Abstract

An electro-absorption optical modulator based on dual-graphene-on-graphene configuration is presented and investigated. Four graphene layers are embedded in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide, the total metal-graphene contact resistance of this structure is reduced 50% by the graphene layers co-electrode design. By optimizing the position of each graphene-on-graphene (GOG) layer in the waveguide, a strong interaction between graphene layers and light is obtained, which leads to a significant change of the effective mode index (EMI) in the waveguide. Calculations show that an electro-absorption optical modulator can achieve 34 dB extinction ratio (ER) and 100 GHz modulation bandwidth with 5 µm-long active region and 17.6 fJ/bit consumption.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J J. T. Kim, Y. J. Yu, H. Choi, and C. G. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic photodetector for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(1), 2460–2465 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. Xu, Y. C. Jin, L. Z. Yang, J. Y. Yang, and X. Q. Jiang, “Characteristics of electro-refractive modulating based on Graphene-Oxide-Silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22398–22405 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. C. Lee, S. Suzuki, W. Xie, and T. R. Schibli, “Broadband graphene electro-optic modulators with sub-wavelength thickness,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5264–5269 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Liu, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171107 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. T. Smith, A. D. Franklin, D. B. Farmer, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3661–3667 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 179–184 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 0643021–0643028 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, “Electric field effect tuning of electron-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(16), 166802 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci.Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).
  22. M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413(1–2), 186–197 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2013 (4)

R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. T. Smith, A. D. Franklin, D. B. Farmer, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3661–3667 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci.Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, S. Suzuki, W. Xie, and T. R. Schibli, “Broadband graphene electro-optic modulators with sub-wavelength thickness,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5264–5269 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, Y. C. Jin, L. Z. Yang, J. Y. Yang, and X. Q. Jiang, “Characteristics of electro-refractive modulating based on Graphene-Oxide-Silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22398–22405 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J J. T. Kim, Y. J. Yu, H. Choi, and C. G. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic photodetector for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(1), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171107 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 0643021–0643028 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, “Electric field effect tuning of electron-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(16), 166802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413(1–2), 186–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anugrah, Y.

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

F. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carbotte, J. P.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheng, W. H.

Cho, S. H.

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, C. G.

J J. T. Kim, Y. J. Yu, H. Choi, and C. G. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic photodetector for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(1), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

J J. T. Kim, Y. J. Yu, H. Choi, and C. G. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic photodetector for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(1), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H. J.

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dimitrakopoulos, C. D.

J. T. Smith, A. D. Franklin, D. B. Farmer, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3661–3667 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, W.

R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Elam, J. W.

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413(1–2), 186–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fabreguette, F. H.

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413(1–2), 186–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Farmer, D. B.

J. T. Smith, A. D. Franklin, D. B. Farmer, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3661–3667 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franklin, A. D.

J. T. Smith, A. D. Franklin, D. B. Farmer, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3661–3667 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B. S.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, P.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

George, S. M.

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413(1–2), 186–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci.Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groner, M. D.

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413(1–2), 186–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gusynin, V. P.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 0643021–0643028 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, R.

R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, P. L.

Huang, S. H.

Jiang, X. Q.

Jin, X. F.

R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y. C.

Jin, Z.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaneko, R.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawayama, I.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J J. T.

J J. T. Kim, Y. J. Yu, H. Choi, and C. G. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic photodetector for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(1), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, “Electric field effect tuning of electron-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(16), 166802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koester, S. J.

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kono, J.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. H.

Lee, C. C.

Li, E. P.

R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L. J.

Li, M.

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, S. C.

Lin, Y. M.

F. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanot, S.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perebeinos, V.

F. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinczuk, A.

J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, “Electric field effect tuning of electron-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(16), 166802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rana, F.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, L.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Sharapov, S. G.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shivaraman, S.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. T.

J. T. Smith, A. D. Franklin, D. B. Farmer, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3661–3667 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spencer, M. G.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strait, J.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, C. Y.

Sun, Z. Z.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

Tan, D. T. H.

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci.Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).

Tian, C. S.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tour, J. M.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veksler, D.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

F. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, W.

Xu, C.

Yan, J.

J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, “Electric field effect tuning of electron-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(16), 166802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Z.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. Y.

Yang, L. Z.

R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, Y. C. Jin, L. Z. Yang, J. Y. Yang, and X. Q. Jiang, “Characteristics of electro-refractive modulating based on Graphene-Oxide-Silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22398–22405 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, C. Y.

Yin, X. B.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y. J.

J J. T. Kim, Y. J. Yu, H. Choi, and C. G. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic photodetector for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(1), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, “Electric field effect tuning of electron-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(16), 166802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. B.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. T. Smith, A. D. Franklin, D. B. Farmer, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3661–3667 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Hao, W. Du, H. S. Chen, X. F. Jin, L. Z. Yang, and E. P. Li, “Ultra-compact optical modulator by graphene induced electro-refraction effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(6), 061116 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Li, Y. Anugrah, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Optical absorption in graphene integrated on silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 111110 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171107 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 0643021–0643028 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

K. Kim, J. Y. Choi, T. Kim, S. H. Cho, and H. J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. B. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. S. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, “Electric field effect tuning of electron-phonon coupling in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(16), 166802 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci.Rep. (1)

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci.Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).

Science (2)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. D. Groner, J. W. Elam, F. H. Fabreguette, and S. M. George, “Electrical characterization of thin Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon and various metal substrates,” Thin Solid Films 413(1–2), 186–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The graphene's conductivity and permittivity as a function of chemical potential for λ = 1550 nm, T = 296 K (room temperature).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The impact of the number of graphene layers on EMI with the dielectric spacers of Al2O3 (the refractive index is 1.732). (a)~(e) Field distribution plot of the magnitude of the power flow of TM modes for considered single-layer, double-layer, triple-layer, four-layer and five-layer structures with chemical potential µ = 0.51 eV. (f)~(g) The Neff of TE and TM modes as a function of chemical potential. (h)~(i) The α of TE and TM modes as a function of chemical potential.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A cross-section of the dual-graphene-on-graphene waveguide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The variations of Neff and MPA as a function of the distance D between upper GOG and lower GOG in the waveguide for different types of insulating dielectric spacer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The equivalent circuit of the dual-graphene-on-graphene waveguide.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The configuration and EMI of the proposed waveguide.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized Field magnitude varies with the propagation distance at “ON” and “OFF” states.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The performances of proposed modulator (L = 5µm) varies with dielectric spacer

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ(ω)= δ intra + δ inter
δ intra = δ 0 4μ π 1 ( Γ 1 iω)
δ inter = δ 0 [ 1+ 1 π arctan ω2μ Γ 2 1 π arctan ω+2μ Γ 2 i 2π ln( ( ω+2μ ) 2 + ( Γ 2 ) 2 ( ω2μ ) 2 + ( Γ 2 ) 2 ) ]
1 R total = 1 2 R c + 1 2 R c = 1 R c ,
C total =2C .
f 3dB = 1 2πR C total

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