Abstract

We report on an experimental measurement of the pulse front tilt (PFT) of spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses in the focal plane in both air and bulk transparent materials, which is achieved by examination of the interference pattern between the spatiotemporally focused pulse and a conventional focused reference pulse as a function of time delay between the two pulses. Our simulation results agree well with the experimental observations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab‐on‐chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 6(3), 293–339 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Chen and J. R. Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond‐laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, K. Midorikawa, F. Takase, and H. Takai, “Femtosecond laser microprocessing with three-dimensionally isotropic spatial resolution using crossed-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 208–210 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. A. Jesacher and M. J. Booth, “Parallel direct laser writing in three dimensions with spatially dependent aberration correction,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21090–21099 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

F. Chen and J. R. Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond‐laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, P. S. Salter, and M. J. Booth, “Effects of aberrations in spatiotemporal focusing of ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(4), 765–772 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and C. G. Durfee, “Characterization and control of peak intensity distribution at the focus of a spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser beam,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9734–9748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 6(3), 293–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

P. S. Salter and M. J. Booth, “Dynamic control of directional asymmetry observed in ultrafast laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141109 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee, M. Greco, E. Block, D. Vitek, and J. A. Squier, “Intuitive analysis of space-time focusing with double-ABCD calculation,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14244–14259 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab‐on‐chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, K. Midorikawa, F. Takase, and H. Takai, “Femtosecond laser microprocessing with three-dimensionally isotropic spatial resolution using crossed-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 208–210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169(3), 391–405 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ackermann, R.

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. E.

Aldana, J. R.

F. Chen and J. R. Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond‐laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Backus, S.

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

Block, E.

Booth, M. J.

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bricchi, E.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab‐on‐chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

F. Chen and J. R. Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond‐laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. He, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and C. G. Durfee, “Characterization and control of peak intensity distribution at the focus of a spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser beam,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9734–9748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, K. Midorikawa, F. Takase, and H. Takai, “Femtosecond laser microprocessing with three-dimensionally isotropic spatial resolution using crossed-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 208–210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, W.

Cremer, C.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169(3), 391–405 (1993).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dekker, P.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Durfee, C. G.

Fan, Z.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gecevicius, M.

Götte, J.

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Greco, M.

Hallo, L.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, F.

F. He, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and C. G. Durfee, “Characterization and control of peak intensity distribution at the focus of a spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser beam,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9734–9748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hell, S.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169(3), 391–405 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoekstra, H. J.

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab‐on‐chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jesacher, A.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kammel, R.

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Ultrafast laser direct writing and nanostructuring in transparent materials,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 6(3), 293–339 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kleinfeld, D.

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Masuda, M.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, K. Midorikawa, F. Takase, and H. Takai, “Femtosecond laser microprocessing with three-dimensionally isotropic spatial resolution using crossed-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 208–210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miura, K.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ni, J.

Nicolai, P.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab‐on‐chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Polli, D.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab‐on‐chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reiner, G.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169(3), 391–405 (1993).
[Crossref]

Salter, P. S.

B. Sun, P. S. Salter, and M. J. Booth, “Effects of aberrations in spatiotemporal focusing of ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(4), 765–772 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Salter and M. J. Booth, “Dynamic control of directional asymmetry observed in ultrafast laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shihoyama, K.

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Skupin, S.

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

Stelzer, E. H.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169(3), 391–405 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sugioka, K.

F. He, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and C. G. Durfee, “Characterization and control of peak intensity distribution at the focus of a spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser beam,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9734–9748 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, K. Midorikawa, F. Takase, and H. Takai, “Femtosecond laser microprocessing with three-dimensionally isotropic spatial resolution using crossed-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 208–210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 55–57 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, B.

Sun, H. B.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taccheo, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takai, H.

Takase, F.

Tanaka, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, J.

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyoda, K.

Tünnermann, A.

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vitek, D.

Vitek, D. N.

