Abstract

Abstract: We report on the characterization of 3D-printed hollow core Terahertz waveguides with metal wire inclusions over a frequency range of 0.2-1.0 THz using standard THz time-domain spectroscopy. We observe single-mode broadband THz propagation in these waveguides, and measure the loss coefficient and the mode effective phase index. Our measurement data agree well with predicted values obtained from numerical simulations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Hybrid hollow core fibers with embedded wires as THz waveguides

Jessienta Anthony, Rainer Leonhardt, and Alexander Argyros
Opt. Express 21(3) 2903-2912 (2013)

Hybrid metal wire–dielectric terahertz waveguides: challenges and opportunities [Invited]

Andrey Markov, Hichem Guerboukha, and Maksim Skorobogatiy
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(11) 2587-2600 (2014)

3D printed low-loss THz waveguide based on Kagome photonic crystal structure

Jing Yang, Jiayu Zhao, Cheng Gong, Haolin Tian, Lu Sun, Ping Chen, Lie Lin, and Weiwei Liu
Opt. Express 24(20) 22454-22460 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, D. Fogen, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses cause H2AX phosphorylation and activate DNA damage response in human skin tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 559–568 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. M. Mittleman, “Frontiers in terahertz sources and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 666–669 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, “Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 413–417 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Mendis and D. M. Mittleman, “An investigation of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide for THz pulse propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A6–A13 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. Astley, B. McCracken, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Analysis of rectangular resonant cavities in terahertz parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1452–1454 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 846–848 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Gallot, S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 851–863 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, and D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, A. Argyros, and M. C. J. Large, “Characterization of a microstructured Zeonex terahertz fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(5), 1013–1018 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. Markov and M. Skorobogatiy, “Two-wire terahertz fibers with porous dielectric support,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12728–12743 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C. S. Ponseca, R. Pobre, E. Estacio, N. Sarukura, A. Argyros, M. C. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Transmission of terahertz radiation using a microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 902–904 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. Dupuis, K. Stoeffler, B. Ung, C. Dubois, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Transmission measurements of hollow-core THz Bragg fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(4), 896–907 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, S. G. Leon-Saval, and A. Argyros, “THz propagation in kagome hollow-core microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18470–18478 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Wu, W.-R. Ng, M. E. Gehm, and H. Xin, “Terahertz electromagnetic crystal waveguide fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3962–3972 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. Dupuis, A. Mazhorova, F. Désévédavy, M. Rozé, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Spectral characterization of porous dielectric subwavelength THz fibers fabricated using a microstructured molding technique,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13813–13828 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. X. Zhang, R. Wang, F. M. Cox, B. T. Kuhlmey, and M. C. J. Large, “Selective coating of holes in microstructured optical fiber and its application to in-fiber absorptive polarizers,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16270–16278 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. S. J. Russell, “Plasmon resonances on gold nanowires directly drawn in a step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2573–2575 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, and A. Argyros, “Hybrid hollow core fibers with embedded wires as THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2903–2912 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. http://www.3dsystems.com
  31. Y. H. Lo and R. Leonhardt, “Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15991–15998 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. http://www.lumerical.com
  33. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H. C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

2009 (5)

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

X. Zhang, R. Wang, F. M. Cox, B. T. Kuhlmey, and M. C. J. Large, “Selective coating of holes in microstructured optical fiber and its application to in-fiber absorptive polarizers,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16270–16278 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, “Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 413–417 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

Abbott, D.

Adam, A. J.

Afshar V, S.

Anthony, J.

Argyros, A.

Astley, V.

V. Astley, B. McCracken, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Analysis of rectangular resonant cavities in terahertz parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1452–1454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atakaramians, S.

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayesheshim, A. K.

Bang, O.

Beaudou, B.

Benoit, G.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolivar, P. H.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bosserhoff, A.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brucherseifer, M.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
[Crossref]

Büttner, R.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. C.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J. Y.

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, “Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 413–417 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, M.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cox, F. M.

Désévédavy, F.

Dubois, C.

Dupuis, A.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Estacio, E.

Février, S.

Fink, Y.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

Fogen, D.

Gallot, G.

Gehm, M. E.

George, R.

Golubov, A.

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

Han, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harrington, J.

Hart, S. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, “Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 413–417 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hegmann, F. A.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Inoue, H.

