Abstract

Recent advances in the development of attosecond soft X-ray sources ranging into the water window spectral range, between the 1s states of carbon and oxygen (284 eV–543 eV), are also driving the development of suited broadband multilayer optics for steering and shaping attosecond pulses. The relatively low intensity of current High Harmonic Generation (HHG) soft X-ray sources calls for an efficient use of photons, thus the development of low-loss multilayer optics is of uttermost importance. Here, we report about the realization of broadband Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors with nearly atomically smooth interfaces by an optimized ion beam deposition and assisted interface polishing process. This yields to our knowledge highest multilayer mirror reflectivity at 300 eV near normal incidence. The results are verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and soft/hard X-ray reflectometry.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Prasciolu, A. F. G. Leontowich, K. R. Beyerlein, and S. Bajt, “Thermal stability studies of short period Sc/Cr and Sc/B4C/Cr multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 53(10), 2126–2135 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. Guggenmos, R. Rauhut, M. Hofstetter, S. Hertrich, B. Nickel, J. Schmidt, E. M. Gullikson, M. Seibald, W. Schnick, and U. Kleineberg, “Aperiodic CrSc multilayer mirrors for attosecond water window pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21728–21740 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, “New routes towards even shorter attosecond soft X-ray pulses,” Ann. Phys. 525(12), A188–A190 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Martínez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the Solar Ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, M. Stephens, S. de Rossi, F. Delmotte, and P. Chavel, “Duration of ultrashort pulses in the presence of spatio-temporal coupling,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17357–17371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, X. T. Nguyen, M. Krikunova, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, and A. Baltuška, “Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 13(11), 113003 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Gorniak, R. Heine, A. P. Mancuso, F. Staier, C. Christophis, M. E. Pettitt, A. Sakdinawat, R. Treusch, N. Guerassimova, J. Feldhaus, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, S. Eisebitt, A. Beyer, A. Gölzhäuser, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, I. A. Vartanyants, and A. Rosenhahn, “X-ray holographic microscopy with zone plates applied to biological samples in the water window using 3rd harmonic radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11059–11070 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM – the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 268(11), 1818–1823 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Ziegler, L. Peverini, N. Vaxelaire, A. Cordon-Rodriguez, A. Rommeveaux, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and J. Susini, “Evolution of surface roughness in silicon X-ray mirrors exposed to a low-energy ion beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 616(2), 188–192 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

R. Gavrila, A. Dinescu, and D. Mardare, “A power spectral density study of thin films morphology based on AFM profiling,” Rom. J. Inf. Sci. Tech. 10(3), 291–300 (2007).

2005 (1)

K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, T. Remetter, E. Gustafsson, J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, Ch. Erny, I. Sola, A. Zaïr, E. Constant, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and A. L’Huillier, “Experimental studies of attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15(6), 888–898 (2005).

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

T. Kuhlmann, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, T. Gorelik, U. Kaiser, and W. Richter, “Chromium-scandium multilayer mirrors for the nitrogen Kα line in the water window region,” Appl. Opt. 41(10), 2048–2052 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Reflectivity and stability of Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Proc. SPIE 4782, 285–291 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

G. K. Hubler and J. A. Sprague, “Energetic particles in PVD technology: particle-surface interaction processes and energy-particle relationships in thin film deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 81(1), 29–35 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. M. Gilmore and J. A. Sprague, “Interface mixing of energetic metals deposited onto metals,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 83(1), 146–150 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, and V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer X-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1-4.4 nm) of “water window”,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29(8), 1139–1147 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

A. B. Gokhale and G. J. Abbaschian, “The Sc-Si (scandium-silicon) system,” Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7(4), 333–336 (1986).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

L. Névot and P. Croce, “Caractérisation des surfaces par réflexion rasante de rayons X. Application à l’étude du polissage de quelques verres silicates,” Rev. Phys. Appl. (Paris) 15(3), 761–779 (1980).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

E. I. Gladyshevskii and E. I. Émes-Misenko, “Crystal structures of silicon-rich scandium and yttrium silicides,” Zh. Strukt. Khim. 4(6), 861–864 (1963).

Abbaschian, G. J.

A. B. Gokhale and G. J. Abbaschian, “The Sc-Si (scandium-silicon) system,” Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams 7(4), 333–336 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
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Hertz, H. M.

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M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
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M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063038 (2011).
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Johansson, G. A.

Johnsson, P.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, T. Remetter, E. Gustafsson, J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, Ch. Erny, I. Sola, A. Zaïr, E. Constant, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and A. L’Huillier, “Experimental studies of attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15(6), 888–898 (2005).

Kabachnik, N. M.

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, X. T. Nguyen, M. Krikunova, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, and A. Baltuška, “Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 13(11), 113003 (2011).
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Kaiser, N.

T. Kuhlmann, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, T. Gorelik, U. Kaiser, and W. Richter, “Chromium-scandium multilayer mirrors for the nitrogen Kα line in the water window region,” Appl. Opt. 41(10), 2048–2052 (2002).
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S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Reflectivity and stability of Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Proc. SPIE 4782, 285–291 (2002).
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Kaiser, U.

