Abstract

We present an experimental demonstration of the Hamiltonian manipulation in light-atom interface in Raman-type warm rubidium-87 vapor atomic memory. By adjusting the detuning of the driving beam we varied the relative contributions of the Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering to the process of four-wave mixing which reads out a spatially multimode state of atomic memory. We measured the temporal evolution of the readout fields and the spatial intensity correlations between write-in and readout as a function of detuning with the use of an intensified camera. The correlation maps enabled us to resolve between the anti-Stokes and the Stokes scattering and to quantify their contributions. Our experimental results agree quantitatively with a simple, plane-wave theoretical model we provide. They allow for a simple interpretation of the coaction of the anti-Stokes and the Stokes scattering at the readout stage. The Stokes contribution yields additional, adjustable gain at the readout stage, albeit with inevitable extra noise. Here we provide a simple and useful framework to trace it and the results can be utilized in the existing atomic memories setups. Furthermore, the shown Hamiltonian manipulation offers a broad range of atom-light interfaces readily applicable in current and future quantum protocols with atomic ensembles.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

2013 (4)

I. Vurgaftman and M. Bashkansky, “Suppressing four-wave mixing in warm-atomic-vapor quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063836 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Colloquium: Coherent diffusion of polaritons in atomic media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 941–960 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Krauter, D. Salart, C. A. Muschik, J. M. Petersen, H. Shen, T. Fernholz, and E. S. Polzik, “Deterministic quantum teleportation between distant atomic objects,” Nat. Phys. 9, 400–404 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Nunn, N. Langford, W. Kolthammer, T. Champion, M. Sprague, P. Michelberger, X. M. Jin, D. England, and I. Walmsley, “Enhancing multiphoton rates with quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 133601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

A. Chiuri, C. Greganti, L. Mazzola, M. Paternostro, and P. Mataloni, “Linear optics simulation of quantum non-Markovian dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 2, 968 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8, 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. C. Maurer, G. Kucsko, C. Latta, L. Jiang, N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, F. Pastawski, D. Hunger, N. Chisholm, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. I. Cirac, and M. D. Lukin, “Room-temperature quantum bit memory exceeding one second,” Science 336, 1283–1286 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Higginbottom, B. M. Sparkes, M. Rancic, O. Pinel, M. Hosseini, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “Spatial-mode storage in a gradient-echo memory,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 023801 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kołodyński, J. Chwedeńczuk, and W. Wasilewski, “Eigenmode description of Raman scattering in atomic vapors in the presence of decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 013818 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Bashkansky, F. K. Fatemi, and I. Vurgaftman, “Quantum memory in warm rubidium vapor with buffer gas,” Opt. Lett. 37, 142–144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chrapkiewicz and W. Wasilewski, “Generation and delayed retrieval of spatially multimode Raman scattering in warm rubidium vapours,” Opt. Express 20, 29540–29551 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

E. Zeuthen, A. Grodecka-Grad, and A. S. Sørensen, “Three-dimensional theory of quantum memories based on Λ-type atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043838 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Reim, P. Michelberger, K. Lee, J. Nunn, N. Langford, and I. Walmsley, “Single-photon-level quantum memory at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hosseini, B. M. Sparkes, G. Campbell, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour,” Nat. Commun. 2, 174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

P. Neumann, R. Kolesov, B. Naydenov, J. Beck, F. Rempp, M. Steiner, V. Jacques, G. Balasubramanian, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 249–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. F. Reim, J. Nunn, V. O. Lorenz, B. J. Sussman, K. C. Lee, N. K. Langford, D. Jaksch, and I. A. Walmsley, “Towards high-speed optical quantum memories,” Nat. Photon. 4, 218–221 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Toffoli, F. Sciarrino, and F. De Martini, “Enhanced resolution of lossy interferometry by coherent amplification of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 113602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jensen, W. Wasilewski, H. Krauter, T. Fernholz, B. M. Nielsen, M. Owari, M. B. Plenio, a. Serafini, M. M. Wolf, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum memory for entangled continuous-variable states,” Nat. Phys. 7, 13–16 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, T. Debuisschert, R. Tualle-Brouri, and P. Grangier, “Improvement of continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems by using optical preamplifiers,” J. Phys. B 42, 114014 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photon. 3, 706–714 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Wasilewski, T. Fernholz, K. Jensen, L. S. Madsen, H. Krauter, C. Muschik, and E. S. Polzik, “Generation of two-mode squeezed and entangled light in a single temporal and spatial mode,” Opt. Express 17, 14444–14457 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Vudyasetu, R. M. Camacho, and J. C. Howell, “Storage and retrieval of multimode transverse images in hot atomic rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. de Echaniz, M. Koschorreck, M. Napolitano, M. Kubasik, and M. Mitchell, “Hamiltonian design in atom-light interactions with rubidium ensembles: A quantum-information toolbox,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 032316 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Storing images in warm atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 223601 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