Jamison, S. P.

Jepsen, P. U.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joly, N.

Kawase, K.

Kim, J.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[Crossref]

Knab, J. R.

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, “Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 413–417 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kovalchuk, O.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Kurz, H.

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lai, C.-H.

Large, M. C.

Large, M. C. J.

Lee, H. W.

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. S. J. Russell, “Plasmon resonances on gold nanowires directly drawn in a step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2573–2575 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leonhardt, R.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Liu, T.-A.

Lo, Y. H.

Lu, J.-Y.

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, “Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 413–417 (2007).
[Crossref]

Markov, A.

Mazhorova, A.

Mbonye, M.

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[Crossref]

McCracken, B.

McGowan, R. W.

Mendis, R.

Miles, R. E.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, “Frontiers in terahertz sources and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 666–669 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Astley, B. McCracken, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Analysis of rectangular resonant cavities in terahertz parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1452–1454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Mendis and D. M. Mittleman, “An investigation of the lowest-order transverse-electric (TE1) mode of the parallel-plate waveguide for THz pulse propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A6–A13 (2009).
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

Mueller, E.

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nagel, M.

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ng, W.-R.

Nielsen, K.

Ogawa, Y.

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, P.

Peng, J.-L.

Planken, P. C.

Pobre, R.

Ponseca, C. S.

Rasmussen, H. K.

Rodriguez-Juarez, R.

Rozé, M.

Russell, P. S. J.

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. S. J. Russell, “Plasmon resonances on gold nanowires directly drawn in a step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2573–2575 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sarukura, N.

Scharrer, M.

Schmidt, M. A.

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. S. J. Russell, “Plasmon resonances on gold nanowires directly drawn in a step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2573–2575 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sempere, L. P.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Stoeffler, K.

Sun, C.-K.

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Temelkuran, B.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Titova, L. V.

Tyagi, H. K.

H. K. Tyagi, H. W. Lee, P. Uebel, M. A. Schmidt, N. Joly, M. Scharrer, and P. S. J. Russell, “Plasmon resonances on gold nanowires directly drawn in a step-index fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2573–2575 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Uebel, P.

Ung, B.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Viale, P.

Wang, R.

Watanabe, Y.

Wu, Z.

Xin, H.

Xu, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[Crossref]

You, B.

Zhang, X.

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(1), 154–156 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Mbonye, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “A terahertz two-wire waveguide with low bending loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 233506 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634–2636 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, H. K. Tyagi, L. P. Sempere, and P. S. J. Russell, “Polarization-dependent coupling to plasmon modes on submicron gold wire in photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. G. Markelz, J. R. Knab, J. Y. Chen, and Y. He, “Protein dynamical transition in terahertz dielectric response,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(4-6), 413–417 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. M. Mittleman, “Frontiers in terahertz sources and plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 666–669 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420(6916), 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (13)

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lai, B. You, J.-Y. Lu, T.-A. Liu, J.-L. Peng, C.-K. Sun, and H. C. Chang, “Modal characteristics of antiresonant reflecting pipe waveguides for terahertz waveguiding,” Opt. Express 18(1), 309–322 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, and A. Argyros, “Hybrid hollow core fibers with embedded wires as THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2903–2912 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, S. G. Leon-Saval, and A. Argyros, “THz propagation in kagome hollow-core microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18470–18478 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, W.-R. Ng, M. E. Gehm, and H. Xin, “Terahertz electromagnetic crystal waveguide fabricated by polymer jetting rapid prototyping,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3962–3972 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dupuis, A. Mazhorova, F. Désévédavy, M. Rozé, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Spectral characterization of porous dielectric subwavelength THz fibers fabricated using a microstructured molding technique,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13813–13828 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, R. Wang, F. M. Cox, B. T. Kuhlmey, and M. C. J. Large, “Selective coating of holes in microstructured optical fiber and its application to in-fiber absorptive polarizers,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16270–16278 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Markov and M. Skorobogatiy, “Two-wire terahertz fibers with porous dielectric support,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12728–12743 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lo and R. Leonhardt, “Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15991–15998 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. Naftaly and R. E. Miles, “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Material Characterization,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1658–1665 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

