Abstract

The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects’ microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size even with low geometric magnification. In this publication we demonstrate that the dark-field image quality can be enhanced with an energy-resolving pixel detector. Energy-resolved x-ray dark-field images were acquired with a 16-energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector with a 1 mm thick CdTe sensor in a Talbot–Lau x-ray interferometer. A method for contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) enhancement is proposed and validated experimentally. In measurements, a CNR improvement by a factor of 1.14 was obtained. This is equivalent to a possible radiation dose reduction of 23%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).
  25. V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. J. Tapiovaara and R. Wagner, “SNR and DQE analysis of broad spectrum x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 519–529 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  29. K. Taguchi and J. S. Iwanczyk, “Vision 20/20: single photon counting x-ray detectors in medical imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 100901 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

2013 (9)

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Taguchi and J. S. Iwanczyk, “Vision 20/20: single photon counting x-ray detectors in medical imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 100901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bayer, S. Zabler, C. Brendel, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, T. Weber, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Projection angle dependence in grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures,” Opt. Express 21, 19922–19933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Epple, G. Potdevin, P. Thibault, S. Ehn, J. Herzen, A. Hipp, F. Beckmann, and F. Pfeiffer, ”Unwrapping differential x-ray phase-contrast images through phase estimation from multiple energy data,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29101–29108 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yashiro, Y. Terui, K. Kawabata, and A. Momose, “On the origin of visibility contrast in x-ray Talbot interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3), 13–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 531, 68–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry, Jap. J. of App. Phys. 42(7B), 866–868 (2003)
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. Fitzgerald, “Phase-sensitive x-ray imaging,” Phys. Today 53(7), 23–26 (2000)
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2680–2683 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

M. J. Tapiovaara and R. Wagner, “SNR and DQE analysis of broad spectrum x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 519–529 (1985).
[Crossref]

Achterhold, K.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam-Neumair, S.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alhassen, F.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anton, G.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bayer, S. Zabler, C. Brendel, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, T. Weber, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Projection angle dependence in grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures,” Opt. Express 21, 19922–19933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 531, 68–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Auweter, S.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballabriga, R.

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ballabriga Sune, R.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

Bamberg, F.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barber, W. C.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bartl, P.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bayer, F.

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bayer, S. Zabler, C. Brendel, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, T. Weber, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Projection angle dependence in grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures,” Opt. Express 21, 19922–19933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bech, M.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beckmann, F.

Beckmann, M.

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beckmann, M. W.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bisello, F.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

Bohla, A.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Böhnel, M.

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brendel, C.

Brönnimann, Ch.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruder, J.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3), 13–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bruyndonckx, P.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buck, O.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3), 13–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cahn, R. N.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2680–2683 (1999).
[Crossref]

Campbell, M.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cederstrom, B.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2680–2683 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cejnarova, A.

J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chabior, M.

M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cloetens, P.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3), 13–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Danielsson, M.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2680–2683 (1999).
[Crossref]

David, C.

M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3), 13–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Donath, T.

M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durst, J.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehn, S.

Eickelberg, O.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Epple, F.

Fasching, P.

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fasching, P. A.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fauler, A.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

Feidenhansl, R.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiederle, M.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

Fitzgerald, R.

R. Fitzgerald, “Phase-sensitive x-ray imaging,” Phys. Today 53(7), 23–26 (2000)
[Crossref]

Gabor, T.

Giersch, J.

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 531, 68–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gifford, M.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grünzweig, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haas, W.

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, A.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2680–2683 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hamaishi, Y.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry, Jap. J. of App. Phys. 42(7B), 866–868 (2003)
[Crossref]

Hartmann, A.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heijne, E.

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Herzen, J.

F. Epple, G. Potdevin, P. Thibault, S. Ehn, J. Herzen, A. Hipp, F. Beckmann, and F. Pfeiffer, ”Unwrapping differential x-ray phase-contrast images through phase estimation from multiple energy data,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29101–29108 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hipp, A.

Hirano, K.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holy, T.

J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
[Crossref]

Horn, F.

Hostens, J.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itai, Y.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwanczyk, J. S.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
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K. Taguchi and J. S. Iwanczyk, “Vision 20/20: single photon counting x-ray detectors in medical imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 100901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jakubek, J.

J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jensen, T. H.

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jerjen, I.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kaufmann, R.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawabata, K.

