Abstract

Nonlinear plasmonics has attracted a lot of interests due to its wide applications. Recently, we demonstrated saturation and reverse saturation of scattering from a single plasmonic nanoparticle, which exhibits extremely narrow side lobes and central peaks in scattering images [ACS Photonics 1(1), 32 (2014)]. It is desirable to extract the reversed saturated part to further enhance optical resolution. However, such separation is not possible with conventional confocal microscope. Here we combine reverse saturable scattering and saturated excitation (SAX) microscopy. With quantitative analyses of amplitude and phase of SAX signals, unexpectedly high-order nonlinearities are revealed. Our result provides greatly reduced width in point spread function of scattering-based optical microscopy. It will find applications in not only nonlinear material analysis, but also high-resolution biomedical microscopy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

I. Ros, P. Schiavuta, V. Bello, G. Mattei, and R. Bozio, “Femtosecond nonlinear absorption of gold nanoshells at surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13692–13698 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

B. Huang, W. Q. Wang, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Piredda, D. D. Smith, B. Wendling, and R. W. Boyd, “Nonlinear optical properties of a gold-silica composite with high gold fill fraction and the sign change of its nonlinear absorption coefficient,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 945–950 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bates, M.

B. Huang, W. Q. Wang, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bello, V.

I. Ros, P. Schiavuta, V. Bello, G. Mattei, and R. Bozio, “Femtosecond nonlinear absorption of gold nanoshells at surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13692–13698 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Bozio, R.

I. Ros, P. Schiavuta, V. Bello, G. Mattei, and R. Bozio, “Femtosecond nonlinear absorption of gold nanoshells at surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13692–13698 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S. W.

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S.-W.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cremer, C.

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fujita, K.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heintzmann, R.

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, “Far-field optical nanoscopy,” Science 316(5828), 1153–1158 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, W. Q. Wang, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. T.

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-T.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jovin, T. M.

Kawano, S.

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. Y.

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Link, S.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mattei, G.

I. Ros, P. Schiavuta, V. Bello, G. Mattei, and R. Bozio, “Femtosecond nonlinear absorption of gold nanoshells at surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13692–13698 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mi, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oketani, R.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piredda, G.

Ros, I.

I. Ros, P. Schiavuta, V. Bello, G. Mattei, and R. Bozio, “Femtosecond nonlinear absorption of gold nanoshells at surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13692–13698 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schiavuta, P.

I. Ros, P. Schiavuta, V. Bello, G. Mattei, and R. Bozio, “Femtosecond nonlinear absorption of gold nanoshells at surface plasmon resonance,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13692–13698 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shoji, S.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. D.

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, T. Y.

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, T.-Y.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. Q.

B. Huang, W. Q. Wang, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wendling, B.

Wu, H. Y.

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-Y.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, M.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Kobayashi, S. Kawano, M. Yamanaka, and S. Kawata, “High-resolution confocal microscopy by saturated excitation of fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 228105 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yonemaru, Y.

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X. W.

B. Huang, W. Q. Wang, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864), 810–813 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuo, G. Y.

S. W. Chu, T. Y. Su, R. Oketani, Y. T. Huang, H. Y. Wu, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, H. Lee, G. Y. Zhuo, M. Y. Lee, S. Kawata, and K. Fujita, “Measurement of a saturated emission of optical radiation from gold nanoparticles: application to an ultrahigh resolution microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 017402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photon. (1)

S.-W. Chu, H.-Y. Wu, Y.-T. Huang, T.-Y. Su, H. Lee, Y. Yonemaru, M. Yamanaka, R. Oketani, S. Kawata, S. Shoji, and K. Fujita, “Saturation and reverse saturation of scattering in a single plasmonic nanoparticle,” ACS Photon. 1(1), 32–37 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J. Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the SAX microscope. The blue square is the part for generating temporal modulation, and the red square shows the part of laser-scanning confocal microscope.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Intensity dependency of scattering versus excitation from a 80-nm GNS. (b) Intensity dependencies of 1fm, 2fm, and 3fm SAX signals. Each data point is averaged from four 80-nm GNS. S means local slope, which is sketched by blue dotted lines. The purple Ds indicate the location of dips.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated intensity dependence of 1fm, 2fm, and 3fm SAX signals based on (a) third-order polynomial and (b) fifth-order polynomial nonlinear models. The insets show the corresponding intensity dependency fitting of scattering signals.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SAX images with different excitation intensities under the condition of (a) slight saturation, (b) first dip of the 2fm signal, and (c) first dip of the 3fm signal. The image size is 750 × 750 nm2, with 20-nm pixel size. (d) and (e) are theoretical comparison of image profiles corresponding to 2fm in (b) and 3fm in (c), respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The 2fm SAX images in “R” and “X” channels of a lock-in amplifier, respectively.

Equations (3)

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S ( I ) = α I + β I 2 + γ I 3 + ...
F . T . [ S ( I ( t ) ) ] = α F . T . [ I ( t ) ] + β F . T . [ ( I ( t ) ) 2 ] + γ F . T . [ ( I ( t ) ) 3 ] + ... = A 0 δ ( ω ) + A 1 δ ( ω 1 f m ) + A 2 δ ( ω 2 f m ) + A 3 δ ( ω 3 f m ) + ...
A 1 = π 2 ( 1 2 α I 0 + 1 2 β I 0 2 + 15 32 γ I 0 3 + ... ) ; A 2 = π 2 ( 1 8 β I 0 2 + 3 16 γ I 0 3 + ... ) ; A 3 = π 2 ( 1 32 γ I 0 3 + ... )

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