Kan, C.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
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Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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Karpowicz, N.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Kienberger, R.

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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Kleineberg, U.

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A. Guggenmos, R. Rauhut, M. Hofstetter, S. Hertrich, B. Nickel, J. Schmidt, E. M. Gullikson, M. Seibald, W. Schnick, and U. Kleineberg, “Aperiodic CrSc multilayer mirrors for attosecond water window pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21728–21740 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
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M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Koppitsch, R.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
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Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
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Krausz, F.

M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kreissig, U.

Krikunova, M.

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, X. T. Nguyen, M. Krikunova, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, and A. Baltuška, “Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 13(11), 113003 (2011).
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Kuhlmann, T.

T. Kuhlmann, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, N. Kaiser, T. Gorelik, U. Kaiser, and W. Richter, “Chromium-scandium multilayer mirrors for the nitrogen Kα line in the water window region,” Appl. Opt. 41(10), 2048–2052 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Reflectivity and stability of Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Proc. SPIE 4782, 285–291 (2002).
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L’Huillier, A.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, T. Remetter, E. Gustafsson, J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, Ch. Erny, I. Sola, A. Zaïr, E. Constant, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and A. L’Huillier, “Experimental studies of attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15(6), 888–898 (2005).

Lenzner, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
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Leontowich, A. F. G.

Lépine, F.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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Li, R.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
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Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tananbaum, H.

M. Santos-Lleo, N. Schartel, H. Tananbaum, W. Tucker, and M. C. Weisskopf, “The first decade of science with Chandra and XMM-Newton,” Nature 462(7276), 997–1004 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Treusch, R.

Tucker, W.

M. Santos-Lleo, N. Schartel, H. Tananbaum, W. Tucker, and M. C. Weisskopf, “The first decade of science with Chandra and XMM-Newton,” Nature 462(7276), 997–1004 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

Varjú, K.

K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, T. Remetter, E. Gustafsson, J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, Ch. Erny, I. Sola, A. Zaïr, E. Constant, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and A. L’Huillier, “Experimental studies of attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15(6), 888–898 (2005).

Vartanyants, I. A.

Vaxelaire, N.

E. Ziegler, L. Peverini, N. Vaxelaire, A. Cordon-Rodriguez, A. Rommeveaux, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and J. Susini, “Evolution of surface roughness in silicon X-ray mirrors exposed to a low-energy ion beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 616(2), 188–192 (2010).
[Crossref]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, X. T. Nguyen, M. Krikunova, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, and A. Baltuška, “Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 13(11), 113003 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Weckert, E.

Weisskopf, M. C.

M. Santos-Lleo, N. Schartel, H. Tananbaum, W. Tucker, and M. C. Weisskopf, “The first decade of science with Chandra and XMM-Newton,” Nature 462(7276), 997–1004 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windt, D. L.

D. Martínez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the Solar Ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Suman, G. Monaco, M.-G. Pelizzo, D. L. Windt, and P. Nicolosi, “Realization and characterization of an XUV multilayer coating for attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7922–7932 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirth, A.

M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wobrauschek, P.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Xu, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yulin, S.

Yulin, S. A.

S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Reflectivity and stability of Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Proc. SPIE 4782, 285–291 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zaïr, A.

K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, T. Remetter, E. Gustafsson, J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, Ch. Erny, I. Sola, A. Zaïr, E. Constant, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and A. L’Huillier, “Experimental studies of attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15(6), 888–898 (2005).

Zeng, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, K.

Zherebtsov, S.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziegler, E.

E. Ziegler, L. Peverini, N. Vaxelaire, A. Cordon-Rodriguez, A. Rommeveaux, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and J. Susini, “Evolution of surface roughness in silicon X-ray mirrors exposed to a low-energy ion beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 616(2), 188–192 (2010).
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Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM – the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 268(11), 1818–1823 (2010).
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Ziegler, M. D.

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM – the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 268(11), 1818–1823 (2010).
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Znakovskaya, I.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, and V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer X-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1-4.4 nm) of “water window”,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29(8), 1139–1147 (1994).
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U. Kleineberg, “New routes towards even shorter attosecond soft X-ray pulses,” Ann. Phys. 525(12), A188–A190 (2013).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
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A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, E. N. Zubarev, L. L. Balakireva, V. V. Didyk, and V. V. Burtsev, “Structure and optical properties of multilayer X-ray mirrors for long wave part (3.1-4.4 nm) of “water window”,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 29(8), 1139–1147 (1994).
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M. Schultze, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, A. J. Verhoef, J. Gagnon, M. Hofstetter, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, and F. Krausz, “State-of-the-art attosecond metrology,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184(3), 68–77 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, T. Remetter, E. Gustafsson, J. Mauritsson, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, Ch. Erny, I. Sola, A. Zaïr, E. Constant, E. Cormier, E. Mével, and A. L’Huillier, “Experimental studies of attosecond pulse trains,” Laser Phys. 15(6), 888–898 (2005).