Kawamoto, S.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry, Jap. J. of App. Phys. 42(7B), 866–868 (2003)
[Crossref]

Kottler, C.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koyama, I.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry, Jap. J. of App. Phys. 42(7B), 866–868 (2003)
[Crossref]

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Llopart, X.

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Llopart Cudie, X.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

Loewen, R.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lundqvist, M.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2680–2683 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lüthi, T.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Malecki, A.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinel, F.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, N.

Michel, T.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bayer, S. Zabler, C. Brendel, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, T. Weber, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Projection angle dependence in grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures,” Opt. Express 21, 19922–19933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mollenbauer, U.

Momose, A.

W. Yashiro, Y. Terui, K. Kawabata, and A. Momose, “On the origin of visibility contrast in x-ray Talbot interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16890 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry, Jap. J. of App. Phys. 42(7B), 866–868 (2003)
[Crossref]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Münster, I.

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Niederlöhner, D.

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 531, 68–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nikolaou, K.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nygren, D.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys. 26(12), 2680–2683 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pauwels, B.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelzer, G.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bayer, S. Zabler, C. Brendel, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, T. Weber, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Projection angle dependence in grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures,” Opt. Express 21, 19922–19933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Epple, G. Potdevin, P. Thibault, S. Ehn, J. Herzen, A. Hipp, F. Beckmann, and F. Pfeiffer, ”Unwrapping differential x-ray phase-contrast images through phase estimation from multiple energy data,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29101–29108 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3), 13–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Plackett, R.

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pospisil, S.

J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
[Crossref]

Potdevin, G.

Potdevina, G.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radicke, M.

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rauh, C.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiser, M.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Revol, V.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rieger, J.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bayer, S. Zabler, C. Brendel, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, T. Weber, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Projection angle dependence in grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures,” Opt. Express 21, 19922–19933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritter, A.

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bayer, S. Zabler, C. Brendel, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, T. Weber, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Projection angle dependence in grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures,” Opt. Express 21, 19922–19933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritter, I.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruth, R.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasov, A.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schätz, P.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schleede, S.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroer, C.

M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schulz-Wendtland, R.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuster, M.

M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sennhauser, U.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seo, Y.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sievers, P.

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stampanoni, M.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Straumann, U.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry, Jap. J. of App. Phys. 42(7B), 866–868 (2003)
[Crossref]

Taguchi, K.

K. Taguchi and J. S. Iwanczyk, “Vision 20/20: single photon counting x-ray detectors in medical imaging,” Med. Phys. 40, 100901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takai, K.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry, Jap. J. of App. Phys. 42(7B), 866–868 (2003)
[Crossref]

Takeda, T.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2(4), 473–475 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takoukam, P.

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tapfer, A.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tapiovaara, M. J.

M. J. Tapiovaara and R. Wagner, “SNR and DQE analysis of broad spectrum x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 519–529 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tennert, F.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

Terui, Y.

Thibault, P.

Thieme, S.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thuering, T.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tlustos, L.

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Uder, M.

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uher, J.

J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
[Crossref]

Urban, C.

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valerio, P.

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Velroyen, A.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vykydal, Z.

J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wachter, D.

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wachter, D. L.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, R.

M. J. Tapiovaara and R. Wagner, “SNR and DQE analysis of broad spectrum x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 30(6), 519–529 (1985).
[Crossref]

Weber, T.

F. Bayer, S. Zabler, C. Brendel, G. Pelzer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, T. Weber, T. Michel, and G. Anton, “Projection angle dependence in grating-based x-ray dark-field imaging of ordered structures,” Opt. Express 21, 19922–19933 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, T.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3), 13–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wenkel, E.

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woelfel, S.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

Wölfel, S.

Wong, W. S.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wucherer, L.

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaroshenko, A.

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yashiro, W.

Yildirim, A.

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
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S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
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Zabler, S.

Zang, A.

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
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G. Pelzer, T. Weber, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, F. Bayer, M. Campbell, T. Gabor, W. Haas, F. Horn, X. Llopart, N. Michel, U. Mollenbauer, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, I. Ritter, P. Sievers, S. Wölfel, W. S. Wong, A. Zang, and T. Michel, “Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a multi energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25677–25684 (2013).
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Ziegler, E.

