final ( τ ) d τ
E x ( τ ) = f ( t ) E 0 / 2 [ cos β sin ( ω τ θ ) + sin β sin ( ω τ + θ ) ] E y ( τ ) = f ( t ) E 0 / 2 [ cos β cos ( ω τ θ ) sin β cos ( ω τ + θ ) ]
ε ( τ ) = tan [ 1 2 sin 1 ( 2 E x ( τ ) E y ( τ ) sin ( ϕ x ( τ ) ϕ y ( τ ) ) | E x ( τ ) | 2 + | E y ( τ ) | 2 ) ]
β ( τ ) = 1 2 tan 1 [ 2 E x ( τ ) E y ( τ ) cos ( ϕ x ( τ ) ϕ y ( τ ) ) | E x ( τ ) | 2 | E y ( τ ) | 2 ]

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