D. J. McCarron, I. G. Hughes, P. Tierney, and S. L. Cornish, “A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093106 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Lukin, and A. S. Sørensen, “Photon storage in Λ-type optically dense atomic media. I. Cavity model,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Lukin, and A. S. Sørensen, “Photon storage in Λ-type optically dense atomic media. II. Free-space model,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033805 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135–174 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W. Wasilewski and M. Raymer, “Pairwise entanglement and readout of atomic-ensemble and optical wave-packet modes in traveling-wave Raman interactions,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 063816 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. G. Raymer, “Quantum state entanglement and readout of collective atomic-ensemble modes and optical wave packets by stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1739–1759 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413, 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414, 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, “Dark-state polaritons in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094–5097 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

M. G. Raymer and J. Mostowski, “Stimulated Raman scattering: Unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 1980–1993 (1981).
[Crossref]

Andre, A.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Atomic memory for correlated photon states,” Science 301, 196–200 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

André, A.

A. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Lukin, and A. S. Sørensen, “Photon storage in Λ-type optically dense atomic media. I. Cavity model,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033804 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Lukin, and A. S. Sørensen, “Photon storage in Λ-type optically dense atomic media. II. Free-space model,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033805 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aspuru-Guzik, A.

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys. 8, 285–291 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, G.

P. Neumann, R. Kolesov, B. Naydenov, J. Beck, F. Rempp, M. Steiner, V. Jacques, G. Balasubramanian, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 249–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

Banaszek, K.

Barbieri, M.

P. S. Michelberger, T. F. M. Champion, M. R. Sprague, K. T. Kaczmarek, M. Barbieri, X. M. Jin, D. G. England, W. S. Kolthammer, D. J. Saunders, J. Nunn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Interfacing GHz-bandwidth heralded single photons with a room-temperature Raman quantum memory,” arXiv:1405.1470.

Bashkansky, M.

I. Vurgaftman and M. Bashkansky, “Suppressing four-wave mixing in warm-atomic-vapor quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063836 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bashkansky, F. K. Fatemi, and I. Vurgaftman, “Quantum memory in warm rubidium vapor with buffer gas,” Opt. Lett. 37, 142–144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, J.

P. Neumann, R. Kolesov, B. Naydenov, J. Beck, F. Rempp, M. Steiner, V. Jacques, G. Balasubramanian, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid,” Nat. Phys. 6, 249–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bennett, S. D.

P. C. Maurer, G. Kucsko, C. Latta, L. Jiang, N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, F. Pastawski, D. Hunger, N. Chisholm, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. I. Cirac, and M. D. Lukin, “Room-temperature quantum bit memory exceeding one second,” Science 336, 1283–1286 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyer, V.

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchler, B. C.

D. B. Higginbottom, B. M. Sparkes, M. Rancic, O. Pinel, M. Hosseini, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “Spatial-mode storage in a gradient-echo memory,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 023801 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hosseini, B. M. Sparkes, G. Campbell, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour,” Nat. Commun. 2, 174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho, R. M.

P. K. Vudyasetu, R. M. Camacho, and J. C. Howell, “Storage and retrieval of multimode transverse images in hot atomic rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, G.

M. Hosseini, B. M. Sparkes, G. Campbell, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour,” Nat. Commun. 2, 174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Champion, T.

J. Nunn, N. Langford, W. Kolthammer, T. Champion, M. Sprague, P. Michelberger, X. M. Jin, D. England, and I. Walmsley, “Enhancing multiphoton rates with quantum memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 133601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Champion, T. F. M.

P. S. Michelberger, T. F. M. Champion, M. R. Sprague, K. T. Kaczmarek, M. Barbieri, X. M. Jin, D. G. England, W. S. Kolthammer, D. J. Saunders, J. Nunn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Interfacing GHz-bandwidth heralded single photons with a room-temperature Raman quantum memory,” arXiv:1405.1470.

Chisholm, N.

P. C. Maurer, G. Kucsko, C. Latta, L. Jiang, N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, F. Pastawski, D. Hunger, N. Chisholm, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. I. Cirac, and M. D. Lukin, “Room-temperature quantum bit memory exceeding one second,” Science 336, 1283–1286 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiuri, A.

A. Chiuri, C. Greganti, L. Mazzola, M. Paternostro, and P. Mataloni, “Linear optics simulation of quantum non-Markovian dynamics,” Sci. Rep. 2, 968 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chrapkiewicz, R.

Chwedenczuk, J.

J. Kołodyński, J. Chwedeńczuk, and W. Wasilewski, “Eigenmode description of Raman scattering in atomic vapors in the presence of decoherence,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 013818 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cirac, J. I.