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved x-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191113 (2013).
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Eur. J. Radiol. (1)

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol. 68(3), 13–17 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Chabior, T. Donath, C. David, M. Schuster, C. Schroer, and F. Pfeiffer, “Signal-to-noise ratio in x ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 053105 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Revol, I. Jerjen, C. Kottler, P. Schätz, R. Kaufmann, T. Lüthi, U. Sennhauser, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Subpixel porosity revealed by x-ray scatter dark field imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 114903 (2011).
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Jap. J. of App. Phys. (1)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of x-ray talbot interferometry, Jap. J. of App. Phys. 42(7B), 866–868 (2003)
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Med. Phys. (3)

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys. 38(7), 4133–4140 (2011).
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F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, Ch. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-x-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7, 134–137 (2008).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
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Nuc. Inst. Meth. A (1)

J. Jakubek, A. Cejnarova, T. Holy, S. Pospisil, J. Uher, and Z. Vykydal, “Pixel detectors for imaging with heavy charged particles,” Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 591(1), 155–158 (2008).
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J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 531, 68–74 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Exp. (1)

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Exp. 13, 6296–6304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

T. H. Jensen, M. Bech, O. Buck, T. Donath, C. David, R. Feidenhansl, and F. Pfeiffer, “Directional x-ray dark-field imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(12), 3317–3323 (2010).
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T. Michel, J. Rieger, G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, A. Ritter, P. Sievers, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and A. Zang, “On a dark-field signal generated by micrometer-sized calcifications in phase-contrast mammography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 2713–2732 (2013).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using x-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Zang, G. Pelzer, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga Sune, F. Bisello, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, X. Llopart Cudie, I. Ritter, F. Tennert, S. Woelfel, W. S. Wong, and T. Michel, “Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector,” Proc. SPIE 9033, 90333M (2014).

Radiat. Meas. (1)

W. S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas. 46, 1619–1623 (2011).
[Crossref]

Radiology (1)

A. Yaroshenko, F. Meinel, M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, S. Schleede, S. Auweter, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, K. Nikolaou, F. Bamberg, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Pulmonary emphysema diagnosis with a preclinical small-animal x-ray dark-field scatter-contrast scanner,” Radiology 269(2), 427–433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

V. Revol, C. Kottler, R. Kaufmann, U. Straumann, and C. Urban, “Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Bech, A. Tapfer, A. Velroyen, A. Yaroshenko, B. Pauwels, J. Hostens, P. Bruyndonckx, A. Sasov, and F. Pfeiffer, “In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Med. Phys. (1)

G. Anton, F. Bayer, M. W. Beckmann, J. Durst, P. A. Fasching, W. Haas, A. Hartmann, T. Michel, G. Pelzer, M. Radicke, C. Rauh, J. Rieger, A. Ritter, R. Schulz-Wendtland, M. Uder, D. L. Wachter, T. Weber, E. Wenkel, and L. Wucherer, “Grating-based darkfield imaging of human breast tissue,” Z. Med. Phys. 23(3), 228–235 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photography of the first CdTe Dosepix assembly during manufacture. The ASIC was not wire-bonded to the circuit board at this point.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic sketch of the Talbot-Lau interferometer used in the experiment. For the air and reference acquisitions the melamine sponge was removed. The dimensions are not to scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral behavior of the visibility measured in the Talbot-Lau interferometer with a design energy of 40 keV. The visibility influences the image quality in phase-contrast and dark-field x-ray imaging. The errorbars are not visible due to the small statistical error of the measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured 〈CNRW〉 (blue) in dependence of the spectral index k. The errors of the mean values were determined from 100 repetitions. Note, that the data points are correlated as the procedure was applied to the same data. The red curve is a least-squares fit of a parabola in a range of k ∈ [−2, 0.5].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distributions of the dark-field values measured in all pixel and repetitions. The red distribution was obtained with energy-weighting at k = −0.77, the blue distribution results from the counting method.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D i V i obj V i ref .
D W = 1 i w i i w i D i .
w i = ( E i / E design ) k σ 2 ( D i )
σ 2 ( D i ) = ( V i obj ) 2 N i ref ( V i ref ) 2 ( 2 ( V i ref ) 2 + 1 + 2 T i ( V i obj ) 2 + 1 T i )
CNR = | D sponge ¯ D air ¯ | s 2 ( D sponge ) + s 2 D air ,
CNR C = 9.4 ± 0.1 .
CNR W = 10.7 ± 0.1

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