http://www.3dsystems.com

http://www.lumerical.com

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The cross-section of (a) ideal waveguide design (without the metallic components) used in the simulation. The micrograph of the fabricated 3 mm core diameter waveguides with (b) two-wire, (c) three-wire in isosceles and (d) four-wire configurations. In (b-d), the 1mm-thick polymer cladding surrounds the 3mm diameter air core, and copper wires have been inserted in the appropriate positions. (e) Measured transmission spectra in logarithmic scale of the reference and the UV curable polymer used in the 3D fabrication of the waveguides. The noise floor of the THz-TDS setup is indicated in the cyan region, about 10−6 below the peak amplitude of the system at 0.35 THz. (f) Refractive index as measured (dashed line) and extrapolated (solid line) for the UV curable polymer. (g) Attenuation constant as measured (dashed line) and extrapolated (solid line) for the UV curable polymer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Typical reference THz waveform as measured. The measured THz waveform for two-wire configuration in (b) 3 mm core diameter waveguide and (c) 4 mm core diameter waveguide. In (b-c), the dashed-dot line is measured for 50 mm length while the solid line is measured for 100 mm length of waveguides. A time delay of 1 ps is observed in the 50 mm length while it is 2 ps in 100 mm length of 3 mm core diameter waveguides when compared to the reference waveform. For the 4 mm core diameter waveguides, the time delay is 0.8 ps for 50 mm length and 1.6 ps for 100 mm length.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The calculated mode intensity, Pz, profile at 0.7 THz in linear scale (a) two-wire (b), three-wire (isosceles) and (c) four-wire configurations in a 3 mm core diameter waveguide. The white line indicates the dielectric-air boundary of the waveguide core and the wires are represented as the solid circles. The direction of the electric field polarization is chosen to be along the x-axis, as indicated in the inset of (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a,b,c) The calculated w-major and w-minor of the simulated mode in two-wire, three-wire and four-wire configuration, respectively, for the 3 mm core diameter waveguide. (d) The normalized mode intensity, Pz, profile of four-wire configuration in 3 mm core diameter waveguide at 0.3 THz (dotted line), 0.6 THz (dashed line) and 1 THz (solid line) along the w-major axis. The vertical cyan lines indicate the position of the metal-air interface. The solid black horizontal line is the 1/e2 threshold. The plot shows increasing coupling between waveguide mode and plasmonic mode with low frequencies. (e,f,g) The calculated w-major and w-minor of the simulated mode in two-wire, three-wire and four-wire configuration respectively, for the 4 mm core diameter waveguide. (h) The normalized mode intensity, Pz, profile of four-wire configuration in 4 mm core diameter waveguide at 0.3 THz (dotted line), 0.6 THz (dashed line) and 1 THz (solid line) along the w-major axis. The vertical cyan lines indicate the positions of the metal-air interface. The solid black horizontal line is the 1/e2 threshold. The plot shows increasing coupling between waveguide mode and plasmonic mode with low frequencies.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The measured (dotted line) and simulated (solid line) loss coefficients for hollow core waveguides with wire inclusions. The attenuation coefficient for (a) two-wire, (b) three-wire and (c) four-wire configuration in a 3 mm core diameter waveguide. The attenuation coefficient for (d) two-wire, (e) three-wire and (f) four-wire configuration in a 4 mm core diameter waveguide. The shaded blue region indicates the frequency region in which the signal-to-noise ratio is low for the measurement data.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The plot of measured (dotted line) and simulated (solid line) effective phase index for waveguides. The phase index of (a) two-wire, (b) three-wire and (c) four-wire configurations in 3 mm core diameter waveguides. The phase index of (d) two-wire, (e) three-wire and (f) four-wire configurations in 4 mm core diameter waveguides. The shaded blue region indicates the frequency region in which the signal-to-noise ratio is low for the measurement data.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The plot of experimentally determined (dotted line) and simulated (solid line) group velocity dispersion β2 parameter, for different waveguides. The β2 parameter for (a) two-wire, (b) three-wire and (c) four-wire configurations in 3 mm core diameter waveguides. The β2 parameter for (d) two-wire, (e) three-wire and (f) four-wire configuration in 4 mm core diameter waveguides. The shaded blue region indicates the frequency region in which the signal-to-noise ratio is low for the measurement data. The horizontal dashed line indicates β2 = 0 as a guide to the eye.

Metrics