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M. G. Raymer, “Quantum state entanglement and readout of collective atomic-ensemble modes and optical wave packets by stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1739–1759 (2004).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (9)

I. Vurgaftman and M. Bashkansky, “Suppressing four-wave mixing in warm-atomic-vapor quantum memory,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063836 (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atomic levels and phase matching in Λ-scheme Raman scattering induced by classical laser field W and R. (a) In the spontaneous write-in process Stokes photons ( a ^ WS - mode) and spin-wave excitation ( - mode) are created pairwise. (b) Four-wave mixing in readout consists in simultaneous anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering into modes a ^ RA and a ^ RS . (c) Phase matching condition or momentum conservation dictates the wave vectors of single photons coupled to a spin-wave excitation with a certain wave vector Kb. Write beam with kW wave vector is scattered as Stokes photon with kWS wave vector, while read beam with kR wave vector either scatters Stokes or couples anti-Stokes of the respective wave vectors kRS, kRA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) to (c) - temporal evolution of gains Gi and spontaneous noises Si building up the light fields. Data plotted for different values of coupling coefficients χ and ξ correspond to detuning parameters ΔR= 0.3, 0.6 and 0.8. (d) Integrated readout gains i and spontaneous noises i versus detuning ΔR.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration schemes of 87Rb hyperfine energy levels at D1 line (795nm) using write-in and readout respectively. Laser beams and scattered light detunings in both processes are also depicted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup: write and read laser beams propagate forward to the intensified camera and the pump beam propagates backward. 87Rb - atomic memory cell, 85Rb - absorption filter, blue arrows correspond to scattered light. (b) Pulse sequence with long intensifier gate covers the whole write and a part of the read pulse (both rectangular). Exponential shapes in front of write and read pulses are typical time-resolved intensities of the scattered light observed on the intensified camera, WS and RS stand for Stokes while RA for anti-Stokes scattering respectively. (c) Scheme of the measurement of the temporal evolution of the readout light using short gate duration τ = 250 ns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative images of the retrieved field, write-in and read-out in upper and lower parts respectively. (a) Intensity map in a single shot obtained using a long gate in the linear regime of camera operation and (b) the average over 104 frames. (c) Photon positions in a single shot [40] obtained using a short gate positioned in the readout stage and (d) the total number of photons per sCMOS pixel summed over 2000 frames.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average number of photon counts detected at a large solid angle around read beam per a gate duration of 250 ns for different readout laser detunings ΔR from 87Rb F=2 → F’=2 resonance. The curves represent exponential fits to the first and last data points. The size of errorbars is comparable with marker size.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Exponential decay and growth coefficients for scattered light found by fitting data as in Fig. 6 versus read laser detuning ΔR. For triangle points the size of errorbars are smaller than the marker size. Inset: 87Rb D1 line absorption spectrum with read and write laser frequencies marked.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Spatial correlation maps for different read laser detunings from 87Rb F=2 → F’=2 resonance. Red and green circles mark the respective areas where photons scattered at the write and read stages fell. (b) Correlation coefficients at the peaks corresponding to anti-Stokes CWS,RA and Stokes CWS,RS versus detuning ΔR with (quadratic) trend.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The effective gains of the anti-Stokes scattering ηWηRRA and the Stokes scattering ηWηRRS. For the smallest detuning ΔR absorption in rubidium cell starts to contribute.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The effective gains of the Stokes scattering ηWηRRS for different gate durations.

Equations (12)

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H ^ R = i χ a ^ RA b ^ + i ξ a ^ RS b ^ + H . c .
a ^ RA ( t ) a ^ RA ( t ) = χ 2 e t ( ξ 2 χ 2 ) G RA ( t ) n b + χ 2 ξ 2 ξ 2 χ 2 ( e t ( ξ 2 χ 2 ) 1 ) S RA ( t ) ,
a ^ RS ( t ) a ^ RS ( t ) = ξ 2 e t ( ξ 2 χ 2 ) G RS ( t ) n b + ξ 2 ξ 2 χ 2 ( ξ 2 e t ( ξ 2 χ 2 ) χ 2 ) S RS ( t ) ,
n i = G ¯ i n b + S ̌ i , i = RS , RA
C i j = corr ( I i , I j ) = I i I j I i I j ( Δ I i ) 2 ( Δ I j ) 2 .
I WS = t WS n WS + f WS ,
I RA = t RA n RA + t RS n RS + f RA ,
I RS = t RS n RS + t RA n RA + f RS .
n RA = η W η R G ¯ RA n WS + S ̌ RA ,
n RS = η W η R G ¯ RS n WS + S ̌ RS ,
η W η R G ¯ RA = t WS t RA C WS , RA ( Δ I WS ) 2 ( Δ I RA ) 2 ( Δ I WS ) 2 ( Δ f WS ) 2 ,
η W η R G ¯ RS = t WS t RS C WS , RS ( Δ I WS ) 2 ( Δ I RS ) 2 ( Δ I WS ) 2 ( Δ f WS ) 2 .

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