Nature (2)

M. Santos-Lleo, N. Schartel, H. Tananbaum, W. Tucker, and M. C. Weisskopf, “The first decade of science with Chandra and XMM-Newton,” Nature 462(7276), 997–1004 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Yu. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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New J. Phys. (3)

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13(6), 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, X. T. Nguyen, M. Krikunova, S. Fritzsche, N. M. Kabachnik, M. Drescher, and A. Baltuška, “Time-and-energy-resolved measurement of Auger cascades following Kr 3d excitation by attosecond pulses,” New J. Phys. 13(11), 113003 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A (1)

E. Ziegler, L. Peverini, N. Vaxelaire, A. Cordon-Rodriguez, A. Rommeveaux, I. V. Kozhevnikov, and J. Susini, “Evolution of surface roughness in silicon X-ray mirrors exposed to a low-energy ion beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 616(2), 188–192 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B (1)

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM – the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 268(11), 1818–1823 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Martínez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the Solar Ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52(9), 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

M. Suman, G. Monaco, M.-G. Pelizzo, D. L. Windt, and P. Nicolosi, “Realization and characterization of an XUV multilayer coating for attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7922–7932 (2009).
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W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft X-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
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A. Guggenmos, R. Rauhut, M. Hofstetter, S. Hertrich, B. Nickel, J. Schmidt, E. M. Gullikson, M. Seibald, W. Schnick, and U. Kleineberg, “Aperiodic CrSc multilayer mirrors for attosecond water window pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21728–21740 (2013).
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M. Hofstetter, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, B. Dennhardt, A. Guggenmos, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, E. M. Gullikson, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Attosecond dispersion control by extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1767–1776 (2011).
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C. Bourassin-Bouchet, M. Stephens, S. de Rossi, F. Delmotte, and P. Chavel, “Duration of ultrashort pulses in the presence of spatio-temporal coupling,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17357–17371 (2011).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. A. Yulin, T. Kuhlmann, T. Feigl, and N. Kaiser, “Reflectivity and stability of Cr/Sc multilayers for the soft x-ray range,” Proc. SPIE 4782, 285–291 (2002).
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Science (4)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent X-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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T. Salditt and T. Ducic, “X-ray microscopy for neuroscience: novel opportunities by coherent optics,” in Super-Resolution Microscopy in the Neurosciences, E. F. Fornasiero and S. O. Rizzoli, eds. (Humana, 2014).

L. Belshaw, F. Calegari, M. J. Duffy, A. Trabattoni, L. Poletto, M. Nisoli, and J. B. Greenwood, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in an amino acid measured by attosecond pulses,” in The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CFIE_1.
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Monte-Carlo simulated kinetic energy (solid lines) and penetration depth (dashed lines) at the interface for chromium (green) and scandium (orange) atoms dependent on the kinetic energy of the krypton ions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Soft X-ray simulation of the reflectivity (green solid) and phase (orange dashed) with the selected mirror parameters indicated at the left.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hard X-ray reflectometry data for the three different mirrors. The lowest interface roughness, thus the highest peak intensities, shows the optimized + assist mirror. Only the fit of the interface polished mirror is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TEM cross section images of the multilayer evolution from bottom (lower panel) to top (upper panel) with the default (left column), optimized (center column) and optimized + assist parameters including the assisted interface polishing (right column). The images show a multilayer detail of 23 nm x 23 nm with a 5 nm scale bar in the bottom images. Next to each image the lineouts of the gray value analysis is shown. More information can be found in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Enlarged interface of scandium on top of chromium together with the interface transition (orange), which was determined by a self-written contrast analyzer code. (b) Corresponding calculated PSD (green) together with the fit and the obtained interface roughness values. These results correspond to the selected interface of the optimized + assist multilayer mirror, which is depicted as yellow rectangle in Fig. 4(c). (c) Shows the averaged height profile along the 23 nm length (green) together with an error function defined by the PSD fitted roughness value (orange).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TEM cross section image of the whole multilayer stack for the additional polished multilayer. Please note that the first bright layer after the Si wafer is accidentally formed by scandium silicide.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Soft X-ray reflectometry measurement for the default (orange), optimized (red) and optimized + assist (green) set proving the right tendency of our concept. As result we achieve the highest reflectivity of ~8% in case of the additional polished multilayer mirror. The corresponding mirror parameters are depicted on the right hand side.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Comparison of the evaluated interface roughness values σ [nm], dependent on the interface direction and the used deposition parameter set. The displayed roughness values are averaged over seven periods at the bottom and six periods at the top and take into account the error. Default top [] could not be evaluated.

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Table 2 Comparison of the evaluated interface roughness values σ [nm], dependent on the analysis method and the used deposition parameter set. More information can be found in the text.

Equations (3)

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R= R 0 exp[ n 1 n 2 sin θ 1 sin θ 2 ( 4πσ λ ) 2 ].
σ = ( f min f max P S D ( f x ) d f x ) 1 / 2 .
PSD( f x )L [ 1 N k=1 N z k exp( 2πi x k f x ) ] 2 ,

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