Watanabe, W.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withford, M. J.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiong, H.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. He, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, J. Ni, H. Xiong, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of microfluidic channels with a circular cross section using spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1106–1108 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zeng, B.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Quill writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. S. Salter and M. J. Booth, “Dynamic control of directional asymmetry observed in ultrafast laser direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141109 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. Stelzer, “Aberrations in confocal fluorescence microscopy induced by mismatches in refractive index,” J. Microsc. 169(3), 391–405 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

JOSA B (1)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” JOSA B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip 13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev. (3)

R. Osellame, H. J. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab‐on‐chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond‐laser micromachining,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (2)

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kammel, R. Ackermann, J. Thomas, J. Götte, S. Skupin, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Enhancing precision in fs-laser material processing by simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(5), e169 (2014).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

F. He, Y. Cheng, J. Lin, J. Ni, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Independent control of aspect ratios in the axial and lateral cross sections of a focal spot for three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” New J. Phys. 13(8), 083014 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, Englewood, Colorado, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the concept of interferometric characterization of pulse front tilt of spatiotemporally focused femtosecond laser pulses.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental setup. BS: beam splitter, G1-2: gratings (1500l/mm), L: lens (f = 75cm), OL: objective lens (20 × , NA = 0.40), VF: variable neutral density filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Intensity distribution of the focal spot of the pulses focused with (a) STF, and (b) CF systems in the focal plane in air. Intensity distributions of the focal spots formed in air by superposition of the two beams are shown in (c)-(g). The relative time delays of the two pulses in (c)-(g) are −66.8 fs, −33.4 fs, 0 fs, 33.4 fs, 66.8 fs, respectively. (h)-(l) are the interference fringes extracted from (c)-(g), respectively. (m) displays the linear fitting of the position of the interference fringe as a function of the relative time delay.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Intensity distribution of the focal spot of the pulses focused with (a) STF, and (b) CF systems in the focal plane in fused silica. Intensity distributions of the focal spots formed in glass by superposition of the two beams are shown in (c)-(g). The relative time delays of the two pulses in (c)-(g) are −66.8 fs, −33.4 fs, 0 fs, 33.4 fs, 66.8 fs, respectively. (h)-(l) are the interference fringes extracted from (c)-(g), respectively. (m) displays the linear fitting of the position of the interference fringe as a function of the relative time delay.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated intensity distribution of the focal spot in the focal plane produced in air with (a) STF and (b) CF systems. Calculated intensity distributions of the focal spots formed by superposition of the two beams are displayed in (c)-(g). The relative time delays in (c)-(g) are −66.8 fs, −33.4 fs, 0 fs, 33.4 fs, 66.8 fs, respectively. (h) displays the calculated PFT of the focal spot produced in air with the STF system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated intensity distribution of the focal spot in the focal plane produced in glass with (a) STF and (b) CF systems. Calculated intensity distributions of the focal spots formed by superposition of the two beams are displayed in (c)-(g). The relative time delays in (c)-(g) are −66.8 fs, −33.4 fs, 0 fs, 33.4 fs, 66.8 fs, respectively. (h) displays the calculated PFT of the focal spot produced in glass with the STF system.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 2 (x,y,ω)= exp(2ikf) iλf E 1 (ξ,η,ω) exp[ ik f ( xξ+yη ) ]dξdη,
I(x,y)= I( x,y,t ) dt= | F 1 [ E 2 (x,y,ω) ] | 2 dt.
E STF ( x,y,ω )= E 0 exp[ ( ω ω 0 ) 2 Δ ω 2 ]exp{ [ xα( ω ω 0 ) ] 2 + y 2 w in 2 },
E CF ( x,y,ω )= E 0 exp[ ( ω ω 0 ) 2 Δ ω 2 ]exp{ x 2 + y 2 w in 2 }.
E 1 (x,y,ω)= E STF ( x,y,ω )+ E CF ( x,y,ω )exp[ i(ω t d + ϕ 0 ) ],
Φ( x,y,d )= kd f [ f 2 n 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) f 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ].
E 1 ( x,y,ω )=exp[ i Φ ^ ( x,y,d ) ] E 1 ( x,y,ω ).

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